Claremont Cottage | NSW Environment & Heritage

Culture and heritage

Heritage

Claremont Cottage

Item details

Name of item: Claremont Cottage
Other name/s: 47 Hawkesbury Way
Type of item: Built
Group/Collection: Residential buildings (private)
Category: Cottage
Location: Lat: -33.6086293706 Long: 150.8089885980
Primary address: Claremont Crescent, Windsor, NSW 2756
Parish: St Matthew
County: Cumberland
Local govt. area: Hawkesbury
Local Aboriginal Land Council: Deerubbin
Property description
Lot/Volume CodeLot/Volume NumberSection NumberPlan/Folio CodePlan/Folio Number
LOT11 DP816462
PART LOT221 DP884409
All addresses
Street AddressSuburb/townLGAParishCountyType
Claremont CrescentWindsorHawkesburySt MatthewCumberlandPrimary Address

Owner/s

Organisation NameOwner CategoryDate Ownership Updated
 Private 
Cassmar Hotels Pty LtdPrivate 

Statement of significance:

One of the oldest remaining houses in the Windsor district having associations with many distinguished Hawkesbury families dating back to 1796 including William Cox from 1822 to 1849; Francis Beddek, the lawyer, from 1850 to 1853; James Chaseling from 1870 to 1906; and Philip Charley form 1936 to 1976 (Kingston, 1990).

Claremont Cottage has kept its colonial atmosphere, thanks to sympathetic additions and alterations over time, and is a good example from the early Colonial period (Sheedy 1976).
Date significance updated: 12 Apr 07
Note: The State Heritage Inventory provides information about heritage items listed by local and State government agencies. The State Heritage Inventory is continually being updated by local and State agencies as new information becomes available. Read the OEH copyright and disclaimer.

Description

Construction years: 1807-1822
Physical description: A Colonial Georgian cottage built of stuccoed brick with wide verandahs all contained under a low pitched hipped roof. Double French doors open onto the verandah, other windows are twelve pane type with louvered shutters and flat stone lintels. Some original joinery remains including the six panel front door with fanlight. The front rooms are connected to the older rear kitchen section by a covered breezeway, typical of an early homestead. (Baker, 1967).

The colonial building descibed by Baker above was destroyed by fire, probably in the 1970s - 80s, and the property was abandoned. The oldest building remains and some small remnant parts of the 1820s section, together with other old sections(not dated). The major part of 1820s section had to be rebuilt.

There is a mature Moreton Bay fig tree (Ficus macrophylla) at the street entrance (removed 2010)(Stuart Read, 11/1/2011). A large amount of Bougainvillea sp. climber was removed on the northern side of the entrance (Helen Bryant, pers.comm., 11/1/2011).

The garden is much changed. There is a good view west from the house across a dam to adjoining ploughed paddocks. Behind the oldest building is a circular garden bed which contains a large grave headstone (loose). There is a driveway lined with Nile lilies (Agapanthus orientalis) from the gates down to the back of the building complex. An earlier drive came through on an upper level on the eastern side of the buildings ending in a carriage building (no longer existing).

In the early 2000s the property was sold and the current owners have rebuilt (Helen Bryant, pers.comm., 10/1/2011).
Modifications and dates: 1796 John Pugh & Charles Thomas granted adjoining farms, though official deed not issued until 1802. Both commenced to clear their land.

1796 grant of 25 acres to John Pugh - to be called Pugh's farm.

1802 grant of 20 acres to Charles Thomas to be called Thomas Farm.

1804 grant of 190 acres at Mulgrave Place to Pugh. 1806 Pugh a substantial land holder with 22 acres in grain, 193 acres of pasture and for horses, 11 pigs, with a wife and one convict employee.

1811 Pugh sold farm to Jones, and went to live in WIndsor.

1812 Pugh sold 2255.5 feet of ground to Henry Kable - this may have been his other grant of 190 acres.

1822 Conveyance from John Jones to William Cox of Pugh's Farm, 10 acres Thomas Farm, 2 acres Goodhalls, 4 acres bounded by Trifle's Farm, 3.5 acres Thomas' Farm, 15 acres Bolton & Errey's Farm (Kass, 1996,4).

Claremont Cottage has grown in size as the years passed, each section of the house being added on to and merging with the original structure. These additions have been made sympathetically, and the house has kept its colonial atmosphere (Baker, 1967).

