Locomotive, Steam 5096 | NSW Environment & Heritage

Culture and heritage


Locomotive, Steam 5096

Item details

Name of item: Locomotive, Steam 5096
Other name/s: 356
Type of item: Movable / Collection
Group/Collection: Transport - Rail
Category: Railway Locomotives & Rolling Stock
Primary address: Broadmeadow Locomotive Depot, Broadmeadow, NSW 2292
Local govt. area: Newcastle
All addresses
Street AddressSuburb/townLGAParishCountyType
Broadmeadow Locomotive DepotBroadmeadowNewcastle  Primary Address


Organisation NameOwner CategoryDate Ownership Updated
RailCorpState Government 
RailCorpState Government 

Statement of significance:

Locomotive 5096 has heritage significance as an excellent and highly intact example of the first design for a standard goods engine for the NSWR, demonstrating a successful synthesis of contemporary British and North American locomotive design practice. It is the first locomotive to be built by Clyde Engineering Granville and reflects lengthy lobbying by both unions and industry to establish local manufacturing of railway locomotives. It is an excellent example of a standard goods engine in close to original configuration, having never been fitted with electric lighting and retaining its original 3,650 gallon tender. It is rare as an extant example of a very saturated steam engines to survive. Locomotive 5096 has the potential to reveal information about the local production of locomotives for the NSWGR, being the first locomotive produced by Clyde Engineering. As an example of a D50 Class locomotive, it has research potential as an example of a standard goods engine in close to original configuration.
Date significance updated: 13 Nov 09
Note: The State Heritage Inventory provides information about heritage items listed by local and State government agencies. The State Heritage Inventory is continually being updated by local and State agencies as new information becomes available. Read the OEH copyright and disclaimer.


Designer/Maker: William Thow, Beyer Peacock and Company and others
Builder/Maker: Clyde Engineering Pty Ltd, Granville, NSW
Physical description: EXTERNAL
Locomotive 5096 is a two-cylinder, simple, non-condensing, saturated, 2-8-0 ‘Consolidation’ Type (D) 50 Class heavy goods type steam locomotive. It has a riveted plate steel frame and saturated Belpair firebox boiler supplying steam to two outside cylinders driving 8 small diameter spoked wheels. Allan’s inside valve gear drives the outside cylinders, which are fitted with Alligator cross heads and fluted coupling and connecting rods. It has a typical British appearance in the high shapely chimney and dome and low running plate with splashers over the driving wheels. The enclosed cab incorporates the characteristic porthole window of William Thow. All wheels are spoked, running on plain journal bearings with drip-feed oil axleboxes. This locomotive is in near original condition having never been fitted with superheating or electric lighting. The locomotive also features flangeless centre two driving axles.

The single axle leading truck is of inside plate frame riveted construction with a 4 hole disc wheel axle with friction bearing axle boxes and leaf / coil spring suspension. The leading truck is compensated via a Samson beam to the remainder of the spring gear. The eight main driving wheels also feature leaf spring compensated suspension.

The bogie tender is of a riveted construction with spoked wheel outside plain journal axle boxes and leaf spring compensated suspension. The tender and locomotive are connected by a central forged steel drawbar and two safety link bars. The locomotive is fitted with leading and trailing air operated sanders.

The locomotive is fitted with a steam air compressor, ramsbottom safety valves, steam injectors, whistle, hydrostatic lubricator, regulator handle, cab boiler fittings, cab valves, four air reservoirs fire rocking gear, spectacle plate windows, timber cab seats, running board mounted cast sand boxes through water tender filling pipe work, fire iron holders on tender side, water range operating handles, Beyer & Peacock builders plate on tender, and tender marker lights.

The locomotive is fitted with a Westinghouse air braking system, operating a brake cylinder on both the engine and tender. The engine brake rigging applies eight large brake shoes bearing one on the outside of each of the four driving axles. The tender bogies brake rigging applies two outside bearing brake shoes to each axle. A mechanical hand brake is fitted to both the tender and engine. The locomotive is fitted with hooked drawgear and Turton buffers.

The locomotive and tender are fitted with buffers and screw couplings, the engine is not provided with electric power. The engine and tender are painted overall black, with the road numbers in white on the front buffer beam, cad sides (only while at Pt Waratah- over brass numerals), and yellow on the tender rear. Some of the class at various times had red running plat edges, and red rims on the cab portholes, but it is uncertain (pending further investigation) whether 5096 did.
Physical condition and/or
Archaeological potential:
Operational Status: Non-Operational
General Condition: Moderate Condition
External Condition: Moderate Condition
Internal Condition: Moderate/Poor Condition

