Lithgow Blast Furnace | NSW Environment & Heritage

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Lithgow Blast Furnace

Item details

Name of item: Lithgow Blast Furnace
Other name/s: Eskbank Ironworks Blast Furnace site; Industrial Archaeological Site
Type of item: Archaeological-Terrestrial
Group/Collection: Mining and Mineral Processing
Category: Furnace
Location: Lat: -33.4750559424 Long: 150.1703501180
Primary address: Inch Street, Lithgow, NSW 2790
Parish: Lett
County: Cook
Local govt. area: Lithgow
Local Aboriginal Land Council: Bathurst
Property description
Lot/Volume CodeLot/Volume NumberSection NumberPlan/Folio CodePlan/Folio Number
LOT2 DP776568
All addresses
Street AddressSuburb/townLGAParishCountyType
Inch StreetLithgowLithgowLettCookPrimary Address

Owner/s

Organisation NameOwner CategoryDate Ownership Updated
Lithgow City CouncilLocal Government23 Mar 99

Statement of significance:

The layout of the Blast Furnace site represents the organic and uninterrupted growth of a workplace which is now the only relic of one of Australia's major industries. The Blast Furnace was the sole producer of iron in Australia for the first seven years of its life. The remains are in themselves a resource for studying technical changes in ironmaking. (Cremin and Jack 1986: 6)
Date significance updated: 08 Apr 09
Note: The State Heritage Inventory provides information about heritage items listed by local and State government agencies. The State Heritage Inventory is continually being updated by local and State agencies as new information becomes available. Read the OEH copyright and disclaimer.

Description

Builder/Maker: William Sandford Ltd.
Construction years: 1906-1907
Physical description: The site is on the south-western edge of the former Coal Stage Hill, a natural ridge which has been much modified by the construction and operation of the furnace and plant. It is roughly wedge shaped, with its base line and southern boundary on the line of the Great Western railway line, which runs south-west north-east. The western boundary is formed by the back of Inch Street, while the northern boundary is an artificial line west-east.

The site is on three levels. The top level, 933m and above, houses the plant itself. This occupies a strip approximately 200m long and 100m wide. The middle level, at 929m, is the area of the rail embankment and rail line to the former Steelworks site. It is connected to the top level on its eastern side by an almost imperceptible gradient. The bottom level is the area between the rear of Inch Street and the upper level. It forms the natural base of Coal Stage Hill. This area has slag dumps in it.

Archaeological remains of the three phases of occupation are as follows:
Phase 1: walls of the Davey blower house; pump house foundations; footings for the first Parsons turbo-blower; the well outside the pumphouse; the floor of the boiler house; the brick revetment wall of the furnaces and stoves area; the foundations of No. 1 furnace and its four stoves; the base of the brick chimney stack; iron bottom-plates for three of the four stoves; the pig bins; the brick walls of the material bunkers; the pit for the truck drop.
Phase 2: The brick revetment wall of the furnaces and stoves area; the foundations of No.2 furnace and its four stoves; the brick base for the chimney stack; the footings for the second Parsons turbo-blower; the rail embankment in the south-west corner; the rail bridge over Inch Street; the bolts for the boiler stacks.
Phase 3: footings for the third Parsons turbo-blower; footings for the Thompson engine; other extensions to the engine house; footings of the pig-breaking machinery; footings for its associated gantries (Cremin and Jack 1986: 36-43).

Believed to have an Institute of Enginners Historic Engineering marker.

Thompson blowing engine: An air blowing engine which produced 45,000 cubic feet of air per minute at 25psi. The engine weighed 400 tonnes and was installed in 1923.

Parsons Turbines: Three air blowing engines each installed as the blast furnace increased in size. They varied in capability from 20,000 cubic feet to 40,000 cubic feet per minute.

Davy engine house: This building housed the Davy air blower which produced 15,000 cubic feet of air per minute. The blower was installed in 1906 and weighed 120 tonnes.

Boiler house: This building housed ten Babcock and Wilcox boilers that were fired by waste gases from the blast furnaces.

Material storage bins: This area has a capacity to store 50,000 tonnes of iron ore, limestone and coke.

Travelling crane walls: the electricity driven crane ran along these walls maintaining the raw material stockpiles.

Blast Furnace No.1: Built in 1907. It was 23 metres high and 5.8 metres in diameter.

Blast Furnace No.2: Built in 1923. It was almost identical to the No.1 just slightly bigger dimensions.

Cowper Stoves: These stoves which were filled with firebricks were used to pre-heat the air from the blowing engines before it went to the blast furnaces.

