Locomotive, Steam 3609 (With Tender T3671) | NSW Environment & Heritage

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Locomotive, Steam 3609 (With Tender T3671)

Item details

Name of item: Locomotive, Steam 3609 (With Tender T3671)
Other name/s: "Hawkesbury"
Type of item: Movable / Collection
Group/Collection: Transport - Rail
Category: Railway Locomotives & Rolling Stock
Primary address: Thirlmere Railway Precinct, Thirlmere, NSW 2572
Local govt. area: Wollondilly
All addresses
Street AddressSuburb/townLGAParishCountyType
Thirlmere Railway PrecinctThirlmereWollondilly  Primary Address

Owner/s

Organisation NameOwner CategoryDate Ownership Updated
RailCorpState Government 
RailCorpState Government 

Statement of significance:

Steam Locomotive 3609 has heritage significance as it demonstrates the final design of the 4-6-0 mainline passenger steam locomotive and is associated with the acceleration of mainline passenger services in the pre-WW2 period. The locomotive demonstrates the first application of Walschaerts valve gear on a mainline passenger locomotive in NSW, and the first application of a turret design of tender. It also demonstrates the techniques of locomotive rebuilding that were carried out during the 1950s. It has the potential to reveal information regarding the performance testing that was carried out to support steam locomotive technical development in the NSWGR. Steam Locomotive 3609 is a good representative example of a 36 class locomotive. It is representative of a mainline passenger engine of the 1920s to 1960s period immediately prior to dieselisation, representing the class in its final form.
Date significance updated: 16 Dec 09
Note: The State Heritage Inventory provides information about heritage items listed by local and State government agencies. The State Heritage Inventory is continually being updated by local and State agencies as new information becomes available. Read the OEH copyright and disclaimer.

Description

Designer/Maker: NSWGR (E.E.Lucy, Chief Mechanical Engineer; Harold Young, Chief Design Engineer)
Builder/Maker: Eveleigh Workshops
Physical description: EXTERNAL
Locomotive 3609, is a two-cylinder, simple, non-condensing, coal-fired superheated, 4-6-0 express passenger steam locomotive. The locomotive is built around a fabricated inside frame, supporting a boiler of riveted construction, and is fitted with a Belpaire firebox. The boiler is fitted with a superheater operated by a smokebox regulator at a pressure of 200 psi. It is fitted with spoked driving wheels with counter weights. The leading bogie wheels are of a disc pattern relieved with four holes. The locomotive is fitted with Walschaert’s outside valve motion, all rods being of a fluted design, with conventional bearings. The boiler has been clad in conventional metal sheeting, with an enclosed cab with an arched window in each side. The locomotive is painted black overall with red lining.
The tender fitted is of the turret type with a raised bunker. The tender rides on two four-wheel bogies, is of riveted construction and is finished in red lined black.
Physical condition and/or
Archaeological potential:
Operational Status: Non-Operational
General Condition: Moderate Condition
External Condition: Moderate Condition
Internal Condition: Poor Condition

EXTERNAL CONDITION
The locomotive is in ex-service condition and configuration and appears mostly complete, although some components have been dismantled. Paint is peeling in places. Corrosion damage has been stabilized. The boiler backhead has been substantially stripped of mountings. The turret tender is very heavily corroded in the water compartment.

INTERNAL CONDITION
No gauges or gauge-glass, no seats. Tender is in moderate condition but requires refurbishment internally.

HAZARDOUS MATERIALS
Asbestos contamination risk. Paint on body may contain lead due to age of vehicle.
Date condition updated:02 Oct 09
Modifications and dates: 1928 - Built by NSWGR Eveleigh Workshops and entered service.
1956 - Received new boiler with Belpaire firebox with smokebox regulator and other improvements, in addition to new enclosed cab. Staff exchanger fitted to tender possibly at this time.
1965 - Withdrawn from service.
1975 - Arrived at Thirlmere.
Current use: NSW Government Railways Collection
Former use: Steam Locomotive

History

Historical notes: Built by NSWGR Eveleigh Workshops as works number 156, Locomotive 3609 of the C36 class was introduced into service in 1928. One of 10 engines built by Eveleigh Workshops, 3609 was placed, along with the other 74 engines that made up the class, on mainline passenger service displacing the older C32 and C35 classes. They were designed for long distance non-stop running and were the first mainline engine to be fitted with Walschaerts valve gear, this becoming a standard feature for all subsequent classes. The introduction of the C36 class provided the means to shorten journey times, improvements being most pronounced on the Newcastle services and on the Western line. The class was substantially rebuilt in the 1950s. This rebuilding had dramatic results with a changed appearance and profile due to a new Belpaire firebox fitted boiler, enclosed cab, and also some technical developments such as a smokebox regulator. The boiler pressure was increased to 200 lb psi.
After being displaced on mainline passenger services by the newer C38 class and on secondary services by diesels, the C36 class saw increasing service in fast goods traffic, displacing the slower standard goods classes, until withdrawal in the late 1960s. Locomotive 3609 was withdrawn in 1965.
The locomotive was placed with the New South Wales Transport Museum, arriving at Thirlmere in 1975.

