Long Bay Correctional Centre | NSW Environment & Heritage

Culture and heritage

Heritage

Long Bay Correctional Centre

Item details

Name of item: Long Bay Correctional Centre
Other name/s: Long Bay Gaol, Long Bay Jail, Long Bay Industrial Correctional Centre, Assessment Prison
Type of item: Complex / Group
Group/Collection: Law Enforcement
Category: Gaol/Lock-up
Location: Lat: -33.9700162495 Long: 151.2458552530
Primary address: 1250 Anzac Parade, Malabar, NSW 2036
Local govt. area: Randwick
Local Aboriginal Land Council: La Perouse
Hectares (approx): 41.6
Property description
Lot/Volume CodeLot/Volume NumberSection NumberPlan/Folio CodePlan/Folio Number
LOT132 DP114190
LOT133 DP1142190
All addresses
Street AddressSuburb/townLGAParishCountyType
1250 Anzac ParadeMalabarRandwick  Primary Address
Austral StreetMalabarRandwick  Alternate Address
1300 Anzac ParadeMalabarRandwick  Alternate Address

Owner/s

Organisation NameOwner CategoryDate Ownership Updated
Corrective Services NSWState Government06 Nov 98

Statement of significance:

The former State Penitentiary is of considerable significance. It was the first purpose-built Penitentiary in NSW and includes a rare example of back-to-back cells. In conjunction with the former Female Reformatory, it is an important development in Australian penal design and is the most complete expression of Frederick Neitenstein's philosophy of reform. The siting of the Penitentiary has a strong visual impact in the surrounding landscape. The original buildings are of a unified scale and materials resulting in a harmonious appearance. The place has been used continuously as the principal prison complex in NSW and as Sydney's major metropolitan gaol for over 80 years. It has research potential in penal practices and building technology of the time.
Date significance updated: 08 Nov 00
Note: The State Heritage Inventory provides information about heritage items listed by local and State government agencies. The State Heritage Inventory is continually being updated by local and State agencies as new information becomes available. Read the OEH copyright and disclaimer.

Description

Designer/Maker: Walter Liberty Vernon
Builder/Maker: Public Works Department
Construction years: 1899-1914
Physical description: Male Penitentiary:
The former Male Penitentiary comprised 6 two-storey cell wings, a debtors prison, workshop, hospital and observation ward, all arranged around three sides of the complex with a 'sterile zone' between them and the perimeter wall. The kitchen block stood in the centre facing the entrance block. The Penitentiary incorporated 352 single cells of size 3.96x2.13m and 3 punishment cells.

Four of the six wings had back-to-back cells opening directly to the outdoors.

The same palette of materials was used by Vernon throughout the dual prison establishment. Walls are predominantly of brick, good quality 'commons' of a drab brown colour, with plain or rusticated sandstone dressing around windows and doors, and roofs of corrugated iron.

Entrance Block:
The exception is the entrance block which evokes a medieval castle gatehouse in Federation Gothic style. Technological advances such as electric lighting, reinforced concrete floors and the new tramway were made full use of in the design.
Physical condition and/or
Archaeological potential:
Most of the external brickwork of the cell wings have been painted and unsympathetic alterations and additions have occurred over the years. However, most of the original fabric remains intact. All buildings appear to be in good condition.
Date condition updated:08 Nov 00
Modifications and dates: The workshop, kitchen and observation ward have been demolished and the back-to-back cell wings have been disused for some time.

c 1920s the Penitentiary was reported as overcrowded, receiving 70% of all gaol entries and functioning as a remand centre. The overflow was accommodated by timber huts erected between the male and female prisons, and part of the women's prison in 1945.

1962 Penitentiary absorbed the old Reformatory.

1978 Observation Ward demolished. Christmas Day 1978, workshops were burnt down during a riot.

1993 after a series of name changes, the Penitentiary, together with the former Reformatory, was renamed Reception and Industrial Centre (NSW Dept of Corrective Services Heritage and Conservation Register, 1995).

