Tenterfield Railway Station group | NSW Environment & Heritage

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Heritage

Tenterfield Railway Station group

Item details

Name of item: Tenterfield Railway Station group
Type of item: Complex / Group
Group/Collection: Transport - Rail
Category: Railway Platform/ Station
Location: Lat: -29.0555260820 Long: 152.0052659970
Primary address: Railway Avenue, Tenterfield, NSW 2372
Local govt. area: Tenterfield
Local Aboriginal Land Council: Moombahlene
All addresses
Street AddressSuburb/townLGAParishCountyType
Railway AvenueTenterfieldTenterfield  Primary Address
Main Northern railwayTenterfieldTenterfield  Alternate Address

Owner/s

Organisation NameOwner CategoryDate Ownership Updated
RailCorpState Government16 Nov 98

Statement of significance:

Tenterfield is a major Victorian country first class station complex, one of the last designed by John Whitton, in its original setting with landscaped forecourt and good support buildings including the formerresidence, barracks and goods shed. The building retains much of its original fit out and is one of the best surviving station complexes in the State. The station building is one of the major structures in the northern part of the State and reflects the earliest period of railway construction in the north of the State.
The buildings form an important townscape element in Tenterfield and contribute to the heritage value of the area.
Note: The State Heritage Inventory provides information about heritage items listed by local and State government agencies. The State Heritage Inventory is continually being updated by local and State agencies as new information becomes available. Read the OEH copyright and disclaimer.

Description

Designer/Maker: William Murray
Construction years: 1886-1886
Physical description: MAJOR STRUCTURES
Station building, type 5, first class (1886)
Platform (c1886)
Barrack, brick (1890)
Barracks, weatherboard (c.1948)
Goods shed
Per Way shed
Sign-on shed

OTHER ITEMS
Turntable, 60ft, brickwork bedding, 1899
Loading Platform, pre-fabricated concrete
Jib crane, T433 (1886)
Forecourt plantings

ARCHAEOLOGICAL ITEMS
Coal stage remnants (c1949)

STATION BUILDING (1886)
The Tenterfield station building is a first class, long and narrow, single storey, brick structure with a painted, rendered exterior. It comprises a main central body flanked by small blocks, one on either side, separated from the main body of the building by a small courtyard. The architectural features and style bears references to Rustic Gothic in the use of steeply pitched prominent gables with decorative bargeboards, finials, pendants and label moulds, and Filigree in the use of cast iron filigree and ornamental columns to verandahs. The central body of the building has two projecting portions with sharply pitched gables rising above the roofline of the main body of the building. Three verandahs run in between the two projecting portions and to either side. The main roof is hipped and gabled with two small gablets (gable on hip) and is punctuated by numerous chimney shafts. The gables have prominent bargeboards, decorative timber fretwork, pendant and finial, and louvered timber ventilators. The front façade has decorative detailing in render in the form of raised mouldings/cornices and label courses. The rear façade is similar in features and detailing and has a series of doors and windows opening on to the platform. A deep verandah runs along the length of the central block on the platform side supported by cast iron columns. The layout comprises a waiting room in the centre with the main entrance, and a series of rooms on either side, all having access through the platform.

The smaller side blocks have a gable front and a lean-to shed/verandah on the side opening onto the courtyard. The southern block is the men’s toilet block and has a small gabled roof vent with louvers. The buildings retain their original configuration, having undergone very few modifications since their construction in 1886.

PLATFORM (c1886)
The platform is brick faced and was extended in 1907. The platform includes two timber gates which are likely to be original, one at the southern end and the other at the northern; two ‘Tenterfield’ metal signs, and an ‘Avery’ weighing Scale.

BRICK BARRACKS (1890)
The building is the former engine driver’s residence and was constructed out of brick. It has a gable roof with smaller cross gables facing the front and rear. There are verandahs with simple timber posts along both elevations. Features and detailing including a chimney; scalloped timber valence to the sides of the verandahs; oval opening to the gables; plinth course and sill course in render; panelled doors with flymesh doors; and double hung windows with flymesh windows. The roof structure comprises timber king post trusses with raised tie and supporting timber boarding with corrugated, galvanised iron roofing. Some portions have ceilings which appear to be later additions. The chimney has two distinct vertical portions indicating that the eastern portion was added later, perhaps in 1942 when changes were made (Tenterfield Shire Local Heritage Register). The original layout comprised four individual bedrooms in a back-to-back arrangement, each facing onto a verandah, with doors and windows opening onto it. A narrow combined toilet/ washroom/ bathroom extended across the width of the building with access from each of the verandahs. There was a larger meal room and a kitchen both with access from either verandahs. The building retains much of the original layout and features, displaying a high level of integrity.