Rail siding No. 2: Built in 1913 to service Blast Furnace No.2 carrying molted slag to the dump and liquid iron to the steelworks.

Pig Beds: The Pig Beds were sand cast moulds in which the moltern ore that was tapped from the furnace was run into.

Gantry supports: These gantry support blocks held the crane that lifted the pig iron combs over to the pig breaker. The gantry crane was erected in 1918.

Rail siding No. 1: Constructed in 1907, but very much altered as the site expanded. After 1913 a ladle was shunted into here for taking molten iron to the steelworks.

Water return channel: Returned the cooling water from the furnace to the cooling pond.

Cooling pond: The cooling pond was constructed in 1907 and was used as a reservoir for water for use in the boilers and cooling the blast furnace sprays.

Ferrant engine house: constructed in 1914 to house a steam electric power generating set.

Air intake tunnel: construction in 1923 the air intake tunnel for the parsons turbine blowers and Thompson Blowing engine. It runs under the foundations and connects to each turbine house.
Physical condition and/or
Archaeological potential:
Archaeological potential is high.
Modifications and dates: Construction was in three phases:
Phase 1: No. 1 blast furnace and plant built by William Sandford 1906-7.
- artificial level for the furnaces cut (1906)
Phase 2: Extensions made to the 1907 plant and construction of No. 2 blast furnace by G. and C. Hoskins Ltd., 1908-13.
- the construction of rail sidings to connect the furnaces with coke ovens
(1907 and 1910-1911).
- the construction of the Hoskins coke ovens at the eastern end of the
hill (1910-1912).
- the excavation of the water reservoir, known as Lake Pillans (1911).
- the construction of the railway line to the Hoskins' Steelworks (1911).
Phase 3: Improvements to the plant by G. and C. Hoskins Ltd., 1914-1919 and Hoskins Iron and Steel, 1920-1925 (Cremin and Jack 1986: 36-37).
Current use: Tourism, Lithgow Blast Furnace Park
Former use: Aboriginal land, farm, iron and steel works including Blast Furnace

History

Historical notes: Lithgow's association with its iron and steel works was another of this city's big manufacturing eras. Its Iron and Steel works commenced in October 1875 when the first iron smelting took place. Ore had been discovered on Eskbank land which was then owned by Enoch Hughes. The foundry was erected nearby after Hughes convinced James Rutherford of Cobb & Co., fame from Bathurst. Ironically the other principal shareholders were the NSW Minister for Public Woriks, the Hon. John Sutherland and Dan WIlliams, an engineer from Canada who worked on the Zig Zag railway prooject. The Eskbank Ironworks then consisted of a blast furnace, foundry and two bar rolling mills with the necessary fitting and smiths' shops. About 20,000 tons of pig iron was made initially from local ores, which was converted into rails and bars. Work was carried on intermittently, until it was decided to pull down the blast furnace and convert the castings into merchant iron (McRae, 2016, 3).

In May 1880 in the 'Lithgow Report' it stated that the Eskbank Ironworks were working at the rate of four miles of rails per week. The new rails stood the test of forty tons, the required standard being thirty tons. The blast furnace was in full swing and 100 tons per week of rion was anticipated (ibid, 2016, 3).

The Lithgow Blast Furnace was erected by William Sandford in 1906-1907, a short distance from the Eskbank Colliery which he had purchased outright in 1892. The construction of this later furnace over 1 km away from the Colliery was widely criticised, but its proximity to the railway and its size, providing scope for expansion, made it an understandable choice. It was constructed for the sole purpose of smelting iron from ore. It is a popular misconception that the site was also an ironworks. Indeed the Eskbank Colliery furnace, which had been operating since 1875, is often confused with Sandford's later furnace (Cremin and Jack 1986: 8-35).

After a layoff the mills at the Eskbank Ironworks were restarted on Monday 30 July 1894. The old system had been discarded and the mills had now commenced on a partially co-operative principle, which it was expected would cheapen production and give better results generally. During the cessation of work the plant was added to and imporoved, in this way the sheet mill now starts equipped to produce nearly double its former product. An order for 100 tons of spike iron, to be supplied at the rate of 10 tons weekly, had been obtained from the Railway Commissioners. The company soon found themselves with an overdraft of about 60,000 pounds and had decided on closing the works when Sandford took them on lease in 1885. He added mill after mill, with powerful shears, furnaces, boilers and rollers, so that now the mills were fully equipped for the work they had to do. Outpot for all classes of finished iron and steel for the three years ending 31/12/1901 averaged over 7000 tons per annum. It did not cover more than a small percentage of what was imported into Sydney (ibid, 2016, 3).