Historic themes

Australian theme (abbrev)New South Wales themeLocal theme
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Technology-Activities and processes associated with the knowledge or use of mechanical arts and applied sciences Shaping inland settlements-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Transport-Activities associated with the moving of people and goods from one place to another, and systems for the provision of such movements Railway work culture-

Assessment of significance

SHR Criteria a)
[Historical significance]
Steam Locomotive 3609 has a moderate level of historical significance as it demonstrates the final design of the 4-6-0 mainline passenger steam locomotive and is associated with the acceleration of mainline passenger services in the pre-WW2 period. This locomotive has historical significance as it was one of the three 'named' 36 Class engines on the Newcastle Express in the 1930s. (Its name, "Hawkesbury", was taken from Locomotive 3277 used on earlier expresses). The C36 class locomotives are associated with fast goods services in the later years, and with the Commonwealth Railways, which adopted the design for the C class.
SHR Criteria b)
[Associative significance]
Based on current knowledge, Steam Locomotive 3609 is not known to have any special associations with people or events of significance in a local or state context. It does not have significance under this criterion.
SHR Criteria c)
[Aesthetic significance]
Steam Locomotive 3609 has a moderate level of aesthetic significance as it represents the adaptation of essentially British practice resulting in a uniquely ‘Australian’ profile. In rebuilt form, it demonstrates the NSWGR policy of creating a 'family likeness' to their locomotives by use of the now 'standard' style cab pioneered on the 57 class and subsequently fitted to rebuilt 35 and 36 classes, the 38 and 58 classes.

Steam Locomotive 3609 has a high level of technical significance. The locomotive demonstrates the first application of Walschaerts valve gear on a mainline passenger locomotive in NSW, and the first application of a turret design of tender. It also demonstrates the techniques of locomotive rebuilding that were carried out during the 1950s. This class was also used extensively for performance testing to support steam locomotive technical development in the NSWGR.
SHR Criteria d)
[Social significance]
The Steam Locomotive 3609 is likely to have a degree of social value for the community-based associations who have demonstrated an ongoing interest in its conservation and management. This item may also have a degree of social significance to a broader section of the community linked to its historic, aesthetic and associative values.
SHR Criteria e)
[Research potential]
Steam Locomotive 3609 has a moderate level of research significance with the potential to reveal information regarding the performance testing that was carried out to support steam locomotive technical development in the NSWGR. It also has the potential to reveal information regarding a number of new technical developments, including the application of Walschaerts valve gear and the use of a turret tender design.
SHR Criteria f)
[Rarity]
Steam Locomotive 3609 has a moderate level of rarity significance. Locomotive 3609 has rarity value because it is one of only three engines of this class in existence.
SHR Criteria g)
[Representativeness]
Steam Locomotive 3609 is a good representative example of a 36 class locomotive. It is representative of a mainline passenger engine of the 1920s to 1960s period immediately prior to dieselisation, representing the class in its final form.
Integrity/Intactness: Steam Locomotive 3609 has a moderate level of integrity and intactness.
Assessment criteria: Items are assessed against the PDF State Heritage Register (SHR) Criteria to determine the level of significance. Refer to the Listings below for the level of statutory protection.

Listings

Heritage ListingListing TitleListing NumberGazette DateGazette NumberGazette Page
Heritage Act - s.170 NSW State agency heritage register     

Study details

TitleYearNumberAuthorInspected byGuidelines used
SRA Heritage Rolling Stock Stage 2b Heritage Assessments2000 David Sheedy Pty Ltd Architects and Heritage ConsultantsSteven Adams Yes
S170 Rolling Stock Review2009 NSW Department of Commerce  Yes

References, internet links & images

TypeAuthorYearTitleInternet Links
WrittenGrunbach, A1989A Compendium of New South Wales Steam Locomotives
WrittenOberg, L1975Locomotives of Australia

Note: internet links may be to web pages, documents or images.

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Data source

The information for this entry comes from the following source:
Name: State Government
Database number: 4807227


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