1970s-80s the colonial building descibed above was destroyed by fire and the property was abandoned. The oldest building remains and some small remnant parts of the 1820s section, together with other old sections(not dated). The major part of 1820s section had to be rebuilt.

The garden is much changed. Behind the oldest building is a circular garden bed which contains a large grave headstone (loose). There is a driveway lined with Nile lilies (Agapanthus orientalis) from the gates down to the back of the building complex. An earlier drive came through on an upper level on the eastern side of the buildings ending in a carriage building (no longer existing).

In the early 2000s the property was sold and the current owners have rebuilt (Helen Bryant, pers.comm., 10/1/2011).

In 2010 a large Moreton Bay fig was removed near the entrance. A large amount of Bougainvillea sp. climber has also been removed on the northern side of the entrance (Helen Bryant, pers.comm., 11/1/2011).
Current use: Residence
Former use: Residence

History

Historical notes: INDIGENOUS OCCUPATION
The lower Hawkesbury was home to the Dharug people. The proximity to the Nepean River and South Creek qualifies it as a key area for food resources for indigenous groups (Proudfoot, 1987).
The Dharug and Darkinjung people called the river Deerubbin and it was a vital source of food and transport (Nichols, 2010).

NON-INDIGENOUS OCCUPATION
Governor Arthur Phillip explored the local area in search of suitable agricultural land in 1789 and discovered and named the Hawkesbury River after Baron Hawkesbury. This region played a significant role in the early development of the colony with European settlers established here by 1794. Situated on fertile floodplains and well known for its abundant agriculture, Green Hills (as it was originally called) supported the colony through desperate times. However, frequent flooding meant that the farmers along the riverbanks were often ruined.

Governor Lachlan Macquarie replaced Governor Bligh, taking up duty on 1/1/1810. Under his influence the colony propsered. His vision was for a free community, working in conjunction with the penal colony. He implemented an unrivalled public works program, completing 265 public buildings, establishing new public amenities and improving existing services such as roads. Under his leadership Hawkesbury district thrived.

He visited the district on his first tour and recorded in his journal on 6/12/1810: 'After dinner I chrestened the new townships...I gave the name of Windsor to the town intended to be erected in the district of the Green Hills...the township in the Richmond district I have named Richmond...' the district reminded Macquarie of those towns in England, whilst Castlereagh, Pitt Town and Wilberforce were named after English statesmen. These are often referred to as Macquarie's Five Towns. Their localities, chiefly Windsor and Richmond, became more permanent with streets, town square and public buildings.

Macquarie also appointed local men in positions of authority. In 1810 a group of settlers sent a letter to him congratulating him on his leadership and improvements. It was published in the Sydney Gazette with his reply. He was 'much pleased with the sentiments' of the letter and assured them that the Haweksbury would 'always be an object of the greatest interest' to him (Nichols, 2010).

In marking out the towns of Windsor and Richmond in 1810, Governor Macquarie was acting on instructions from London. All of the Governors who held office between 1789 and 1822, from Phillip to Brisbane, recieved the same Letter of Instruction regarding the disposal of the 'waste lands of the Crown' that Britain claimed as her own. This included directives for the formation of towns and thus the extension of British civilisation to its Antipodean outpost (Proudfoot 1987, 7-9).

Windsor, first of the 'Macquarie Towns' was officially founded on 6 December 1810 by Macquarie. He was impressed by the Hawkesbury itself, especially the advantages of having a settlement on the banks of the river. A small settlement began to form around the Windsor site called 'Green Hills'. Settlers took advantage of higher ground bordering the river, where they were free from the floods that periodically swept through the valley. Some official recognition of the settlement was given in the building of a Government cottage, the establishment of a Government garden and the marking out of a public common.

Macquarie found it a 'sweet delightful spot' when he arrived in 1810 to formalise the already existing small settlement and to mark out an extension of the town. In his diary he wrote that, with his surveying party he 'walked out to survey the grounds belonging to the Crown in and near the present village on the Green Hills and also the adjoining Public Common marked out ... in the time of Governor King; a convenient part of which it is now my intention to appropriate for a large town and township for the accommodation of the settlers inhabiting the south side of the River Hawkesbury, whose farms are liable to be flooded in any inundation of the river, and to connect the present village of the Green Hills with the intended new town and township.'

