Locomotive, Steam 3820 | NSW Environment & Heritage

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Heritage

Locomotive, Steam 3820

Item details

Name of item: Locomotive, Steam 3820
Type of item: Movable / Collection
Group/Collection: Transport - Rail
Category: Railway Locomotives & Rolling Stock
Primary address: Thirlmere Railway Precinct, Thirlmere, NSW 2572
Local govt. area: Wollondilly
All addresses
Street AddressSuburb/townLGAParishCountyType
Thirlmere Railway PrecinctThirlmereWollondilly  Primary Address

Owner/s

Organisation NameOwner CategoryDate Ownership Updated
RailCorpState Government 
RailCorpState Government 

Statement of significance:

Locomotive 3820 has significance as an example of a very important class of locomotive on the NSWGR, and the ultimate development of the express passenger steam locomotive. The 38 Class had the highest boiler pressure of any locomotive in Australia and the first in NSW to be equipped with roller bearings. The design represented an advancement of the one-piece cast-steel frame by incorporating the cylinders, main air reservoir, and even the bracket for mounting the air compressor. The class is significant as it illustrates the increase in locomotive power and the improvements in passenger services in the post-World War 2 period. Its external form and character shows contemporary American and English influences. Locomotive 3820 is representative of a high-technology mid 20th Century express passenger locomotive, in use up to the introduction of diesel-electric power.
Date significance updated: 18 Dec 09
Note: The State Heritage Inventory provides information about heritage items listed by local and State government agencies. The State Heritage Inventory is continually being updated by local and State agencies as new information becomes available. Read the OEH copyright and disclaimer.

Description

Designer/Maker: Harold Young, Chief Mechanical Engineer of the NSWGR and others
Builder/Maker: New South Wales Government Railways, Eveleigh Workshops
Physical description: EXTERNAL
Locomotive 3820 is a two-cylinder simple, non-condensing, superheated, ‘Pacific’ 4-6-2 express passenger steam locomotive. The locomotive is built around a single piece, cast-steel mainframe, monolithically cast with the two cylinders and smoke box saddle. It is fitted with cast steel driving wheels to the Box-pok pattern. The trailing pony truck wheels are of a similar pattern but the leading bogie wheels are disc relieved with four holes. Extensive use has been made of roller bearings for the main axle bearings, the crank pin and rod linkages being fitted with bushes. The locomotive is fitted with Walschaert’s outside valve motion, all rods being of a fluted design. The boiler has been clad in conventional metal sheeting. The locomotive is painted black overall with red lining. A headlight is located on the smokebox. It has standard NSWR ‘contractors’ style chromed cab-side road numbers, with numbers painted in white on the front buffer beam and in yellow on the rear of the tender in normal NSWGR fashion. The tender fitted, also lined black, is of four- wheeled bogie design with high sides.

INTERNAL
The boiler is of riveted construction, fitted with a Belpaire firebox and fired through a Franklin air-operated fire door. The boiler is fitted with a superheater operated through a smokebox regulator at a pressure of 245 psi, the highest boiler pressure of any Australian steam locomotive.

The 4-6-2 wheel arrangement allows a configuration which places the firebox above the trailing axle, thus allowing a much wider firebox than the earlier classic 4-6-0 wheel arrangement widely used for passenger locomotives up to that time. This wide firebox design allowed a larger and more efficient firegrate, and so the boiler could be designed to provide what was considered to be the maximum power that could be generated by manual firing. The engine is coal-fired by hand from a large bogie tender of the usual (for the time) riveted construction. The locomotive has 5’9" diameter driving wheels, allowing a nominal design speed of approx. 110 km/h while providing reasonably high tractive effort to cope with the heavy grades found on NSW main lines.
Physical condition and/or
Archaeological potential:
Operational Status: Non-Operational
General Condition: Good Condition
External Condition: Good Condition
Internal Condition: Good Condition

EXTERNAL CONDITION
Complete and generally serviceable; paintwork intact but not fresh. Some rust holes in tender bodywork which are recently repainted. Minor panel damage to tender body but this mostly predates the last paint job. Locomotive 3820 appears to have its correct tender. The paint has suffered badly on the exposed western side. The locomotive is in NSWGR ex-service condition, but in preservation has been re-painted several times and given minor sheet-metal repairs.

INTERNAL CONDITION
Fairly complete, chairs in place, gauges intact, gauge-glass intact.

HAZARDOUS MATERIALS
Asbestos. Paint on body may contain lead due to age of vehicle.
Date condition updated:01 Oct 09
Modifications and dates: November 1947 - Built by the NSWGR Eveleigh Workshops, Redfern, as works number 172 and entered service on 25 November 1947.
1968 - AD60 headlight fitted at Cardiff Workshops.
December 1970 - Withdrawn from service.
1971 - Headlight replaced by correct type by RTM.
June 1975 - Arrived at Thirlmere

During the course of a long service career the locomotive underwent a number of major overhauls including four boiler changes. Various modifications were also made to bearings and bushes on class members during their service life.

The paint scheme has alternated over the years between various shades of green (lined in yellow) and black (lined in red). It has been repainted four times since 1970 often with minor repairs to the sheet metal cladding on the boiler or small repairs to the tender sides plating. The locomotive was cosmetically restored, with a complete re-paint, by the RTM in 1971, and also in 1980 (by the PTC/SRA) for the 125th Anniversary of the NSWR, including minor sheet-metal repairs. It was also re-painted by the RTM in 1988, and again in the mid 1990s, on each occasion with some minor sheet-metal work to repair holes in the tender.
Current use: NSW Government Railways Collection
Former use: Pacific Class Locomotive

History

Historical notes: Locomotive 3820 was built by the NSWGR Eveleigh Workshops, Redfern, as works number 172. Built to the design of the Department of Railways, the locomotive was completed in late 1947 and entered service on 25 November 1947. Locomotive 3820 was one of a subsequent series of 25 built by the NSWGR in conventional un-streamlined form, alternately constructed at Eveleigh and Cardiff. The 38 class was intended to replace the smaller C36 class on interstate and other express services, and immediately took over the Newcastle and other important expresses and ran these with a phenomenal degree of success until supplanted by diesels and electric traction in 1970. The class eliminated the wasteful and expensive practice of double-heading passenger trains, though some services, namely the Melbourne expresses still required assistance due to heavy loadings.