WEATHERBOARD BARRACKS (c1948)
The barracks consist of 3 single storey weatherboard huts. Each hut comprises timber weatherboard walls and timber floor with a window in the centre of the east façade and a door in the centre of the west façade. The roof construction is unusual in having two corrugated, galvanised iron roof coverings with a gap between the two. The top one is a common roof and floats like a canopy with timber rafters supported by brackets under the projecting eaves mounted on walls through bolts. Each of the huts is supported by timber floor beams resting on masonry plinths. This might suggest that the huts were probably prefabricated and used as modular units. The huts are separated by gaps with windows on either side. Other features include double hung windows, battened doors, matchboard ceiling and weatherboard interior walls.

GOODS SHED (1886)
The goods shed is 135' x 30' in dimensions and is constructed out of corrugated, galvanised iron cladding on timber framing with a gabled roof supported on timber brackets. The roof includes projecting eaves and exposed rafter ends. The barge boards have carved ends. There is a gable roofed, weatherboard office with a chimney, attached to the north side of the shed. The roof is supported by timber king post trusses. The windows are timber, double hung sash.

A timber deck surrounds the building on all sides. For easy access to rail wagons, the building and deck are raised, the former on brick piers and the latter on timber stumps. There are protective rails all along the walls.

PER WAY SHED
The structure comprises a single-skin of corrugated, galvanised iron sheet cladding on steel frame and steel trusses supporting the gabled roof of corrugated, galvanised iron. The roof has overhanging eaves supported by steel brackets. The windows comprise unglazed openings. The shed is used to display trikes.

SIGN-ON SHED (c1940)
It is understood to have been built in 1940s as a small timber-framed office building on the western side of the engine shed, between the barrack and the shed itself. The building originally had three distinct portions- chargeman/DLE’s office, sign-on room, and WC/wash basin area. The lower portion of the exterior walls is weatherboard and the upper fibro cement board. Internally, the walls are asbestos cement sheeting. The building has a hipped roof clad in asbestos cement sheeting and an unusual corner brick fireplace/chimney. A full verandah runs along the front (eastern) façade and a pathway with steps led up through the terraced garden. The building retains good integrity. The building existed in a poor condition until 1999 when it was restored to its present state. It is currently used as the District Manager’s office.

TURNTABLE (1899)
The turntable is constructed out of cast iron and is 60 feet in diameter. It is manually operated and sits on circular brickwork bedding.

LOADING PLATFORM
The loading platform is located towards the northern end of the railway precinct and comprises a raised area with ramps on both ends and a concrete retaining wall along the track. The concrete wall appears to be constructed of pre-fabricated panels.

JIB CRANE (1886)
The jib crane (T433 sits on a solid concrete pedestal/platform and is operational.

COAL STAGE (1949)
The coal stage was constructed out of timber bearers supported on steel beams on steel uprights made from rail tracks on the site of the original 1886 coal stage. Only scant remnants remain as relics of the original structure.
Physical condition and/or
Archaeological potential:
Railway station building: good
Platform and its elements: moderate
Trike display shed: good
Timber barracks: moderate
Residential Barracks: moderate
Sign-on Office: good
Coal stage: structurally sound
Turntable: good
Loading platform: good
Goods shed: generally good but decking is in poor condition
Date condition updated:08 May 13
Modifications and dates: 1886 Contract drawings signed by William Murray, building contractor for Railway
Station, Coal Stage, Goods Warehouse, Station Masters Residence, Water Tank, 50ft. turntable and Locomotive Shed
1890 Engine drivers barracks erected
1891 Additional Coal Stage constructed. There is also reference to extension of a coal stage in 1908 and reconstruction of a coal stage (most likely the original) in 1949 to reduce length.
1899 Original 50ft. turntable replaced with 60 ft. turntable. Built by William Sellers- Philadelphia in 1886, it replaced an earlier 50 feet diameter turntable, installed on a siding, which was a northern extension of the ‘Goods Siding’.
1908 Coal Stage extended Original engine shed reconstructed and extended
1918 Trackwork alterations and depressed sidings installed
1925 An additional 20,000 gallon water tank installed
1928 Hydraulic jacks installed for engine lifting
1929 An additional 20,000 gallon water tank installed
1942 Alterations for Defence requirements, to Barracks
1945 Electric lighting to the engine shed & depot; telephone and call bells installed at the cocoa shed
1946 Additional Locomotive accommodation installed
1947 Coaling tractors improved
1948 Additional Locomotive accommodation installed
1949 Coal Stage reconstructed to reduced length
1950 Hot water service installed at the Barracks
1951 Improvements to the Loco. accommodation
1959 Ash pit extended
c1960s Railway Institute demolished
1968 Demolition of the Engine Shed
1989 Trackwork removed, Tenterfield Depot
2000 Conservation Works completed on Station and Yard
(Forsyth, 2009)
Current use: Railway Station
Former use: Nil

History

Historical notes: Tenterfield railway precinct is located on the Main North line, running from Sydney and extending north to the Queensland border, at the town of Wallangarra. The Main North Line (also known as the Great Northern Railway) runs through the Central Coast, Hunter and the New England regions. The line was the original main line between Sydney and Brisbane, however this required a change of gauge at Wallangarra. The line is now closed north of Armidale, and the main route between Brisbane and Sydney is now the North Coast line.

