Locomotive, Diesel 4102 | NSW Environment & Heritage

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Locomotive, Diesel 4102

Item details

Name of item: Locomotive, Diesel 4102
Type of item: Movable / Collection
Group/Collection: Transport - Rail
Category: Railway Locomotives & Rolling Stock
Primary address: Broadmeadow Locomotive Depot, Broadmeadow, NSW 2292
Local govt. area: Newcastle
All addresses
Street AddressSuburb/townLGAParishCountyType
Broadmeadow Locomotive DepotBroadmeadowNewcastle  Primary Address

Owner/s

Organisation NameOwner CategoryDate Ownership Updated
RailCorpState Government 
RailCorpState Government 

Statement of significance:

Diesel-Electric Locomotive 4102 has heritage significance as an early diesel demonstrating the attempts made by the NSWGR to embrace post-war modernisation with diesel-electric traction. Unsuccessful by the measures of the day, 4102 represents the search for an effective diesel-electric design at a time of competing arguments regarding the merits of diesel procurement, availability of domestic fuel supplies and the scrapping of steam. It also represents an attempt by the railway administration to source locomotives from Great Britain to fit with trade and foreign currency policies of the period. Locomotive 4102 is significant as the longest serving member of the class. It was the first of the class to arrive in Sydney, the first to enter service, and the last member of the class in service. The class is significant for its role in the construction work associated with the electrification of the Western line over the Blue Mountains. Locomotive 4102 has a high level of aesthetic significance as it demonstrates the strictly utilitarian driven design parameters of early British diesel locomotive designs that were in vogue in the post World War 2 period, causing it to contrast greatly with later diesel and electric locomotives where style was an important feature of design. This locomotive is technically significant as it is one of the only class of diesel-electric locomotives to be constructed by a British manufacturer to a British design that was placed in service by the NSWGR. It is considered rare as the sole survivor from a small class of 10 units of an early attempt at a diesel-electric locomotive.
Date significance updated: 18 Dec 09
Note: The State Heritage Inventory provides information about heritage items listed by local and State government agencies. The State Heritage Inventory is continually being updated by local and State agencies as new information becomes available. Read the OEH copyright and disclaimer.

Description

Designer/Maker: British Thompson-Houston and Metropolitan Cammell Carriage and Wagon Company
Builder/Maker: British Thompson-Houston and Metropolitan Cammell Carriage and Wagon Company
Physical description: EXTERNAL
Locomotive 4102 is a Bo-Bo diesel-electric of hooded design with a central cab. It is fitted with two naturally aspirated, 12 cylinder, ‘V’ formation diesel engines. The prime movers each drive a 360hp generator, coupled by switchgear to four axle-mounted traction motors. The locomotive is mounted on a rigid plate frame with a valance and handrails down each side. A large air-cooled radiator is fitted at each end, along with a headlamp, marker lights and twin engine exhausts. A transition coupling is fitted along with buffers. The locomotive features a centrally frame mounted underhung fuel tank and air reservoirs, running board mounted battery boxes.

The locomotive is painted overall Indian red, with yellow stripe and black bogies. Road numbers are painted on the cab sides in yellow and white on the red buffer beams. (The yellow side stripe and cab numbers were picked out with a fine black border).

INTERNAL
The cab features Beclawat cab windows, brake stands and control consuls, engine gauges, engine shutdown pull cords, timber floor hatches, cab heaters, lights and instructional panels.

MECHANICAL
The bogies are of an outside framed plate steel welded construction, running on disc wheels, through compensated leaf and coil sprung roller bearing axle-boxes. The locomotive is fitted with a Westinghouse air braking system, operating 4 brake cylinders, acting on the brake rigging to apply inside bearing clasp brakes to all axles. A mechanical hand brake is fitted in the driving cab, acting on the brake rigging via a hand-wheel located on the No. 2 end bulkhead. The locomotive is fitted with unit drawgear transition couplers and Turton buffers. Electrical power produced by the two generators is transferred through body mounted electrical switchgear to 4 DC bogie mounted traction motors, one on each axle.
Physical condition and/or
Archaeological potential:
Operational Status: Non-Operational
General Condition: Good Condition
External Condition: Good Condition
Internal Condition: Good Condition

EXTERNAL CONDITION
Apart from some minor surface corrosion around body fittings and along the hood / running board junction the body is in very good external condition, with all fittings and glazing complete and intact. The roof mounted equipment appears complete with mild corrosion and missing paint apparent. The engine access doors appear to be operable with those tried opening freely with locks operational.

