Locomotive, Steam 3526 | NSW Environment & Heritage

Culture and heritage


Locomotive, Steam 3526

Item details

Name of item: Locomotive, Steam 3526
Other name/s: 1314
Type of item: Movable / Collection
Group/Collection: Transport - Rail
Category: Railway Locomotives & Rolling Stock
Primary address: Thirlmere Railway Precinct, Thirlmere, NSW 2572
Local govt. area: Wollondilly
All addresses
Street AddressSuburb/townLGAParishCountyType
Thirlmere Railway PrecinctThirlmereWollondilly  Primary Address


Organisation NameOwner CategoryDate Ownership Updated
RailCorpState Government 
RailCorpState Government 

Statement of significance:

Locomotive 3526 has heritage significance as an excellent example of the first class of locomotive designed and built completely by the NSWGR, and the first passenger locomotive in NSW to approach 30,000 lbs in tractive effort, enabling efficient hauling of the new heavy 72'6" carriages. The 35 Class (as originally the NN Class) were an important development of express passenger power on the NSWGR, and a significant achievement of the Lucy era, as his first engine as the new CME. On introduction, the NN Class became the principal motive power for all major expresses, with Locomotive 3526 having additional social significance because of its use on the Caves Express when it was a popular holiday and honeymoon train. The rebuilding program circa 1937-42 largely destroyed the elegance of their GWR-style lines, but provided a semi-enclosed cab design similar to that introduced on the 57 Class, thus beginning a NSWGR ‘family’ resemblance, while the side valances were an attempt to provide a modern, streamlined appearance and image.
Date significance updated: 13 Nov 09
Note: The State Heritage Inventory provides information about heritage items listed by local and State government agencies. The State Heritage Inventory is continually being updated by local and State agencies as new information becomes available. Read the OEH copyright and disclaimer.


Designer/Maker: E E Lucy, CME of NSWGR
Builder/Maker: NSWGR, Eveleigh Workshops
Physical description: EXTERNAL
Locomotive 3526, is a two-cylinder, simple, non-condensing, coal-fired superheated, 4-6-0 express passenger steam locomotive. The locomotive is built around a steel fabricated inside frame, supporting a boiler of riveted construction, and fitted with a Belpaire firebox. It is fitted with spoked driving wheels with counter weights. The leading bogie wheels are of a disc pattern relieved with four holes. The locomotive is fitted with inside Stephenson link valve motion, all rods being of a fluted design, in conventional bearings. The boiler has been clad in conventional metal sheeting, with an enclosed cab with an arched window in each side. The locomotive is painted in unlined black, and has raised brass numbers on the cab side.

Although it did have a turret tender for a brief period in the 1960’s, locomotive 3526 is currently fitted with an original type tender (Tab No. 1309), which came from locomotive 3519 in 1967. The tender rides on two four-wheel bogies, is of riveted construction and is finished in unlined black with a red bumper and yellow numbers on the end. The tender features a plaque on the side which reads "NSWGR - Designed & Built - Eveleigh Works - 1915", and has two small Tab markings at the rear, one marked "Cardiff" and the other marked "1309".

Internally, the cabin is painted green and retains all fittings and fixtures required of a fully operational locomotive.
Physical condition and/or
Archaeological potential:
Operational Status: Operational
General Condition: Good Condition
External Condition: Good Condition
Internal Condition: Good Condition

Locomotive 3526 is in good overall condition and is fully operational following a restoration carried out in 2004.
Date condition updated:23 Oct 09
Modifications and dates: March 1917 - Built by Eveleigh Workshops as works number 118. Entered service with road No. 1314.
c.1920 - Re-balancing of driving wheels and replacement of exhaust steam injector with live type.
1924 - Renumbered as 3526. Electric lighting and associated turbogenerator fitted.
c.1930 - Repainted deep (Oxford) blue, lined in gold, and with a silver star painted on smokebox door for use on the "Caves Express."
1931 - Modifications to ashpan and improved drafting.
July 1940 - Rebuilt, with new boiler, frames and cab. Repainted in green, lined out in red and straw/buff.
c.1964 - Original tender replaced by standard goods turret tenders (Commonwealth Engineering type).
1967 - Withdrawn from general service and retained for preservation. Part of valance over the slide bars & crossheads removed. Locomotive fitted with original type tender from Locomotive 3519. Painted blue with heavy white lining and used on enthusiast tour trains until 1973.
1971 - Repainted deep blue with gold (yellow) lining.
1975 - Transferred to NSWRTM and arrived at Thirlmere.
2004 - Restored to operational condition. Repainted in unlined black.
Current use: NSW Government Railways Collection
Former use: Express Passenger Locomotive