The site and situation of the town were decided upon, the church site chosen and plans made for a 'great square' opposite it.

In marking out the towns of Windsor and Richmond, Macquarie was acting on instructions from London. All of the Governors who held office between 1789 and 1822, from Phillip to Brisbane, recieved the same Letter of Instruction regarding the disposal of the 'waste lands of the Crown' that Britain claimed as her own. This included directives for the formation of towns and thus the extension of British civilisation to its Antipodean outpost.

A little over a week after the Windsor founding ceremony, Macquarie issued a Government and General order attempting to impose a measure of conformity on building standards for this new town on the Hawkesbury. It included instructions that dwelling houses were to be made of brick or weatherboard, to have brick chimneys, shingled roofs and no dwelling house was to be less than nine feet (three metres) high. A plan of the dwelling house was to be left with each District Constable. On 11 May 1811 further regulations were issued stating that no person was to build a house without submitting a plan to the resident magistrate, nor were town leases to be given without such a plan.

The magistrate held a key position in the colonial towns. At Windsor, Andrew Thompson, an emancipist entrepreneur, had been appointed Chief Constable and then a Magistrate by Macquarie, who was impressed by his enterprise and zeal. Thompson was the richest man on the Hawkesbury, owning a large granary, a brewery and a salt-works. He was a builder of bridges and ships and a trader who had established links with the Pacific Islands. He died in 1810, and Macquarie named Thomspon Square at Windsor, where the town wharf was located in his memory.

Under Governor Macquarie's administration, Windsor acquired more than fourteen public buildings of various kinds (Proudfoot 1987, 7-9).

Pugh's Farm & Claremont:
1796 John Pugh & Charles Thomas were granted adjoining farms, though the official deed was not issued until 1802. Both commenced to clear their land. Grant of 25 acres to John Pugh - to be called Pugh's farm.

1802 grant of 20 acres to Charles Thomas to be called Thomas Farm.

1804 grant of 190 acres at Mulgrave Place to Pugh. 1806 Pugh a substantial land holder with 22 acres in grain, 193 acres of pasture and for horses, 11 pigs, with a wife and one convict employee.
A plaque on the wall of Claremont Cottage is known shows a list of owners dating back to 1796. According to this the first farmer there was John Pugh, and he was followed in 1809 by John Jones

1811 Pugh sold farm to John Jones and went to live in Windsor.

1812 Pugh sold 2255.5 feet of ground to Henry Kable - this may have been his other grant of 190 acres.

1822 Conveyance from John Jones to William Cox of Pugh's Farm, 10 acres Thomas Farm, 2 acres Goodhalls, 4 acres bounded by Trifle's Farm, 3.5 acres Thomas' Farm, 15 acres Bolton & Errey's Farm (Kass, 1996,4).

According to the plaque on the wall of Claremont Cottage owner John Jones was followed in 1822 by William Cox, who was then succeeded by his son Alfred Cox.

From 1828 the cottage was occupied by Francis Beddeck, Solicitor, who was married to Elizabeth Blachford, sister to Mrs William Cox.

Though William Cox is listed as an owner of Claremont Cottage, he had actually settled at Clarendon - a few miles west of Windsor - and is not believed to have lived at Claremont.

Cox had first arrived in Australia in 1800. By 1822 when he became the owner of the farm Claremont, the nucleus of the present house stood on the land. The main body of the brick cottage was completed at the same time as the nearby St Matthew's Church (1820), but the kitchen has been ascribed to the first owner of the property, John Pugh.

A notice appeared in the Sydney Gazette on 27th December, 1822:
"To be LET on Lease, for the term of 5 or 7 years, part of the Estate late belonging to Mr. John Jones, near the new church at Windsor, with the Buildings now upon it, which will be repaired and improved, containing, by estimation, about 40 Acres; the low land is now in Maize, and the whole is fenced in complete".

Francis Beddeck arrived in the colony in 1827. On October 22, 1828, the Sydney Gazette reported:
"We understand that it is the intention of Mr. BEDDECK, Solicitor, of Parramatta, to settle in the populous and highly respectable neighbourhood of Windsor. We have often been surprised that a legal Gentleman has not hitherto resided in the latter town, the Hawkesbury gentry being rather fond of litigation, and well stored with the means to fee the lawyers. We are informed that Mr. BEDDECK will remove in the course of a month and take up his residence at a pretty cottage called Claremont (the property of WILLIAM COX, Esq., Clarendon), near the Church in Windsor."

