Terrace | NSW Environment & Heritage

Culture and heritage

Heritage

Terrace

Item details

Name of item: Terrace
Other name/s: Hit or Miss Hotel; Empire Service Hostel
Type of item: Built
Group/Collection: Residential buildings (private)
Category: Terrace
Location: Lat: -33.8577963344 Long: 151.2054140542
Primary address: 69 Windmill Street, Millers Point, NSW 2000
Parish: St Philip
County: Cumberland
Local govt. area: Sydney
Local Aboriginal Land Council: Metropolitan
Property description
Lot/Volume CodeLot/Volume NumberSection NumberPlan/Folio CodePlan/Folio Number
PART LOT42 DP1199181
All addresses
Street AddressSuburb/townLGAParishCountyType
69 Windmill StreetMillers PointSydneySt PhilipCumberlandPrimary Address

Owner/s

Organisation NameOwner CategoryDate Ownership Updated
 Private 

Statement of significance:

This terrace house was constructed during the 1880s, along with neighbouring buildings as redevelopment of older buildings.

It is part of the Millers Point Conservation Area, an intact residential and maritime precinct. It contains residential buildings and civic spaces dating from the 1830's and is an important example of C19th adaptation of the landscape.
Date significance updated: 23 Nov 00
Note: The State Heritage Inventory provides information about heritage items listed by local and State government agencies. The State Heritage Inventory is continually being updated by local and State agencies as new information becomes available. Read the OEH copyright and disclaimer.

Description

Construction years: 1845-1901
Physical description: Late Victorian three storey terrace with elaborate stuccoed mouldings to windows and parapet. Now a five bedroom boarding house. Storeys: 3 Construction: Painted rendered masonry walls, corrugated galvanised iron roof. Painted timber joinery. Style: Victorian Italianate
Physical condition and/or
Archaeological potential:
External: Good
Current use: Residence
Former use: Shop and Residence

History

Historical notes: Millers Point:
Millers Point is one of the earliest areas of European settlement in Australia, and a focus for maritime activities.

The subject site:
The subject site land was part of Lot 3 of Section 94 granted to Irish-born labourer Thomas Stevens. He had been sentenced to 14 years transportation to Australia, arriving in Port Jackson on 'The Pilot' in 1817. Stevens did not serve his full term, by 1825 he had been freed and was employed by John Harris, Constable of the Melville district (near Bathurst). He married Catherine Larkins (also a transported convict) and by 1828 they had a 1 year old son, Patrick.

By 1845 Stevens was listed in the Rates and Assessment Books as residing in Windmill Street. The building (located on the subject site) is described as of two storeys with seven rooms, stone and brick construction with a shingle roof, outhouses in middling repair, indicating that part of the complex at least had not been recently constructed. At that time it was listed as 6 Windmill Street.

Windmill Street had long contained public houses, with a number concentrated at the eastern end (Urbis, 2014, 13).

The Hit and Miss Hotel:
In 1840 there was a public house called the 'Hit or Miss Hotel' in Windmill Street, however its location has not been determined. The publican was known as Enos Andrews (ibid, 2014, 13).

(what is now 69) Windmill Street:
Rate books show two buildings on Stevens' lot: a substantial masonry building fronting the street and a timber house at the rear. Following Thomas Sr's death in 1850, his widow Catherine turned their residence at no. 6 Windmill Street into a public house which she named the 'Hit or Miss Hotel'. Thomas Sr's probate was not finalised until 1884 and was the subject of an 1897 court case. He had left his property to his widow who, in 1851, was living in timber building at the rear.

At least three generations of Stevens family held the license form 1852, when the Hit and Miss was first licensed, until 1912. The name is believed to derive from Thomas' love of hunting, however, as previously mentioned, there was an earlier 'Hit or Miss Hotel' in Windmill Street in 1840. Unlike many hotels in the area, the name did not indicate that it catered to a particularl client group such as whalers or shipwrightts or nationality, such as the 'Erin-go-Bragh' (ibid, 2014, 14).