Historical notes: Locomotive 3526 was built by Eveleigh Workshops, as their works number 118 and completed in March 1917. Upon entering service the locomotive was allocated the road number 1314, one of 35 engines making up the NN class (known as the 35 class from 1924 onwards). Designed by E E Lucy, CME of the NSWGR, for mainline passenger service the class was the first on the NSWGR to be superheated from the outset. The class maintained the 4-6-0 wheel arrangement of the earlier P and N classes, and was clearly strongly influenced by GWR designs (notably the Saint Class from 1902).
As they entered traffic, the 35 Class locomotives immediately took over the major passenger expresses and became the NSWGR standard motive power for all main-line passenger services including the Melbourne and Brisbane Expresses. In 1918, they took over on ‘The Fish’, then the premier Blue Mountains train. In 1932 they began to haul the ‘Caves Express,’ continuing in this service until the mid-late 1930s when they were displaced by the 36 Class. When delivered, all of the then NN Class were painted in standard NSWGR unlined black. During the period when the 35 Class were used to haul the ‘Caves Express' however, three of the class, 3506, 3526 and 3535, were painted deep (Oxford) blue, lined in gold (or Light Buff) matching sets of L-type and R-type cars painted blue and gold used for the Caves Express. A silver star was painted on the smokebox door.

By the early 1940s, 35 Class locomotives were generally sharing the working of the major expresses with the 36 Class, and were still being used occasionally on the Newcastle Express. Displacement from mainline passenger traffic by the 36 class (and then the 38 Class) continued however, and the class was eventually confined essentially to the North Coast and Main North lines north of Gosford, with all remaining members of the class based at Broadmeadow Depot until withdrawal.

Following displacement from mainline passenger traffic by the C36 class in the mid 1930s they were progressively rebuilt by Eveleigh Workshops from 1938 to 1943, with Locomotive 3526 undergoing rebuilding in July 1940. The modifications included the provision of new frames, boilers and the fitting of an enclosed cab and produced a slightly improved locomotive, with a significantly different profile and appearance. In association with the 1937-43 rebuild, a large number of the class, including Locomotive 3526, were painted green, lined out in red and straw/buff. In this form, the entwined NSWR motif was painted on the cab-side, below the road numbers. It is believed that the tender coal space extensions were painted black, a feature of all coloured NSWGR locomotives of the period except the 36 Class.

After rebuilding, the 35 class spent the rest of their careers successfully operating passenger and accelerated goods services on the North Coast and Northern lines until withdrawals commenced in the 1960s.

From 1964, due to deterioration of some original tenders and reservations about their limited coal and water capacity, several of the 35 Class, including 3526, received standard goods turret tenders (the Commonwealth Engineering type dating from 1950), which became available after scrapping of some of the Standard Goods locomotives they were built for. These tenders provided significantly more range, but did nothing for the appearance of the class. Although it did have a turret tender for a brief period in the 1960’s, locomotive 3526 is currently fitted with an original type tender (Tab No. 1309), which came from locomotive 3519 in 1967. Also in this period, part of the valance over the slide bars & crossheads was removed on some locomotives, presumably for easier servicing. Locomotive 3526 was one of the those affected.

Locomotive 3526 was withdrawn from revenue service in 1967 and retained for preservation. In 1967 the locomotive was painted blue with heavy white lining and was used on enthusiast tour trains until 1973. A subsequent re-paint by the RTM (with NSWGR assistance) in 1971 saw the locomotive gain a livery of deep blue with gold (yellow) lining.

The locomotive arrived at Thirlmere in 1975 under its own steam, and did not steam again until 2004 following a major restoration in which it was once again returned to its original livery of unlined black.

Historic themes

Australian theme (abbrev)New South Wales themeLocal theme
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Technology-Activities and processes associated with the knowledge or use of mechanical arts and applied sciences Shaping inland settlements-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Transport-Activities associated with the moving of people and goods from one place to another, and systems for the provision of such movements Railway work culture-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Leisure-Activities associated with recreation and relaxation Servicing and accommodating railway employees-