During the course of a long service career the locomotive underwent a number of major including four boiler changes. The locomotive was allocated during its career to Eveleigh, Enfield, Broadmeadow and briefly to Lithgow. It hauled the last steam Riverina Express and the last steam through Newcastle Flyer. 3820 was the last 38 to be used in regular service, being withdrawn on 29/12/1970 after hauling the up afternoon Flyer all the way to Sydney. Following withdrawal from general service, it was transferred to the RTM, and was involved along with sister engines 3801 and 3813 in a number of tours and civic celebrations, including the 'Last Run' with 3203 and 3526 in 1974. This activity ceased on the advent of the Public Transport Commission, resulting in a ban on steam being imposed in 1974.

The locomotive was then displayed in a static condition by the NSW Rail Transport Museum, firstly at Enfield and following transfer of the Museum, at Thirlmere where it arrived under its own steam on 20 June 1975, having travelled under its own steam on a special one-trip ticket to assist with the move.

Historic themes

Australian theme (abbrev)New South Wales themeLocal theme
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Technology-Activities and processes associated with the knowledge or use of mechanical arts and applied sciences Shaping inland settlements-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Transport-Activities associated with the moving of people and goods from one place to another, and systems for the provision of such movements Railway work culture-

Assessment of significance

SHR Criteria a)
[Historical significance]
Locomotive 3820 has a high level of historical significance as a member of a very important class of locomotive on the NSWGR that was the ultimate development of the express passenger locomotive. The class is significant as it illustrates the increase in locomotive power and the improvements in passenger services in the post-World War 2 period, and is associated with the introduction of all-steel, air-conditioned express trains. On introduction, the 38 Class became the principal motive power for all major expresses, until later displaced by diesel-electric power, finishing their days on goods trains.
SHR Criteria b)
[Associative significance]
Based on current knowledge, the carriage is not known to have any special associations with people or events of significance in a local or state context. It does not have significance under this criterion.
SHR Criteria c)
[Aesthetic significance]
Locomotive 3820 has a moderate level of aesthetic significance as an imposing locomotive that gave the impression of massive power, influenced by contemporary English and American designs. Earlier NSWGR designs had generally followed more mainstream English trends with tall chimneys and domes whereas the 38 Class had a very squat chimney and dome to enable the boiler to be built to the limits of the loading gauge.

Locomotive 3820 has a low level of technical significance, as a non-operational example of the 38 Class with the highest boiler pressure of any locomotive in Australia and the first in NSW to be equipped with roller bearings. The design represented an advancement of the one-piece cast-steel frame (introduced to NSW in 1929 with the 57 Class) by incorporating the cylinders, main air reservoir, and even the bracket for mounting the air compressor. The class also represents the culmination of the development of the steam locomotive in Australia. The 38 class made extensive use of a number of technical improvements and innovations developed on earlier engines for performance enhancement and reliability. The end result was a class of locomotive with unparalleled performance and availability, right up to the end of the steam era.
SHR Criteria d)
[Social significance]
The Locomotive, Steam 3820 is likely to have a degree of social value for the community-based associations who have demonstrated an ongoing interest in its conservation and management. This item may also have a degree of social significance to a broader section of the community linked to its historic, aesthetic and associative values.
SHR Criteria e)
[Research potential]
Locomotive 3820 has a low level of research significance. The class represents the culmination of the development of the steam locomotive in Australia, and made extensive use of a number of technical improvements and innovations developed on earlier engines for performance enhancement and reliability. Locomotive 3820 has little research significance however due to restoration work in preservation.
SHR Criteria f)
[Rarity]
Locomotive 3801 is rare as it is one of only 3 survivors (4 including 3813) of a highly significant class of locomotive.
SHR Criteria g)
[Representativeness]
Locomotive 3820 is a representative example of a high-technology mid 20th Century express passenger locomotive, in use up to the introduction of diesel-electric power. It is representative of the majority of this class, only five of which were streamlined.
Integrity/Intactness: Locomotive 3820 has a moderate level of integrity and intactness. The locomotive remains substantially in ex-service condition and is substantially intact.
Assessment criteria: Items are assessed against the PDF State Heritage Register (SHR) Criteria to determine the level of significance. Refer to the Listings below for the level of statutory protection.

Listings

Heritage ListingListing TitleListing NumberGazette DateGazette NumberGazette Page
Heritage Act - s.170 NSW State agency heritage register     

Study details

TitleYearNumberAuthorInspected byGuidelines used
SRA Heritage Rolling Stock Stage 2b Heritage Assessments2000 David Sheedy Pty Ltd Architects and Heritage ConsultantsSteven Adams Yes
S170 Rolling Stock Review2009 NSW Department of Commerce  Yes

References, internet links & images

TypeAuthorYearTitleInternet Links
WrittenGrunbach, A.1989A Compendium of New South Wales Steam Locomotives
WrittenRTM2002Steam Locomotive 3820 CMP
WrittenThompson, J. B.199238 - The C38 Pacific Locomotives of the NSWGR

Note: internet links may be to web pages, documents or images.

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Data source

The information for this entry comes from the following source:
Name: State Government
Database number: 4807231


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