The underframe appears to be in good condition, with all fittings including fuel tank and air reservoir secure and complete. There is minor surface corrosion visible beneath general road grime and grease. The bogie frames appear complete with disc wheels retaining an acceptable profile and wear. Brake cylinders, sand boxes and rigging are complete and operational with this vehicle having been moved by rail to this location in April 2009. The 4 bogie mounted traction motors are in position, however there were reports of the unit experiencing a hot suspension bearing during the movement to Broadmeadow. Minor surface corrosion and road grime are present.

The external Verdant Green and Chrome Yellow lining paint finish is 90% complete however becoming chalky in places, with the roof paint showing signs of failure with surface corrosion and staining evident. The Black paint system on the bogies is 90% complete although covered with road grime, grease and dirt. Internally the driver’s cab has a green grey paint system applied, which has extensive chipping and degradation through soiling. The floor is timber boards with no covering existing and ingrained grime. The engine compartments appear to have had light grey paint system with though it is now heavily degraded with oil, road grime and surface corrosion especially around the cooling system components and roof hatches.

Headlights and marker lights are complete and appear operational with the running board mounted battery boxes in good external condition with the external charging socket in position. The locomotives outside cab side mounted builders plates are missing, however the ‘SERCK’ manufacturers plates on radiator cowlings remain riveted in position under a heavy layer of Verdant Green paint.

The Westinghouse air brake equipment and brake rigging are complete and operational but has not been overhauled, with the cab mounted mechanical hand brake operational. The running gear, axle boxes and wheels are heavily encrusted with dirt and oil and although intact their condition is unknown. Reports of the unit experiencing a hot suspension bearing during the movement to Broadmeadow would require investigation The unit drawgear couplers and Turton buffers are complete and operational. The units two Twin Davey Paxman engines are in position, however they appear to have all services disconnected on the A engine and injectors removed. The B engine has its exhaust disconnected, cooling system hoses perished and broken and numerous other components appearing to be loose. The large end mounted radiators are in position however their internal condition is unknown with some pipework appearing to be both disconnected and missing. The two engine mounted generators and cab electrical switchgear are in position but their electrical condition is unknown.

INTERNAL CONDITION
The internal areas of the locomotive can be divided into 2 distinct areas, namely the drivers cab and the two engine compartments. The cab conditions are good exhibiting a build up of dirt and grime on surfaces. The driver’s control and brake stands are complete along with the high-tension electrical cabinet, which has its plywood doors and locks operational. The cab's plywood lined walls, masonite ceiling and timber boarded floor are in sound condition with no rot present. Many original stencils and instruction panels remaining affixed to the walls and control stand. There is little if any internal corrosion evident in the cab though there is a large build up in areas of dirt and road grime. The two engine compartments are in moderate to good condition with internal surfaces soiled with oil, road grime and surface corrosion. Heavier corrosion was evident around the radiator pipework and associated fitting.

The internal cab fittings are in good condition with the only fitting appearing to be missing being the engine run hour’s gauge for the B engine. The two steel framed green vinyl covered drivers seats are in good condition with minor corrosion and missing paint evident on the seat stands. The Beclawat cab windows are both operational. Brake stands, control consuls, engine shutdown pull cords, cab heaters and lighting is in good condition though moderately soiled. The cab has a large number of plastic cut instructional panels and signs with are all secure and in moderate condition.