Externally the locomotive is in moderate condition exhibiting years of neglect with many fixtures missing or damaged and the paint system failing with corrosion present. The front buffers and hook draw gear is secure and serviceable however the front guard irons are missing. The extended smokebox of this locomotive is in extremely poor condition with the cast funnel removed and stored in the tender's coal space due to serious corrosion being present in the smokeboxes steel plate. The front of the smokebox also exhibits corrosion beneath the door, with the door handwheel and dart also missing. The boiler’s sheet steel clothing has been mostly removed with small sections remaining on the top corners of the firebox and bellow the firebox door. A number of the boiler barrel clothing straps are also present in the tender along with the fireman’s side boiler hand rail. The clothing on both cylinder covers exhibits rust blow out. The drivers reversing screw is complete though the link rod is missing. The tender tank is generally in poor condition with extensive areas of corrosion visible as well as previous repair patches both riveted and welded. The coal slope sheet has failed around the shovelling plate with extensive corrosion visible within the tank. The water filling collar is in position and secure with lid as well as the rear timber coal boards. Marker lights remain on the rear of the tender. The locomotive has an overall coating of road grime and surface corrosion on exposed steelwork with heavier oil and grease based deposits below the running boards and around the wheels and motion.
The locomotive units underframe appears to be in moderate to good condition with surface corrosion evident, though no major damage or pitting is present. The frame appears to be straight with no undue wear visible. Surface corrosion is present on the running boards beneath the air compressor on the fireman’s side. The tenders underframe is severely corroded with wastage noticeable around the draw box and front headstock. Pitting is evident between the outside frames due to the failure of the tender tank above with a heavy build up of road grime also present.

The locomotive's single axle leading truck appears complete with the disc wheels retaining an acceptable profile and exhibiting ½ tyre wear. The tender’s bogies appear complete with the spoke wheeled axles two thirds life expired with a poor profile. Minor surface corrosion and heavy road grime are present. All the plain journal bearings appear complete and there is no record of overheating occurring during the movement of this locomotive in April 2009.

The external Black paint finish of the locomotive is 70% complete however severely degraded and failing. The majority of the boiler clothing has been removed with the boiler barrel painted black. The small area of clothing remaining on the firebox top corners has a chalky mat black finish with the small section below the fire hole door in the cab has little remaining paint and corrosion present. The locomotive units underframe, wheels and motion are heavily covered with grease, oil and road grime with failing flaked paint especially present between the frames with large areas of exposed steel with surface corrosion present. The paint system has failed along the junction between the frames ,running boards and splashers allowing corrosion to take hold. The locomotives cab has a failing black paint system on the walls with little surface protection remaining. The cab roof has a peeling and flaking soot covered black finish over degraded timber boards. The Red painted buffer beam on the front of the locomotive has reasonable sound surface affording corrosion protection to the riveted steel headstock. The smokebox has an overall mat black finish with severe corrosion and rust blow out around the chimney and beneath the smokebox door. There are remains of the canvas porthole window side curtains with the spectacle plate bronze window frames complete with glazing. The tenders black external paint finish is badly degraded with peeling paint and rust blow out evident throughout. The top and cab bulkhead surfaces have no protective finish remaining with surface corrosion evident. The underframe and axles of the tender have a highly soiled and degraded black finish contaminated with oil and grease externally, with no protective coating remaining on any surface between the side frames.

The fittings on this locomotive have suffered through years of neglect with many missing or damaged. The steam powered Westinghouse air compressor is complete though associated cab mounted brake valves are missing. The remaining boiler fittings include the two fire box mounted ramsbottom safety valves, injector steam valves and clack valves. The live steam injectors are in position though having missing components. Other boiler fittings are missing including the dome top No.3 safety valve, engine whistle, water gauge glasses, steam gauges and regulator handle. The pipework for the underfloor injectors has missing flexible lines from the tender to locomotive as well as both strainer box covers and the tapered water valve on the drivers side missing. Firebox rosebud grate rocking gear is complete and operational with the ratchet fire hole door located in the tender coal space. The locomotive's hydrostatic lubricator is missing from its boiler backhead mount. Air pressure gauges and cab mounted valves are also missing. The spectacle plate bronze-framed windows in the cab are complete with some glazing broken. The cab side brass numbers are missing with white painted numbers present. The tender's fire iron holders, injector water range operating handles and handbrake are complete as well as the through water connection. The tender still retains one of its Beyer & Peacock 1909 builder’s plates on the driver’s side. This locomotive was never fitted for electric lighting however the tender now attached has two rear marker lights with their lenses missing.
The locomotive’s generally poor overall appearance is an indication of the locomotive's mechanical condition. Despite the locomotives leading truck having a moderate wheel condition with ½ life tyres, the rest of the locomotive's wheels are in extremely poor condition with hollow treads especially on the unflanged centre axles and poor flange thickness on the others with little tyre material left for reprofiling. The compensated spring gear appears complete with thorough inspection not possible. The saturated Belpair firebox boiler is complete though its internal condition is unknown, however reports suggest extensive work is required. The ‘Allan’s inside valve gear has the majority of its components removed and stored in the tender coal space including one expansion link, two eccentric straps and four eccentric rods, one of which is severely bent with the front end sheared off. This damaged eccentric is a result of a seized valve in December 1965. All of these components exhibit surface corrosion .The Alligator crossheads appear complete with the tail rod style pistons still fitted to the cylinders however the condition of the cylinders and valves is unknown with damage likely resulting from the seized valve in 1965. The fluted coupling rods have been removed with both lying in the tender coal space, while the connecting rods and brass bearings are still in place. The little end brasses, big end bronze bearings, gudgeon pins, die blocks and eccentric bearings appear to be missing. The locomotives Westinghouse air compressor is complete though the drivers brake valve is missing. The rest of the brake system rigging appears complete with both the locomotive and tender handbrake operational. The forged draw bar and two safety link bars are in position and serviceable though there is questions over the structural integrity of the tenders draw box. The locomotives cast sand boxes mounted on the front running board and beneath the cab appear complete though pipework is missing from the boxes to the rail head.