In December, when Elizabeth Blachford married Francis Beddeck, Governor Darling gave her two square miles of land as a marriage portion (Baker, 1967; Kingston, 1990).

It is doubtful that the outbuildings which form part of the rear of Claremont were built by Pugh in 1796. However it seems that they were extant by 1822. It also appears from various evidence that a building occupied by Pugh stood on that site in 1807. It is possible that the building he occupied in 1807 was a brick cottage that now forms part of the rear section of Claremont (Kass, 1996, 12).

Historic themes

Australian theme (abbrev)New South Wales themeLocal theme
2. Peopling-Peopling the continent Migration-Activities and processes associated with the resettling of people from one place to another (international, interstate, intrastate) and the impacts of such movements (none)-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Agriculture-Activities relating to the cultivation and rearing of plant and animal species, usually for commercial purposes, can include aquaculture Ancillary structures - wells, cisterns-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Agriculture-Activities relating to the cultivation and rearing of plant and animal species, usually for commercial purposes, can include aquaculture Clearing land for farming-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Land tenure-Activities and processes for identifying forms of ownership and occupancy of land and water, both Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Demonstrating Governor Macquarie's town and landscape planning-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Towns, suburbs and villages-Activities associated with creating, planning and managing urban functions, landscapes and lifestyles in towns, suburbs and villages Vernacular towns serving a specific industry-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Towns, suburbs and villages-Activities associated with creating, planning and managing urban functions, landscapes and lifestyles in towns, suburbs and villages Developing towns in response to topography-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Creative endeavour-Activities associated with the production and performance of literary, artistic, architectural and other imaginative, interpretive or inventive works; and/or associated with the production and expression of cultural phenomena; and/or environments that have inspired such creative activities. Architectural styles and periods - colonial homestead-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Domestic life-Activities associated with creating, maintaining, living in and working around houses and institutions. (none)-
9. Phases of Life-Marking the phases of life Persons-Activities of, and associations with, identifiable individuals, families and communal groups Associations with Aaron Muron Bolot, architect-

Assessment of significance

SHR Criteria a)
[Historical significance]
Claremont Cottage is one of the oldest buildings in the Hawkesbury region, dating back to 1796 as indicated by a plaque on its wall listing all of its previous owners.
(Baker, 1967)
SHR Criteria b)
[Associative significance]
The ownership of Claremont Cottage is a long list of distinguished Hawkesbury families dating back to 1796.
In particular, William Cox from 1822 to 1849, and Francis Beddeck from 1850 to 1853.
Though William Cox is listed as an owner, it is doubtful that he ever lived in this house. Cox had originally arrived in Australia in 1800 as paymaster in the NSW Corps, and returned to Australia once more after a trip to England in 1807, when he is known to have settled at Clarendon, west of Windsor, where he ran a large and efficient estate.
Cox is best remembered for the 101 miles of road that he built across the Blue Mountains with the aid of twenty convicts and eight soldiers between July 1814 and January 1815. He also built houses and public buildings, conducted minor explorations and was appointed Magistrate by Governor Macquarie. William Cox is also known for his humanitarianism with regard to his treatment of convict servants.

Francis Beddeck, Solicitor arrived in the colony in 1827 and took up residence in Claremont Cottage in 1828. In December 1828 he married Elizabeth Blachford, sister to Mrs William Cox.
In 1842 the Act for the Government of New South Wales, providing representative government, was passed. This resulted in the establishment of district councils to carry out administration in the local area.
The Windsor District Council, proclaimed on 24 July 1843, was the second council in the State of New South Wales, covering 2110 square kilometres and the population of the total Hawkesbury district, then being 6,465.
Together with William Cox jr., Francis Beddeck was among those nominated by Governor George Gipps to form the first Windsor District Council.