2008 Forensic Hospital established outside the prison wall on western 'corner' of site. The Pharmacy was established in the ground floor of this hospital (NBRS & P, 2016, 1).
Current use: Correctional Centre
Former use: Aboriginal land, Victorian gaol

History

Historical notes: pre-1780s - local Aboriginal people in the area used the site for fishing and cultural activities - rock engravings, grinding grooves and middens remain in evidence.
1789 - Governor Philip referred to 'a long bay', which became known as Long Bay.
Aboriginal people are believed to have inhabited the Sydney region for at least 20,000 years (Turbet, 2001). The population of Aboriginal people between Palm Beach and Botany Bay in 1788 has been estimated to have been 1500. Those living south of Port Jackson to Botany Bay were the Cadigal people who spoke Dharug (Randwick Library webpage, 2003), while the local clan name of Maroubra people was "Muru-ora-dial" (City of Sydney webpage, 2003). By the mid nineteenth century the traditional owners of this land had typically either moved inland in search of food and shelter, or had died as the result of European disease or confrontation with British colonisers (Randwick Library webpage, 2003).

Colonial History:
One of the earliest land grants in this area was made in 1824 to Captain Francis Marsh, who received 12 acres bounded by the present Botany & High Streets, Alison & Belmore Roads. In 1839 William Newcombe acquired the land north-west of the present town hall in Avoca Street.

Randwick takes its name from the town of Randwick, Gloucestershire, England. The name was suggested by Simeon Pearce (1821-86) and his brother James. Simeon was born in the English Randwick and the brothers were responsible for the early development of both Randwick and its neighbour, Coogee. Simeon had come to the colony in 1841as a 21 year old surveyor. He built his Blenheim House on the 4 acres he bought from Marsh, and called his property "Randwick". The brothers bought and sold land profitably in the area and elsewhere. Simeon campaigned for construction of a road from the city to Coogee (achieved in 1853) and promoted the incorporation of the suburb. Pearce sought construction of a church modelled on the church of St. John in his birthplace. In 1857 the first St Jude's stood on the site of the present post office, at the corner of the present Alison Road and Avoca Street (Pollen, 1988, 217-8).

Randwick was...slow to progress. The village was isolated from Sydney by swamps and sandhills, and although a horse-bus was operated by a man named Grice from the late 1850s, the journey was more a test of nerves than a pleasure jaunt. Wind blew sand over the track, and the bus sometimes became bogged, so that passengers had to get out and push it free. From its early days Randwick had a divided society. The wealthy lived elegantly in large houses built when Pearce promoted Randwick and Coogee as a fashionable area. But the market gardens, orchards and piggeries that continued alongside the large estates were the lot of the working class. Even on the later estates that became racing empires, many jockeys and stablehands lived in huts or even under canvas. An even poorer group were the immigrants who existed on the periphery of Randwick in a place called Irishtown, in the area now known as The Spot, around the junction of St.Paul's Street and Perouse Road. Here families lived in makeshift houses, taking on the most menial tasks in their struggle to survive.

In 1858 when the NSW Government passed the Municipalities Act, enabling formation of municipal districts empowered to collect rates and borrow money to improve their suburb, Randwick was the first suburb to apply for the status of a municipality. It was approved in Februrary 1859, and its first Council was elected in March 1859.

Randwick had been the venue for sporting events, as well as duels and illegal sports, from the early days in the colony's history. Its first racecourse, the Sandy Racecourse or Old Sand Track, had been a hazardous track over hills and gullies since 1860. When a move was made in 1863 by John Tait, to establish Randwick Racecourse, Simeon Pearce was furious, expecially when he heard that Tait also intended to move into Byron Lodge. Tait's venture prospered, however and he became the first person in Australia to organise racing as a commercial sport. The racecourse made a big difference to the progress of Randwick. The horse-bus gave way to trams that linked the suburb to Sydney and civilisation. Randwick soon became a prosperous and lively place, and it still retains a busy residential, professional and commercial life.

Today, some of the houses have been replaced by home units. Many European migrants have made their homes in the areaa, along with students and workers at the nearby University of NSW and the Prince of Wales Hospital. (ibid, 218-9).