The tenders running mechanical equipment appears to be in moderate to good condition with no obvious missing components or faults visible in spring gear or axle boxes. The wheel profile is poor with little material left for reprofiling. The water tank mounted above the frame is severely corroded and failing leading to corrosion of the tenders underframe especially the internal structural members. All buffers and hook drag gear are complete and secure.

The cab of the locomotive is in poor condition due to the failed roof structure with cab sides and seat boxes exhibiting corrosion in areas. The locomotive unit has a failing timber cab roof with no remaining canvas membrane and the steel framing exposed and surface corrosion evident. The cab floor timbers have also failed with the steel foreplate fittings loose.
No internal examination of the boiler is possible so its condition is unknown.
The firebox appears complete with all tubes fitted, including the two arch tubes. A cast brick arch and rosebud fire grates are complete along with their cab mounted rocking gear. The internal condition of the tender is poor with extensive corrosion and failed baffles being present.

Asbestos lagging is still fitted to the locomotives firebox beneath the remaining clothing with an extremely temporary and ad hock method of containment employed (Space invader expandable foam) which is already failing, and yellow danger stickers. Paint on body may contain lead due to age of vehicle.
Date condition updated:11 Nov 09
Modifications and dates: 1907 - Built by Clyde Engineering Ltd, Granville, as works Number 1. Allocated road number 356 and entered service on 6 June 1907.
From 1920 - External feed lines and clack valves were fitted from the injectors to the boiler. 10'' air compressor and associated governor fitted. Rear sandboxes fitted under the seats in the cab with access from a port in the cab side. Additional air receivers fitted on the running plate beside the firebox. Pressed metal smoke box door fitted (replacing original door of cast iron manufacture).
1924 - Renumbered 5096.
1966 - Withdrawn. Stored in the open at Enfield until 1972 until transferred to the NSW RTM.
1975 - Arrived at Thirlmere. Stored in the open in a partially stripped state since 1998.
2009 - Transferred to Broadmeadow.
Further information: An attempt was made to begin restoration in 2000 however the poor boiler condition thwarted any work being undertaken.
Current use: NSW Government Railways Collection
Former use: Heavy Goods Locomotive


Historical notes: Locomotive 5096 was built by Clyde Engineering Ltd, Granville, as their works Number 1 in 1907. It was the first locomotive to be built by this manufacturer and was part of an order for 30 such locomotives placed by the NSWR. Allocated road number 356, it entered service on the NSWGR on 6 June 1907. Built to the specifications of the CME, William Thow, the T class as they were originally designated, were initially constructed by Beyer Peacock at their Gorton Foundry in Manchester. Construction of 5096 as Clyde’s first locomotive only arose after a lengthy period of lobbying by industry and unions for local manufacture.

The class was very successful and ultimately numbered 280 members, providing motive power for heavy mainline goods traffic for over three decades until the advent of the D57 ‘Mountain’ class in 1929. Along with the P and S classes, they made up the three "Thow" standard classes, and their route availability was very high, with few lines closed to their operation.

As a saturated engine 5096, was disadvantaged by a smaller admissible rated load on the mainline by a factor of 10%. Consequently the remaining saturated engines spent their later careers on shunting activities and about the system and working coal trains in the Hunter Valley.

Locomotive 5096 had its final major overhaul at the Eveleigh Workshops between 12th January 1962 and 13th March 1962, during which time it received an overhauled boiler and a full mechanical overhaul. The locomotive was withdrawn from service in December 1965 due to a seized valve that severely damaged the motion. It was hired to the Sulphide Corporation as a stationary boiler for a period of time before being finally condemned on the 17th November 1967 having travelled 2,018,230km in its service for the NSWGR.