The works and sidings occupied a space of about 12 acres, situated between the Main Western Railway Line and Farmer's Creek, being connected with the main line at Eskbank Station, with sidings all round the works. Sand for the works was obtained from Farmer's Creek, close by, and loam for the foundry from a paddock adjoining the works. Within the ironworks' fence is a colliery adit, where the coal was drawn out by an engine, and the same skips drawn around the works, so that coal was only handled once, into the skips; and the same skips were tipped into the furnace bins in the ironworks. Coal was thus used fresh from the colliery, and bore comparison in heating qualities with most of the English coals. On the siding to the works was situated the steam sawmills, where timber of any ordinary size coud be cut and delivered to the works (ibid, 2016, 3).

To heat the iron for the mill, four large furnaces were used, each capable of heating from 5-6 tons of iron per shift. Attached were large horizontal boilers for raising steam by the waste-head from the furnaces. There was a great deal of equipment on site including immense Cornish boilers, weighing 22 tons for raising steam by the waste heat from the furnaces. There was a 1.5 ton steam hammer, massive shears for cutting up rails into lengths, a large gantry, 36" horizontal condensing 175 horse power engine and giant fly-wheels with 30' diameters, weighing 40 tons (ibid, 2016, 3).

The No. 2 Sheet Mill had a 35 ton flywheel. In the fitting shops were lathes, screwing, drilling and punching machines, nut and bolt machines, and a complete spike-making machine, where spikes for the Railway Construction Department had been made the previous 3 years. The foundry department had two large travelling cranes, a large and small cupola and an air furnace. There was also a large Siemens melting furnace, for dealing with scrap, scrap and pig iron. IT was complete with a steam travelling crane capable of lifting 7 ton cast iron moulds and large wrought iron ladles. Cement used in the works was mostly made at the Cullen Bullen Company's lime and cement works, about 10 miles from Lithgow
There was another mill principally for rolling sheets for galvanising and corrugating sheets up to 12' long and 27 gauge (ibid, 2016, 3).

On 24 April 1901 Sandford organised a gala dinner to announce that he and his sone Esk had successfully tapped the first viable quantities of steel produced in Australia at the Eskbank Ironworks. He had been working Eskbank since the 1880s, and although tapping steel was a triumph, he was nearly exhausted by it. Sandford felt iron and steel were basic commodities and needed to be boosted, and tried every which way to protect and support his vennture. While Lithgow's coal miners were free traders, iron workers and their bosses were protectionists, so, to advance his cause, Sandford ran as a protectionist against Joseph Cook in the 1901 federal parliamentary election. He then tried to convicen the NSW government to take over the works.

Finally, when a tender for steel and iron supply became available he bribed three parliamentarians, including WIlliam Holman, to win the contract. Part of that deal included the construction of a blast furnace, to enable production of pig iron for steel. Sandford complied.

The Blast Furnace was 'blown in' on 13 May 1907. It was Sandford's proudest moment and won him the title of the father of the Australian steel industry. His relations with workers were relatively harmonious and beneficient and the Eskbank estate was, to him, a satisfyingly noisy and smoky place. However behind the scenes, Sandford was financially and mentally strained. He could not raise capital but was unwilling to cede his management to external investors such as John Lysagth Ltd., and although Charles Hoskins and his brother George looked at the plant, they pulled out when they saw the state of the books.

The Commercial Banking Company of Sydney, which had underwritten the operation, foreclosed on the ironworks on 9 December 1907, although it kept the Blast Furnace running. With 700 out of work, the Premier invited the Hoskins brothers to take over the Lithgow iron and steelworks. Althought he complicated deal ensured Sandford's debts were paid and he received enough money to guarantee his financial security, he was devastated and felt deceived by Charles Hoskins. His parting with the Lithgow community was sad for him, his wife Caroline, the workers and their community (McKillop, 2006, online at Lithgow.com/historyavenue/1901_steel.html)

The furnace was officially opened by the premier of New South Wales on May 13, 1907. William Sandford Ltd. soon ran into financial trouble and could not fulfil its contract to supply the government with pig-iron, so in 1908 the company was purchased by Hoskins Bros, owners of the premier manufacturer of iron pipes in Australia. They made few initial alterations to the Blast Furnace, although the ironworks underwent substantial changes. The Hoskins also succeeded in having Sandford's government contract transferred to themselves and extended until the end of 1916. Their success prompted them to build 80 coke ovens and a second blast furnace at the eastern end of the site in 1913. The second furnace was a near replica of Sandford's original construction. Fifteen coke ovens were added shortly afterwards to cope with the extra fuel requirements.