HAZARDOUS MATERIALS
Paint on body may contain lead due to age of vehicle.
Date condition updated:02 Oct 09
Modifications and dates: October 1953 - Entered service.
1955-1956 - Extension of the radiators forward and the blanking of the hood side hot air exhaust, redirecting their output to a new opening behind the headlight.
1958 - Relocation of the engine mufflers to an enclosure above the roofline, again to try and reduce engines overheating.
June 1975 - Withdrawn from service.
December 1976 - Transferred to NSWRTM.
1982 - Fitting of a 42 Class hostlers control stand in the locomotive cab to test the development of controlling a standard diesel locomotive from a remote control stand (since removed). Engine failure completely destroyed the temporarily repaired A engine, reducing the capacity of the locomotive to one engine only.
1994-1996 - Stored at Meeks Road XPT Service Centre where the failed A engine was removed and replaced and the B engine was fully overhauled.
c.1997 - Returned to the Rail Transport Museum at Thirlmere for display.
April 2009 - Transferred to Broadmeadow.
Current use: NSW Government Railways Collection
Former use: Diesel Electric Locomotive

History

Historical notes: Locomotive 4102 was ordered by the NSWGR in March 1950, as part of a contract for 10 shunting locomotives of 1000hp. Australian General Electric Pty Ltd won the contract with a unit price of $123441 per unit, and subsequently through its British agents sublet the contract for supply of the locomotives electrical equipment to British Thompson Houston, with Metropolitan Cammell Carriage & Wagon Co. being responsible for the supply of the body, bogies and mechanical equipment. These units were purchased by the NSWGR as a trial to gauge how a medium weight locomotive would perform in metropolitan haulage and shunting operations at a time of competing arguments regarding the merits of diesel procurement, availability of domestic fuel supplies and the scrapping of steam.

Locomotive 4102 was the first of the class to arrive in Sydney, being received on 13th October 1953 and subsequently being placed in service on 30th October 1953. The other 9 units making up the 41 class were progressively placed in service until 4110 appeared in traffic in December 1955.

Initially intended for shunting, trip trains in the metropolitan area and coal haulage from Camden to Rozelle, the class experienced problems arising from severe design deficiencies. Ineffective cooling arrangements led to frequent overheating and the inability of the class to double head. Many modifications were made in an attempt to improve heat transfer. A significant early activity of the class was construction work associated with the electrification of the Western line over the Blue Mountains. The class also saw use on the steeply graded Camden branch line, assisting the various classes of tank engines allocated to these workings of passenger and coal trains prior to closure in the early 1960s. Following this the class saw continued use in the Sydney area shunting at Cooks River and other yards, hauling employee works specials and recovering failed trains in the metropolitan area. By the end of 1967 the Railway Administration had run out of patience with the class, and as major failures occurred the locomotives were set aside. Locomotive 4102 was the last member of the class in service being finally withdrawn in June 1975 as a result of a seized piston in the 'A' engine. The locomotive was the longest serving member of the class recording 492650km of service. 4102 was transferred to the New South Wales Rail Transport Museum, on 31 December 1976 where it saw limited service and ongoing mechanical failures. Between 1994-1996 the locomotive was stored at the XPT Maintenance Centre at Meeks Road, Sydney where its engines were overhauled. The locomotive was returned to the Rail Transport Museum at Thirlmere where it remained on display until April 2009 when it was transferred to Broadmeadow.

Historic themes

Australian theme (abbrev)New South Wales themeLocal theme
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Technology-Activities and processes associated with the knowledge or use of mechanical arts and applied sciences Shaping inland settlements-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Transport-Activities associated with the moving of people and goods from one place to another, and systems for the provision of such movements Railway work culture-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Transport-Activities associated with the moving of people and goods from one place to another, and systems for the provision of such movements Transporting troops and equipment-