Catherine Stevens died at her residence in 1867. At that time she owned three additional houses in WIndmill Street, two small houses listed as 'old places' and a more valuable stone house closer to the 'Hit and Miss' (where she lived). Two of her sons John and Thomas (Jr.) are listed as living at the 'Hit or Miss' complex in 1871, and the owners are listed as being J. & R. (John and Richard). John Stevens is recorded as adding an awning to his premises at 6 Windmill Street in 1879 (to the original 'Hit or Miss Hotel'. This probably replaced an earlier verandah. John M.Stevens, one of Catherine and Thomas' grandsons, took over as publican and periodically operated the hotel until 1912. Some years a manager or licensee was also listed. The 1880 Dove's plan notes the licensee as Manning.

In 1893 Michael Finnan applied to renew the license of the Hit or Miss Hotel, Windmill Street and gained it after an objection based on the bad consrtuction of the house and that the hotel could very easily be dispensed with. This problem in obtaining the new license may have been what prompted the family to rebuild the hotel.

In 1896 a case was heard in the Equity Court between Stevens descendents, on a suit arising from the will of the late Thomas Stevens. Once resolved, rebuilding of the complex began. Following the court case in 1897-8, J.M.Stevens and a number of family members acquired the adjacent land building a tenement block, residence and the new Hit or Miss Hotel. The two Colonial Georgian houses fronting WIndmill Stret, the two storey timber residence at the rear and all the sheds were removed. Some of the salvage materials appear to have been used to build the sandstone and brick block at the rear and part of the ground floor walls of the hotel. J.M.Stevens probably coordinated the building works. No tender notices have been located, other than one for supply of 10,000 bricks in 1898. The new Hit or Miss Hotel was complete by April 1899 and the tenement building a year later, just before the notification of the resumption of the entire block. The (adjoining) Stevens Building was built before any government attempts to provide workers housing in Sydney and the block was very popular.

The main block of the hotel is a three storey rendered brick building with Italianate detaling and, in its original configuration, there was a timber post-supported verandah to the street. Under that was an elaborate screen in the Art Nouveau style behind which awas an elaborate set of lead light doors. The upper facade section appears to be old-fashioned in comparison with the Stevens Buildings. The architect has not been determined (ibid, 2014, 16-17).

From 1900-02 the Stevens family were living in the Hit or Miss Hotel, however their trade is likely to have been affected by the outbreak of plague in 1900.

FIgure 11 shows the resumption of lands in the area c.1900. It shows the neighbouring buildings and an empty lot on 716 and 716a (area of the subject site) suggesting that the redevelopment of the complex had not yet been completed.

In 1902 the subject site was listed under the Stevens Estate and had an annual gross value of 172 pounds, the building described in the Rates and Assessment books as a 3 storey hotel with a brick cellar and occupied by John M.Stevens.

By 1907 the hotel was listed under the ownership of the NSW Government Rocks Resumption and had an annual gross value of 414 pounds.

In 1911 the site is still occupied by John M.Stevens, the hotel's address number changed from 61 to 69 Windmill Street and was identified to be the 'Hotel Hit or Miss'.

In the early 1920s the hotel was briefly under the ownership of Tooth and Co., however they did not retain any detailed records. In July 1923 the License Reduction Board 'depreived 49 hotels of their licenses' including the Hit or Miss, with the owner and licensee each receiving compensation.

The hotel was re-opened in May 1925 as a migrant hostel, the Empire Service Hostel. Little if any alteration to the building appears to have been undertaken and by August 1926 the hostel had housed 300 migrants. The object was to provide accommodation for migrant families arriving from overseas under Government and other schemes (ibid, 2014, 17).