In 1841 Sir Stuart Donaldson was running 18,000 sheep on a property that he named Tenterfield Station, after a family home in Scotland. Donaldson was the first premier of NSW and made biannual trips to Tenterfield to inspect his holdings there, which covered 100,000 acres (400 km2) of unfenced land. The township was gazetted in 1851 with allotments being sold in 1854. In 1858 gold was discovered at Drake (Fairfield) and shortly afterwards at Timbarra and Boonoo Boonoo. During 1859 an AJS Bank opened and an Anglican Church was built the following year. In the 1860s The Tenterfield Chronicle was published; the district court was established; the building of a hospital commenced and a public school was opened. In 1870 the population was less than 900, but the town had five hotels, a school of arts and three churches. The existing Tenterfield Post Office was constructed in 1881.

In February 1886 it was announced that the successful contractor for the erection of the station buildings at Tenterfield was William Murray. Murray also undertook to provide a goods shed, an engine shed, foundations for an engine tank, a pumping engine house, an engine store, a coal stage, a 50 ft turntable pit, and various sheep and cattle races. On the 1st of September 1886 the line to Tenterfield was opened for business. By 1891 the engine driver's barracks had been completed, the last of the array of railway buildings and structures on the site (GBA; 2007).

The site comprised a locomotive depot, demolished in 1968, consisting of an engine shed; barracks, sign-on office, coal stage, turntable, loading dock and goods shed, which are still extant on site; and water columns and tanks, sand sheds, ash pits and oil/equipment store which no longer exist. The original locomotive shed was constructed in 1886 and was replaced by a new one on the same site in 1908.

The railway facilities at Tenterfield changed little over the next century. The only structural addition to the passenger station before World War I was an extension of the platform in 1907. In 1960 the station master's residence and the passenger station were connected to reticulated sewer system, but this was the only major work carried out in the station area. However, the buildings were modified to suit modern tastes. Old buildings were stripped of their decorative excesses to make them seem a little more modern. Thus, by 1965 Tenterfield Passenger Station had lost its wrought iron finials, timber pendants and fretted gable end decorations (GBA; 2007).

By the 1960s, the Tenterfield locomotive depot was becoming redundant with steam being rapidly phased out and diesel technology not requiring an infrastructure of locomotive depots. There was certainly no need for extensive service facilities at Tenterfield and no need for such facilities as ash pits, coal stages, and water tanks. On 8 June 1968, with the end of steam operations on the Northern Line, the locomotive shed at Tenterfield was demolished (GBA; 2007).

The development of the North Coast line resulted in a slow decline for Tenterfield, as passengers preferred the more direct route to Brisbane. The decline was most profound in the late 1950s and by November 1988 the last mail/passenger train left Tenterfield. On 17 July 1989, the State Rail Authority of NSW (StateRail) announced the pending closure of Tenterfield Railway Station, a decision that was effected on 30 November 1990. In 1991 the Tenterfield Railway Preservation Society was formed, and in 1992 a Heritage Museum was opened at the site (GBA; 2007). In 2007, the Office of Rail Heritage, Rail Corporation NSW, assumed management of seven key rail heritage precincts, which included Tenterfield.

Tenterfield and Tenterfield railway station were associated with a number of historical events in Australia’s history:
- 1889 - Sir Henry Parkes delivered his famous Tenterfield speech calling for Federation before departing on a special train to Sydney. The speech at the School of Arts is regarded as a significant event in the lead-up to Federation;
- 1919 - a quarantine facility was set up in Tenterfield during the influenza pandemic;
- 1942 - During World War II, Tenterfield was earmarked as a key battleground if the Japanese should invade Australia. During 1942 thousands of soldiers were set up in emergency camps, unbeknown to the locals, to cope with such an event. Minor changes were made to the railway barracks for Defence requirements.