Long Bay Jail:
The Penitentiary was designed by Walter Liberty Vernon based on the 'restricted association' concept by Comptroller-General, FW Neitenstein. The original plans approved in 1899 showed 7 wings of back-to-back cells.

By the time the penitentiary was completed 15 years later, amendments had been made to the design suggesting its changing role from simply a place of short term detention for low security inmates. Two cell ranges were changed to a more conventional design, one with a permanent gallows.

When it opened in 1914, Darlinghurst and some smaller prisons were closed and Long Bay became NSW's principal prison complex. Prison industry was an important part of life at the Penitentiary and many industries, eg. Bread bakery has continued to flourish today.

From 1917 until 1939 Long Bay Gaol was the place of all criminal executions in New South Wales (Curby, 2017, 12).

By the 1920s the Penitentiary was reported as overcrowded, receiving 70% of all gaol entries and functioning as a remand centre. The overflow was accommodated by timber huts erected between the male and female prisons, and part of the women's prison in 1945.

In 1962 the Penitentiary absorbed the old Reformatory.

In 1978, the Observation Ward was demolished. On Christmas Day 1978, the workshops were burnt down during a riot.

In 1993, after a series of name changes, the Penitentiary, together with the former Reformatory, was renamed Reception and Industrial Centre (NSW Dept of Corrective Services Heritage and Conservation Register, 1995).

In 1995 the first conservation plan for the site was completed. Metropolitan Remand and the Reception Centre were relocated from Long Bay to a new correctional facility at Silverwater. A range of special programmes were established for Long Bay inmates, involving some change of use in existing buildings (Steele, 2017, 30).

In 2004 a master plan was prepared including proposed development of two new hospitals within the site: the Long Bay Hospital (to the south of the former Remand Centre) and the Forensic Hospital (to replace the existing hospital on the south-west portion of the site (ibid, 2017, 30).

In 2008 the Forensic Hospital was established outside the prison wall on the western 'corner' of site. The Pharmacy was established in the ground floor of this hospital (NBRS & P, 2016, 1).

Historic themes

Australian theme (abbrev)New South Wales themeLocal theme
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Environment - cultural landscape-Activities associated with the interactions between humans, human societies and the shaping of their physical surroundings Developing local, regional and national economies-National Theme 3
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Environment - cultural landscape-Activities associated with the interactions between humans, human societies and the shaping of their physical surroundings Significant Places: How are significant places marked in the landscape of Parramatta by, or for, different groups?-Monuments and Sites
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Land tenure-Activities and processes for identifying forms of ownership and occupancy of land and water, both Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Naming places (toponymy)-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Land tenure-Activities and processes for identifying forms of ownership and occupancy of land and water, both Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Administering and alienating Crown lands-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Land tenure-Activities and processes for identifying forms of ownership and occupancy of land and water, both Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Changing land uses - from rural to suburban-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Towns, suburbs and villages-Activities associated with creating, planning and managing urban functions, landscapes and lifestyles in towns, suburbs and villages 19th century suburban developments-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Towns, suburbs and villages-Activities associated with creating, planning and managing urban functions, landscapes and lifestyles in towns, suburbs and villages 20th century Suburban Developments-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Towns, suburbs and villages-Activities associated with creating, planning and managing urban functions, landscapes and lifestyles in towns, suburbs and villages Developing suburbia-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Towns, suburbs and villages-Activities associated with creating, planning and managing urban functions, landscapes and lifestyles in towns, suburbs and villages 20th Century infrastructure-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Towns, suburbs and villages-Activities associated with creating, planning and managing urban functions, landscapes and lifestyles in towns, suburbs and villages 19th Century Infrastructure-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Towns, suburbs and villages-Activities associated with creating, planning and managing urban functions, landscapes and lifestyles in towns, suburbs and villages Creating landmark structures and places in suburban settings-
7. Governing-Governing Government and Administration-Activities associated with the governance of local areas, regions, the State and the nation, and the administration of public programs - includes both principled and corrupt activities. Developing roles for government - administering the justice system-
7. Governing-Governing Government and Administration-Activities associated with the governance of local areas, regions, the State and the nation, and the administration of public programs - includes both principled and corrupt activities. Developing roles for government - building and operating public infrastructure-
7. Governing-Governing Law and order-Activities associated with maintaining, promoting and implementing criminal and civil law and legal processes Jail-
7. Governing-Governing Law and order-Activities associated with maintaining, promoting and implementing criminal and civil law and legal processes Incarcerating prisoners-