Following withdrawal from service, Locomotive 5096 was transferred to the NSW Rail Transport Museum on 2nd August 1966. It was stored in the open at Enfield until 1972, before finally arriving at Thirlmere in 1975. The locomotive was stored in the open at Thirlmere since 1998 and remained in a partially stripped state for many years. An attempt to commence restoration to operational condition was made around 2000 however it was thwarted by the very poor condition of the boiler. The locomotive was relocated to Broadmeadow in April 2009.

Historic themes

Australian theme (abbrev)New South Wales themeLocal theme
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Technology-Activities and processes associated with the knowledge or use of mechanical arts and applied sciences Shaping inland settlements-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Transport-Activities associated with the moving of people and goods from one place to another, and systems for the provision of such movements Transporting troops and equipment-

Assessment of significance

SHR Criteria a)
[Historical significance]
Locomotive 5096 has historical significance as a representative example of the first design for a standard goods engine for the NSWR and demonstrates a successful synthesis of contemporary British and North American locomotive design practice. It is the first locomotive to be built by Clyde Engineering Granville and reflects lengthy lobbying by both unions and industry to establish local manufacturing of railway locomotives.
SHR Criteria b)
[Associative significance]
Based on current knowledge, the carriage is not known to have any special associations with people or events of significance in a local or state context. It does not have significance under this criterion.
SHR Criteria c)
[Aesthetic significance]
Locomotive 5096 has moderate aesthetic significance. It reflects the synthesis of North American and British styles of locomotive design, and is typical of 19th century design simplicity with clean lines.

Locomotive 5096 has technical significance as an excellent example of a standard goods engine in close to original configuration, having never been fitted with electric lighting and retaining its original 3,650 gallon tender. It is one of very saturated steam engines to survive into preservation.
SHR Criteria d)
[Social significance]
The Locomotive, Steam 5096 is likely to have a degree of social value for the community-based associations who have demonstrated an ongoing interest in its conservation and management. This item may also have a degree of social significance to a broader section of the community linked to its historic, aesthetic and associative values.
SHR Criteria e)
[Research potential]
Locomotive 5096 has research significance with the potential to reveal information about the local production of locomotives for the NSWGR, being the first locomotive produced by Clyde Engineering. As an example of a D50 Class locomotive, it has research potential as an example of a standard goods engine in close to original configuration.
SHR Criteria f)
Locomotive 5096 is rare as the first locomotive to be built by Clyde Engineering Granville and as an example of a standard goods engine in close to original configuration with original 3,650 gallon tender, and one of very few saturated steam standard goods engines to survive into preservation.
SHR Criteria g)
Locomotive 5096 is representative of a standard heavy goods locomotive of the late Victorian era of which 280 were built by both local and overseas manufacturers over a period of 20 years.
Integrity/Intactness: Locomotive 5096 retains a high level of integrity and intactness. This locomotive is in near original as delivered condition having never received many of the major modifications carried out to other members of the class. This locomotive retains its original 2-8-0 layout and tender type. The Belpair boiler, short smokebox and ramsbottom safety valves are of original design. The locomotive still has its original design of riveted plate steel frame, single axle leading truck, spoked wheels, outside cylinders, Alligator crosshead and fluted connecting and coupling rods. The locomotive retains its friction bearing axles throughout as well Westinghouse braking system and mechanical hand brakes. The locomotive remains unlit as built with no turbo steam generator or headlight fitted. The cab layout remains unaltered. A number of components are missing, most notably the funnel which was removed in April 2009 prior to the relocation of the locomotive to Broadmeadow, yet the item still demonstrates significance.
Assessment criteria: Items are assessed against the PDF State Heritage Register (SHR) Criteria to determine the level of significance. Refer to the Listings below for the level of statutory protection.


Heritage ListingListing TitleListing NumberGazette DateGazette NumberGazette Page
Heritage Act - s.170 NSW State agency heritage register     

Study details

TitleYearNumberAuthorInspected byGuidelines used
SRA Heritage Rolling Stock Stage 2b Heritage Assessments2000 David Sheedy Pty Ltd Architects and Heritage ConsultantsSteven Adams Yes
S170 Rolling Stock Review2009 NSW Department of Commerce  Yes

References, internet links & images

TypeAuthorYearTitleInternet Links
Written 2009New South Wales Government Railways Preserved Locomotives - 5096
WrittenGrunbach, A1989A Compendium of New South Wales Steam Locomotives
WrittenMurray, J1992Phoenix to the World
WrittenOberg, L1996Locomotives of Australia
WrittenPreston, R.G.1992Standards in Steam - The 50 Class The 50 Class
WrittenTurner, J1998Early Australian Steam Locomotives 1896 - 1958

Note: internet links may be to web pages, documents or images.

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Data source

The information for this entry comes from the following source:
Name: State Government
Database number: 4807232

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