In 1900 the outbreak of plague in Sydney's portside brought wholesale resumption of these areas by government. This was staged, the Darling Harbour Resumption in May 1900 and the entire Rocks area in December 1900, affecting parts of Millers Point and the wharfage along Sussex Street. To administer these the government established a number of authorities aiming to address longstanding problems in housing, wharf accommodation and transport links, the longest-serving being the Sydney Harbour Trust. Under its Act, the Trust was responsible for improving and preserving the port of Sydney; however it also took on the administration of other functions such as housing. Its statutory powers were comprehensive and supplanted the City Council's planning controls and other day-to-day functions such as road maintenance, etc. The Trust since its inception in 1901 had control over the port area to the west of the (this) terrace. Over the following decades the Trust remodelled the whole of the wharfage at Walsh Bay and the road network servicing the wharves. The built character of Millers Point today with its finger jetties, large warehouses, terraces of working mens' houses originate from this resumption (ibid, 2014, 17).

After closure of the Empire Service Hostel in 1930 the Sydney Harbour Trust remodelled the former hotel/hostel, dividing it into flats. The Art Nouveau style timberwork beneath the verandah was removed and a new front wall built. The footpath awning may also have been removed. A new kitchen was installed in the rear wing and the laundry relocated to the rear. The copper was removed and a bath installed. A new WC was installed, accessed from the yard. On the first floor a new screen was installed to the staircase (which may have come from downstairs) and a kitchen installed, with ahigh light window over. A new bathroom was added between the main block of the former hotel and the rear wing. On the second floor a screen was added to the stair and a new kitchen and bathroom added. The sink formed the bulkhead to the window to the kitchen below (a configuration that survives today). The rate books don't record individual flat occupants.

The supervising architect for the Sydney Harbour Trust William Henry Withers checked the plans and they were approved by the Engineer in Chief and Assistant Engineer.

With the creation of the Maritime Services Board (MSB) in 1936 many of the properties within the resumed aera were transferred to the Board's control. The 1939 and 1949 Rates and Assessments Books record the former hotel, house and flats were all listed as under the control of the MSB.

In 1983 the MSB disposed of its 'non port related' land in Sydney and Newcastle. Amongst properties involved were all the residences at Millers Point, transferred to the Housing Commission. A review by the new administration suggested that much needed to be done to bring dwellings up to standards expected of a government department specifically charged with providing adequate housing and a programme of property improvement began (ibid, 2014, 18).

This property was first tenanted by the NSW Department of Housing in 1983.

Some changes in housing allocation also eventuated. Like the MSB, the Housing Commission initially gave preference to long-term tenants who had connections with the maritime industry. But the realities of change had to be faced. With the demise of the working waterfront at Millers Point and no younger generation of waterside workers, the traditional link between Millers Point as both work place and home was loosening. The Housing Commission and its successor the NSW Department of Housing, had to provide for all in need of housing, from all over Sydney. Inevitably, new people, having no previous connection with Millers Point, were accommodated in the area (ibid, 2014, 19).

The property is currently commercially operated by RUN property as five flats with three separate tenancies on behalf of the NSW Land and Housing Corporation (ibid, 2014, 19).