The Hoskins were highly active in the development of the ironworking industry and staunchly opposed the growth of unionism (Cremin and Jack 1986: 8-35). The Hoskins were clear-sighted about the technological problems of the steel and ironworks, and the labour issues, and had considerable business acumen, but Charles Hoskins was impatient and imperious and provoked industrial unrest as soon as he set foot in Lithgow in 1908. He was also a protectionist, and although his negotiations with government over tariffs were never entirely successful, he did manage to get the Eskbank enterprise onto a solid footing before the surge in production caused by World War II (McKillop, op. cit, 2006/online).

The outbreak of WWI saw considerable expansion in operations, although Lithgow's monopoly on iron smelting was about to be seriously challenged by BHP, who opened their Newcastle plant in 1915. However, the opening of a Small Arms factory in Lithgow ensured that the Hoskins' works flourished. A great deal of their profit was ploughed back into the expansion of capacity at the steelworks. In 1923 a fifth blowing engine was added to the original furnace. At 400 tons, it was the largest in Australia.

In the mid 1920s, the decision was taken to move operations to Port Kembla, where the natural resource and transport network were more attractive. The Lithgow site was abandoned in 1928, although the last employees were dismissed in 1932 (Cremin and Jack 1986: 8-35).

The site was bought by the Lithgow City Council and was opened to the public as the The Lithgow Blast Furnace Park in 1988.

After considerable works were undertaken to improve site access, safety, facilities and interpretation the Blast Furnace Park was reopened to the public in May 2018.

Historic themes

Australian theme (abbrev)New South Wales themeLocal theme
1. Environment-Tracing the evolution of a continent's special environments Environment - naturally evolved-Activities associated with the physical surroundings that support human life and influence or shape human cultures. Other open space-
1. Environment-Tracing the evolution of a continent's special environments Environment - naturally evolved-Activities associated with the physical surroundings that support human life and influence or shape human cultures. Cultural: Cliffs and escarpments influencing human settlement-
1. Environment-Tracing the evolution of a continent's special environments Environment - naturally evolved-Activities associated with the physical surroundings that support human life and influence or shape human cultures. Changing the environment-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Industry-Activities associated with the manufacture, production and distribution of goods Manufacturing metals-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Industry-Activities associated with the manufacture, production and distribution of goods Managing industrial relations-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Industry-Activities associated with the manufacture, production and distribution of goods Manufacturing defence materials-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Industry-Activities associated with the manufacture, production and distribution of goods Manufacturing building materials and products-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Industry-Activities associated with the manufacture, production and distribution of goods Reusing and relocating industrial plant and equipment-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Industry-Activities associated with the manufacture, production and distribution of goods Smelting ores to extract metals-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Industry-Activities associated with the manufacture, production and distribution of goods Smelting ores to extract metals-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Technology-Activities and processes associated with the knowledge or use of mechanical arts and applied sciences Technologies for obtaining metals from earths-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Accommodation-Activities associated with the provision of accommodation, and particular types of accommodation – does not include architectural styles – use the theme of Creative Endeavour for such activities. Building settlements, towns and cities-National Theme 4
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Land tenure-Activities and processes for identifying forms of ownership and occupancy of land and water, both Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Townships-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Land tenure-Activities and processes for identifying forms of ownership and occupancy of land and water, both Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Changing land uses - from rural to suburban-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Land tenure-Activities and processes for identifying forms of ownership and occupancy of land and water, both Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Changing land uses - from rural to tourist-
5. Working-Working Labour-Activities associated with work practises and organised and unorganised labour Workers organising workers-
5. Working-Working Labour-Activities associated with work practises and organised and unorganised labour Working complex machinery and technologies-
9. Phases of Life-Marking the phases of life Persons-Activities of, and associations with, identifiable individuals, families and communal groups (none)-