(Baker, 1967; Barkley & Nichols, 1994)
SHR Criteria c)
[Aesthetic significance]
Claremont Cottage, with its low eaves and wide verandahs opening out onto gently sloping green lawns, with its cellars and its rambling interior, the front rooms connected to the older rear kitchen section by a covered breezeway, is still a typical early homestead. All additions over time have been made in a logical and sympathetic way, allowing the house to keep its colonial atmosphere which dates back to 1796.
(Barker, 1967)
SHR Criteria d)
[Social significance]
Claremont Cottage was owned and occupied since 1796 by a long list of distinguished Hawkesbury identities including William Cox and Francis Beddeck.
These identities are an integral part of the growth and development of both Windsor and the Hawkesbury district including its first proclaimed local council in 1824.
(Baker, 1967)
SHR Criteria g)
[Representativeness]
Dating back to 1796, Claremont Cottage is representative of the typical Colonial building and construction style.
The architectural style of the house together the visible changes that have been made to its original structure over time, also reflects the evolution of society and culture from Colonial times to the present.
Assessment criteria: Items are assessed against the PDF State Heritage Register (SHR) Criteria to determine the level of significance. Refer to the Listings below for the level of statutory protection.

Procedures /Exemptions

Section of actDescriptionTitleCommentsAction date
57(2)Exemption to allow workHeritage Act Record converted from HIS events


Order Under Section 57(2) to exempt the following activities from Section 57(1):
(1) The maintenance of any building or item on the site where maintenance means the continuous protective care of existing material;
(2) The minor repair of the building where minor repair means the repair of materials by patching, piercing-in, splicing and consolidating existing materials and including minor replacement of minor components such as individual bricks, cut-stone, timber sections, tiles and slates where these have been damaged beyond reasonable repair or are missing. The replacement should be of the same material, colour, texture, form and design as the original it replaces and the number of components should be substantially less than existing.
- garden maintenance including cultivation, pruning, weed control; the repair and maintenance of existing fences, gates and garden walls; tree surgery but not extensive lopping;
- pasture improvement, not requiring substantial clearing of existing vegetation;
- tree lopping and vegetation clearance associated with the maintenance of existing overhead power lines by the County Council.
Nov 9 1990
57(2)Exemption to allow workStandard Exemptions SCHEDULE OF STANDARD EXEMPTIONS
HERITAGE ACT 1977
Notice of Order Under Section 57 (2) of the Heritage Act 1977

I, the Minister for Planning, pursuant to subsection 57(2) of the Heritage Act 1977, on the recommendation of the Heritage Council of New South Wales, do by this Order:

1. revoke the Schedule of Exemptions to subsection 57(1) of the Heritage Act made under subsection 57(2) and published in the Government Gazette on 22 February 2008; and

2. grant standard exemptions from subsection 57(1) of the Heritage Act 1977, described in the Schedule attached.

FRANK SARTOR
Minister for Planning
Sydney, 11 July 2008

To view the schedule click on the Standard Exemptions for Works Requiring Heritage Council Approval link below.
Sep 5 2008

PDF Standard exemptions for works requiring Heritage Council approval

Listings

Heritage ListingListing TitleListing NumberGazette DateGazette NumberGazette Page
Heritage Act - State Heritage Register 0073802 Apr 99 271546
Heritage Act - Permanent Conservation Order - former 0073809 Nov 90 141 
Local Environmental Plan  18 Dec 89   
Cumberland County Council list of Historic Buildings 1961-67     
National Trust of Australia register  703205 Apr 76   
Register of the National Estate 318021 Oct 80   

Study details

TitleYearNumberAuthorInspected byGuidelines used
Colonial Landscapes of the Cumberland Plain and Camden, NSW2000 Morris, C., & Britton, G./NSW National Trust (for the Heritage Council of NSW)  Yes

References, internet links & images

TypeAuthorYearTitleInternet Links
Tourism 2007Windsor Heritage Walk View detail
TourismAttraction Homepage2007Windsor Heritage Walk View detail
WrittenDaphne Kingston1990Early Colonial Homes of the Sydney Region 1788 - 1838
WrittenHelen Baker1967Historic Buildings Windsor and Richmond
WrittenJan Barkley and Michelle Nichols1994Hawkesbury 1794 - 1994. The First Two Hundred Years of the Second Colonisation
WrittenTerry Kass Historian & Heritage Consultant1996Claremont, Windsor - an analysis of evidence regarding the outbuildings - final report

Note: internet links may be to web pages, documents or images.

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Data source

The information for this entry comes from the following source:
Name: Heritage Office
Database number: 5000841
File number: S91/00080/5


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