Assessment of significance

SHR Criteria a)
[Historical significance]
Diesel-Electric Locomotive 4102 has historical significance as it was associated with the tentative steps to modernise the NSWGR and the introduction of diesel locomotives to the system in the 1950s. It demonstrates early diesel-electric design and construction techniques being practiced overseas.
It is associated with shunting, trip working and recovery of failed trains in the Sydney metropolitan area.
Locomotive 4102 is significant as the longest serving member of the class. It was the first of the class to arrive in Sydney, the first to enter service, and the last member of the class in service. The class is significant for its role in the construction work associated with the electrification of the Western line over the Blue Mountains.
SHR Criteria b)
[Associative significance]
Based on current knowledge, Diesel-Electric Locomotive 4102 is not known to have any special associations with people or events of significance in a local or state context. It does not have significance under this criterion.
SHR Criteria c)
[Aesthetic significance]
Diesel-Electric Locomotive 4102 has a high level of aesthetic significance. It demonstrates the strictly utilitarian driven design parameters of early British diesel locomotive designs that were in vogue in the post World War 2 period. This causes it to contrast greatly with later diesel and electric locomotives where style was an important feature of design.

Diesel-Electric Locomotive 4102 has technical significance as one of the only class of diesel electric locomotives to be constructed by a British manufacturer to a British design that was placed in service by the NSWGR. It is also a member of one of only two classes of diesel electric locomotives to possess two independent engine generator combinations in the one locomotive frame, the other being the 79 Class.
SHR Criteria d)
[Social significance]
The Diesel-Electric Locomotive 4102 is likely to have a degree of social value for the community-based associations who have demonstrated an ongoing interest in its conservation and management. This item may also have a degree of social significance to a broader section of the community linked to its historic, aesthetic and associative values.
SHR Criteria e)
[Research potential]
Diesel-Electric Locomotive 4102 has a high level of research significance. The locomotive has the potential to reveal information regarding the development of the early diesel-electric locomotive, in particular early British design of this technology.
SHR Criteria f)
[Rarity]
Diesel-Electric Locomotive 4102 has rarity significance as the sole survivor (from a small class of 10 units) of an early attempt at a diesel-electric locomotive.
SHR Criteria g)
[Representativeness]
Diesel-Electric Locomotive 4102 is a good representative example of an early prototypical diesel-electric locomotive of English profile and design.
Integrity/Intactness: Diesel-Electric Locomotive 4102 retains a high level integrity and intactness. This locomotive retains the majority of its original features dating to the time of its construction for the NSWGR. Externally the locomotive has experienced changes to its radiator positioning and exhaust layout however these have not greatly affected the units overall external appearance. External original features include bogies, fuel tank, air reservoir, car body and cab, headlights, marker lights and battery boxes. The internal cab layout and fittings are as constructed with only minor fitting modifications being present which were carried out during railway service. The locomotives engines are of the same type and design as those originally fitted, however the railways practice of overhauling engines resulted in engines being swapped from one locomotive to another throughout their service life. This locomotive is an excellent intact example of an early British inspired and manufactured diesel electric locomotive design in near operational condition.
Assessment criteria: Items are assessed against the PDF State Heritage Register (SHR) Criteria to determine the level of significance. Refer to the Listings below for the level of statutory protection.

Listings

Heritage ListingListing TitleListing NumberGazette DateGazette NumberGazette Page
Heritage Act - s.170 NSW State agency heritage register     

Study details

TitleYearNumberAuthorInspected byGuidelines used
SRA Heritage Rolling Stock Stage 2b Heritage Assessments2000 David Sheedy Pty Ltd Architects and Heritage ConsultantsSteven Adams Yes
S170 Rolling Stock Review2009 NSW Department of Commerce  Yes

References, internet links & images

TypeAuthorYearTitleInternet Links
WrittenLeaver, A198441 Class Album
WrittenLeon Oberg1996Locomotives of Australia
WrittenMorahan, M1997Early Diesel and Electric Locomotives of the NSWGR
WrittenPreston, R.G1997Green Diesels- the 40 and 41 class.
WrittenRTM2002Locomotive Diesel 4102 CMP

Note: internet links may be to web pages, documents or images.

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Data source

The information for this entry comes from the following source:
Name: State Government
Database number: 4807240


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