Recommended management:

Recommendations

Management CategoryDescriptionDate Updated
Statutory InstrumentNominate for State Heritage Register (SHR)02 Nov 16
Recommended ManagementReview a Conservation Management Plan (CMP) 
Recommended ManagementPrepare a maintenance schedule or guidelines 
Recommended ManagementCarry out interpretation, promotion and/or education 

Procedures /Exemptions

Section of actDescriptionTitleCommentsAction date
21(1)(b)Conservation Plan submitted for endorsementConservation Plan Dec 17 1998
57(2)Exemption to allow workStandard Exemptions SCHEDULE OF STANDARD EXEMPTIONS
HERITAGE ACT 1977
Notice of Order Under Section 57 (2) of the Heritage Act 1977

I, the Minister for Planning, pursuant to subsection 57(2) of the Heritage Act 1977, on the recommendation of the Heritage Council of New South Wales, do by this Order:

1. revoke the Schedule of Exemptions to subsection 57(1) of the Heritage Act made under subsection 57(2) and published in the Government Gazette on 22 February 2008; and

2. grant standard exemptions from subsection 57(1) of the Heritage Act 1977, described in the Schedule attached.

FRANK SARTOR
Minister for Planning
Sydney, 11 July 2008

To view the schedule click on the Standard Exemptions for Works Requiring Heritage Council Approval link below.
Sep 5 2008

PDF Standard exemptions for works requiring Heritage Council approval

Listings

Heritage ListingListing TitleListing NumberGazette DateGazette NumberGazette Page
Heritage Act - State Heritage Register 0081002 Apr 99 271546
Heritage Act - s.170 NSW State agency heritage registerInterim s170 Register, Dept. Of Corrective Service 01 Jun 95   
Local Environmental PlanRandwick Local Environmental Plan 1998 - Sch3 30 Apr 99   

Study details

TitleYearNumberAuthorInspected byGuidelines used
Department of Corrective Services: Interim Heritage and Conservation Register1995063State Projects Heritage Group  No

References, internet links & images

TypeAuthorYearTitleInternet Links
WrittenBBC Consulting Planners2004Long Bay Correctional Complex Master Plan. Anzac Parade, Malabar
WrittenClive Lucas Stapleton & Partners2004Long Bay Correctional Complex Conservation Management Plan
WrittenColleen Morris1995Long Bay Complex Conservation Analysis and draft Policy Recommendations - Landscape Component, 3/1995
WrittenCurby, Pauline2017'A rare opportunity - remembering the last years of capital punishment in NSW'
WrittenDominic Steel Consulting Archaeologist2017Aboriginal & Historical Archaeological Assessment - proposed upgrades at Long Bay Correctional Centre, Anzac Parade, Malabar, NSW
WrittenHeritage Group, NSW Department of Public Works & Services1997Long Bay Correctional Complex: conservaiton plan
WrittenPhotography by S Frizza2008Photography of boiler house and water tower at Long Bay Correctional Facility before demolition Correctional Facility before demolition
WrittenPollon, F. & Healy, G.1988Randwick entry, in 'The Book of Sydney Suburbs'
WrittenState Projects Heritage Group1995NSW Department of Corrective Services Heritage and Conservation Register
WrittenSydney Metro Tree Services (Paul Vezgoff, for)2014Arborist Tree Assessment Report - Long Bay Correctional Complex

Note: internet links may be to web pages, documents or images.

rez
(Click on thumbnail for full size image and image details)

Data source

The information for this entry comes from the following source:
Name: Heritage Office
Database number: 5045013
File number: EF14/5225; H00/338/01


Every effort has been made to ensure that information contained in the State Heritage Inventory is correct. If you find any errors or omissions please send your comments to the Database Manager.

All information and pictures on this page are the copyright of the Heritage Division or respective copyright owners.