Assessment of significance

SHR Criteria a)
[Historical significance]
Locomotive 3526 has historical significance as it is part of the first class of locomotive conceived, designed, built and maintained by the NSWGR. It is associated with all main lines and principal expresses, particularly with the North Coast and Northern lines in the post-war period prior to dieselisation. Locomotive 3526 is historically significant as one of three members of its class painted in deep (Oxford) blue and lined in gold that were paired with matching sets of L-type and R-type cars painted blue and gold used for the Caves Express. The class is also significant as the first passenger locomotive in NSW to approach 30,000 lbs in tractive effort, enabling efficient hauling of the new 12 wheel 72'6" carriages being introduced, including sleeping cars, to provide major improvements in passenger comfort.
SHR Criteria b)
[Associative significance]
Based on current knowledge, the carriage is not known to have any special associations with people or events of significance in a local or state context. It does not have significance under this criterion.
SHR Criteria c)
[Aesthetic significance]
Locomotive 3526 has aesthetic significance as a particularly elegant and well-proportioned locomotive, clearly influenced by English Great Western Railway designs, in particular the 1902 ‘Saint’ Class. The rebuilding program largely destroyed the elegance of the GWR-style lines, but provided the opportunity to incorporate a ‘standard’ semi-enclosed cab design similar to that introduced on the 57 Class, thus beginning a NSWGR ‘family’ resemblance (in respect of the cab) continued with the 38, 58 and rebuilt 36 classes. More significantly, the side valances, to some degree a copy of those of the 38 Class, were an attempt to provide a modern, streamlined appearance and image.

Locomotive 3526 has technical significance as an good example of the 35 Class which was the first complete class to be superheated from the outset. The class is also significant because although it retained inside valve gear, Lucy specified the Stephenson type instead of the Allan straight link type favoured by Thow and used on all classes from 1892. The class also represents the experimentation and modification carried out in the NSWGR to improve performance, and responded well to the various minor modifications made to improve it. The major rebuild of the class in the period 1937-43 demonstrates the NSWGR’s use of re-framing to overcome cracking problems inherent in plate frames, and to provide improved protection and comfort for enginemen. The 35 Class also has technical significance as the first type on the NSWGR subject to systematic experimentation with various technical trials, including use of an ACFI feed water heater, various designs of self-cleaning smokebox, and ashpan improvements and blast-pipe modifications (including spreaders) to improve steaming.
SHR Criteria d)
[Social significance]
The Locomotive, Steam 3526 is likely to have a degree of social value for the community-based associations who have demonstrated an ongoing interest in its conservation and management. This item may also have a degree of social significance to a broader section of the community linked to its historic, aesthetic and associative values.
SHR Criteria e)
[Research potential]
Locomotive 3526 has research significance as it has the potential to reveal information regarding the development of locomotive technology in the State as the first class of locomotive designed and built completely by the NSWGR. The locomotive also has research potential as a good example of a locomotive used by the NSWGR that was subject to experimentation and modification in order to improve performance.
SHR Criteria f)
Locomotive 3526 is rare as it is the only survivor of the class of 35 introduced as express passenger engines in 1914 as the NN (1027) Class. As the only survivor of a significant class of locomotives, and E. E. Lucy’s first design for the NSWGR, locomotive 3526 is demonstrably rare.
SHR Criteria g)
Locomotive 3526 is an excellent representative example of a 35 class locomotive. Locomotive 3526 is representative of the class as rebuilt, as they were all re-framed and modified similarly during the period 1937-43. Despite changes in appearance due to the rebuilding, this locomotive retains most of the features of the class as introduced. It is also representative of an early 20th Century express passenger locomotive, especially in view of its Great Western Railway design heritage.
Integrity/Intactness: Locomotive 3526 retains a high level of integrity and intactness. Although the locomotive now retains very little of its original 1917 fabric, it retains its identity and displays the essential original design features, and hence retains the heritage significance of the class. Locomotive 3526 is representative of the class as rebuilt, as they were all re-framed and modified similarly.
Assessment criteria: Items are assessed against the PDF State Heritage Register (SHR) Criteria to determine the level of significance. Refer to the Listings below for the level of statutory protection.


Heritage ListingListing TitleListing NumberGazette DateGazette NumberGazette Page
Heritage Act - s.170 NSW State agency heritage register     

Study details

TitleYearNumberAuthorInspected byGuidelines used
SRA Heritage Rolling Stock Stage 2b Heritage Assessments2000 David Sheedy Pty Ltd Architects and Heritage ConsultantsSteven Adams Yes
S170 Rolling Stock Review2009 NSW Department of Commerce  Yes

References, internet links & images

TypeAuthorYearTitleInternet Links
WrittenGrunbach, A1989A Compendium of New South Wales Steam Locomotives
WrittenMorahan, M 34 and 35 Classes
WrittenOberg, L1975Locomotives of Australia
WrittenRTM2003Steam Locomotive 3526 CMP

Note: internet links may be to web pages, documents or images.

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Data source

The information for this entry comes from the following source:
Name: State Government
Database number: 4807226

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