Historic themes

Australian theme (abbrev)New South Wales themeLocal theme
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Accommodation-Activities associated with the provision of accommodation, and particular types of accommodation – does not include architectural styles – use the theme of Creative Endeavour for such activities. Residential-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Accommodation-Activities associated with the provision of accommodation, and particular types of accommodation – does not include architectural styles – use the theme of Creative Endeavour for such activities. Worker's Dwellings-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Accommodation-Activities associated with the provision of accommodation, and particular types of accommodation – does not include architectural styles – use the theme of Creative Endeavour for such activities. Terrace-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Accommodation-Activities associated with the provision of accommodation, and particular types of accommodation – does not include architectural styles – use the theme of Creative Endeavour for such activities. Boarding Houses-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Accommodation-Activities associated with the provision of accommodation, and particular types of accommodation – does not include architectural styles – use the theme of Creative Endeavour for such activities. Adapted heritage building or structure-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Accommodation-Activities associated with the provision of accommodation, and particular types of accommodation – does not include architectural styles – use the theme of Creative Endeavour for such activities. Housing townsfolk - terraces and cottages-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Accommodation-Activities associated with the provision of accommodation, and particular types of accommodation – does not include architectural styles – use the theme of Creative Endeavour for such activities. Housing (inner city)-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Accommodation-Activities associated with the provision of accommodation, and particular types of accommodation – does not include architectural styles – use the theme of Creative Endeavour for such activities. A Picturesque Residential Suburb-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Land tenure-Activities and processes for identifying forms of ownership and occupancy of land and water, both Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Administering and alienating Crown lands-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Land tenure-Activities and processes for identifying forms of ownership and occupancy of land and water, both Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Naming places (toponymy)-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Land tenure-Activities and processes for identifying forms of ownership and occupancy of land and water, both Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Housing-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Towns, suburbs and villages-Activities associated with creating, planning and managing urban functions, landscapes and lifestyles in towns, suburbs and villages Terrace housing development-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Towns, suburbs and villages-Activities associated with creating, planning and managing urban functions, landscapes and lifestyles in towns, suburbs and villages 19th century suburban developments-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Towns, suburbs and villages-Activities associated with creating, planning and managing urban functions, landscapes and lifestyles in towns, suburbs and villages Living in the City-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Towns, suburbs and villages-Activities associated with creating, planning and managing urban functions, landscapes and lifestyles in towns, suburbs and villages Early Sydney Street-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Towns, suburbs and villages-Activities associated with creating, planning and managing urban functions, landscapes and lifestyles in towns, suburbs and villages Developing towns in response to topography-
9. Phases of Life-Marking the phases of life Persons-Activities of, and associations with, identifiable individuals, families and communal groups Associations with Thomas Stevens, emancipated convict-
9. Phases of Life-Marking the phases of life Persons-Activities of, and associations with, identifiable individuals, families and communal groups Associations with Catherine Stevens, emancipated convict-

Procedures /Exemptions

Section of actDescriptionTitleCommentsAction date
57(2)Exemption to allow workStandard Exemptions SCHEDULE OF STANDARD EXEMPTIONS
HERITAGE ACT 1977
Notice of Order Under Section 57 (2) of the Heritage Act 1977

I, the Minister for Planning, pursuant to subsection 57(2) of the Heritage Act 1977, on the recommendation of the Heritage Council of New South Wales, do by this Order:

1. revoke the Schedule of Exemptions to subsection 57(1) of the Heritage Act made under subsection 57(2) and published in the Government Gazette on 22 February 2008; and

2. grant standard exemptions from subsection 57(1) of the Heritage Act 1977, described in the Schedule attached.

FRANK SARTOR
Minister for Planning
Sydney, 11 July 2008

To view the schedule click on the Standard Exemptions for Works Requiring Heritage Council Approval link below.
Sep 5 2008
21(1)(b)Conservation Plan submitted for endorsement69 Windmill Street - CMP for endorsement Mar 2 2017

PDF Standard exemptions for works requiring Heritage Council approval

Listings

Heritage ListingListing TitleListing NumberGazette DateGazette NumberGazette Page
Heritage Act - State Heritage Register 0085302 Apr 99 271546
Heritage Act - s.170 NSW State agency heritage register     
Local Environmental PlanCSH LEP 4 07 Apr 00   

Study details

TitleYearNumberAuthorInspected byGuidelines used
Department of Housing s170 Register1998 Brooks & Associates  Yes

References, internet links & images

TypeAuthorYearTitleInternet Links
WrittenLucas Stapleton Johnson & Partners Pty201769 Windmill Street Millers Point - Formerly the Hit or Miss Hotel - Conservation Management Plan

Note: internet links may be to web pages, documents or images.

rez rez
(Click on thumbnail for full size image and image details)

Data source

The information for this entry comes from the following source:
Name: Heritage Office
Database number: 5000969
File number: 14/5462


Every effort has been made to ensure that information contained in the State Heritage Inventory is correct. If you find any errors or omissions please send your comments to the Database Manager.

All information and pictures on this page are the copyright of the Heritage Division or respective copyright owners.