Assessment of significance

SHR Criteria a)
[Historical significance]
Built in 1906-7, the Blast Furnace was the sole producer of iron in Australia for the first seven years of its life. It remained a major producer for the next thirteen, until its closure in 1928. It reflects the growth of the Australian iron and steel industry and the confidence of the emerging nation. These industries were also of enormous importance to New South Wales and Lithgow in particular. (Cremin and Jack 1986: 5)
SHR Criteria c)
[Aesthetic significance]
The Blast Furnace has aesthetic value in its superb siting clear of the town, its fine views and its functional architecture. It also has a romantic appeal and has been photographed often. The slag dumps which border the western part of the site powerfully evoke the elemental forces at work in the blast furnace. (Cremin and Jack 1986: 6)
SHR Criteria d)
[Social significance]
The men who built the furnace and worked there under difficult conditions, displayed endurance, solidarity, skill and pride in their work which deserves to be remembered. It is a symbol for the struggle for better conditions. There is still a 'spirit of Lithgow' of which the site is a potent expression. (Cremin and Jack 1986: 6)
SHR Criteria e)
[Research potential]
The remains represent an organic growth and refinement of a major industrial plant and are in themselves a resource for studying technical change in ironmaking. (Cremin and Jack 1986: 6)
Assessment criteria: Items are assessed against the PDF State Heritage Register (SHR) Criteria to determine the level of significance. Refer to the Listings below for the level of statutory protection.

Procedures /Exemptions

Section of actDescriptionTitleCommentsAction date
57(2)Exemption to allow workHeritage Act Record converted from HIS events


Order Under Section 57(2) to exempt the following activities from Section 57(1):
(1) The maintenance of any building or item on the site where maintenance means the continuous protective care of existing material.
Jul 8 1988
21(1)(b)Conservation Plan submitted for endorsementConservation Plan Nov 25 1998
57(2)Exemption to allow workStandard Exemptions SCHEDULE OF STANDARD EXEMPTIONS
HERITAGE ACT 1977
Notice of Order Under Section 57 (2) of the Heritage Act 1977

I, the Minister for Planning, pursuant to subsection 57(2) of the Heritage Act 1977, on the recommendation of the Heritage Council of New South Wales, do by this Order:

1. revoke the Schedule of Exemptions to subsection 57(1) of the Heritage Act made under subsection 57(2) and published in the Government Gazette on 22 February 2008; and

2. grant standard exemptions from subsection 57(1) of the Heritage Act 1977, described in the Schedule attached.

FRANK SARTOR
Minister for Planning
Sydney, 11 July 2008

To view the schedule click on the Standard Exemptions for Works Requiring Heritage Council Approval link below.
Sep 5 2008

PDF Standard exemptions for works requiring Heritage Council approval

Listings

Heritage ListingListing TitleListing NumberGazette DateGazette NumberGazette Page
Heritage Act - State Heritage Register 0054802 Apr 99 271546
Heritage Act - Permanent Conservation Order - former 0054808 Jul 88 1143676
Local Environmental Plan  01 Jan 97   
Local Environmental Plan  09 Dec 94   
National Trust of Australia register Lithgow Blast Furnace Site342122 Jul 75   
Royal Australian Institute of Architects registerBlast Furnace Plant    
Register of the National EstateIronworks Blast Furnace Site86428 Sep 82   

References, internet links & images

TypeAuthorYearTitleInternet Links
WrittenAedeen Cremin and Ian Jack1986Lithgow Blast Furnace Site: Archaeological Survey
TourismAttraction Homepage2007Lithgow Blast Furnace View detail
WrittenHeritage Division Hard Copy File HC30306 - Lithgow Blast Furnace (file)
PhotographHeritage Office1997(not stated)
WrittenHigh Ground Consulting2014Assessment of Historical Archaeology
WrittenIntegrated Design Associates2015Lithgow Blast Furnace Park - Park Access Implementation Masterplan
WrittenIntegrated Design Associates2015Lithgow Blast Furnace Park - Park Safety and Interpretation Project
WrittenIntegrated Design Associates2015Review of Conservation Policies and Heritage Impact Statement - Lithgow Blast Furnace Park - Park Safety & Interpretation Project
WrittenMcKillop, Bob2006Furnace, Fire and Forge: Lithgow's Iron and Steel Industry 1874-1932 View detail
WrittenMcRae, Alan2016'Lithgow Steel Works'
WrittenRichmond & Ross, Consulting Engineers & Project Leaders2015Specification for the Restoration and Remedial Work for the Davy Engine House, Compressor Cooling House and Railway Support Structures at the Blast Furnace Park, Lithgow, NSW
WrittenSimpson Dawbin et al.1997Lithgow Blast Furnace Conservation Management Plan
WrittenThe Interpretive Design Company2015Lithgow Blast Furnace Heritage Interpretive Signage View detail
TourismTourism NSW2007Lithgow Blast Furnace Park View detail
WrittenWorking Armour2014Blast Furnace Tourism Access Design

Note: internet links may be to web pages, documents or images.

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Data source

The information for this entry comes from the following source:
Name: Heritage Office
Database number: 5045094
File number: EF14/4883; S90/7263, NEP8919


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