Historic themes

Australian theme (abbrev)New South Wales themeLocal theme
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Transport-Activities associated with the moving of people and goods from one place to another, and systems for the provision of such movements (none)-

Assessment of significance

SHR Criteria a)
[Historical significance]
The Tenterfield railway precinct is state significant for its historical values as a tangible link to the development of the Great Northern Railway (GNR) line during the 19th century as well as the development of the NSW railways during the steam era. The GNR was an important achievement in transport and engineering within NSW. As the third main trunk rail route in NSW stretching from Sydney to the Queensland border, the line linked townships to one another as well as to Sydney leading to significant economic and social impacts for those individual townships as well as for NSW generally. The establishment of the station itself was one of the biggest events in the history of Tenterfield and its surrounding areas.

Tenterfield railway precinct is a large and highly intact railway precinct demonstrating the typical elements of a large, 19th century railway station and yard with a large and grand, first class station building; a brick, engine drivers’ barracks and 3 weatherboard huts; goods shed; a coal stage; a 60 ft turntable pit; station master’s residence; coal stage; footbridge, and associated facilities such as the jib crane. These items relate to the steam era of the railways and were once necessary and typical infrastructure found throughout NSW.

The Tenterfield railway precinct is linked with a number of significant historical events such as the Federation movement; the flu epidemic following the first world war; visiting dignitaries; wars, and the gradual demise of the railway service. The station was the site of Sir Henry Parkes’ departure for Sydney to advocate for Federation following his ‘Tenterfield speech’ at the Tenterfield School of Arts; the departure and arrival of soldiers during the First World War; it became an emergency quarantine station when the influenza pandemic broke out in 1919; and the station yard provided accommodation for staff of the defence forces during WWII in the form of a special siding in 1942. Finally, the station’s conversion to a museum is witness to the gradual decline in rail use leading to the closure of the Tenterfield line in late 1980s, following a similar pattern in other parts of the country.
SHR Criteria b)
[Associative significance]
Tenterfield railway station is associated with Sir Henry Parkes as an advocate of Federation. It was from Tenterfield railway station that he set out on a special train to Sydney after his historic speech at the Tenterfield School of Arts calling for a federation.
SHR Criteria c)
[Aesthetic significance]
The Tenterfield railway station has aesthetic significance as a first class station building (of which only 19 were built) demonstrating the architectural features and ornamentation of Rustic Gothic in the use of steeply pitched prominent gables with decorative bargeboards, finials, pendants and label moulds, and Filigree in the use of cast iron filigree and ornamental columns to verandahs. The front façade has decorative detailing in render in the form of raised mouldings/cornices and label courses. The rear façade is similar in features and detailing.

It is a prominent building within the streetscape of Tenterfield. The street facade of the station building is highly intact and visible from a long distance.
SHR Criteria d)
[Social significance]
The Tenterfield railway precinct is of social significance to the local community having performed an important role in supporting the town as a regional centre for agricultural commerce and thereby being the site of significant activity and employment. The railway precinct is now a museum run by the Tenterfield Railway Preservation Society who actively conserve and promote rail heritage at the site. The site is significant for its ability to contribute to the local community’s sense of place and provides a connection to the local community’s past.
SHR Criteria e)
[Research potential]
As a large railway precinct consisting of a variety of buildings and structures with good integrity, Tenterfield railway precinct has the potential to provide research opportunities regarding the technical and operational aspects of a regional railway precinct during the steam era.
SHR Criteria f)
[Rarity]
Tenterfield station is rare as a good example of a regional rail centre near a state border, which has retained examples of various periods of building and technology. The 1890 railway barracks are of particular significance as one of the oldest and most intact in NSW.
SHR Criteria g)
[Representativeness]
The Tenterfield railway precinct is representative of a typical 19th century railway precinct, with a variety of buildings, structures and facilities associated with the steam era of railway technology as well as how this typical 19th century precinct developed both operationally and technologically over 100 years.
Integrity/Intactness: The precinct has a very good level of integrity with a near complete grouping of railway structures. The station buildings have a very good level of integrity and are in sound condition.
Assessment criteria: Items are assessed against the PDF State Heritage Register (SHR) Criteria to determine the level of significance. Refer to the Listings below for the level of statutory protection.

Procedures /Exemptions

Section of actDescriptionTitleCommentsAction date
57(2)Exemption to allow workStandard Exemptions SCHEDULE OF STANDARD EXEMPTIONS
HERITAGE ACT 1977
Notice of Order Under Section 57 (2) of the Heritage Act 1977

I, the Minister for Planning, pursuant to subsection 57(2) of the Heritage Act 1977, on the recommendation of the Heritage Council of New South Wales, do by this Order:

1. revoke the Schedule of Exemptions to subsection 57(1) of the Heritage Act made under subsection 57(2) and published in the Government Gazette on 22 February 2008; and

2. grant standard exemptions from subsection 57(1) of the Heritage Act 1977, described in the Schedule attached.

FRANK SARTOR
Minister for Planning
Sydney, 11 July 2008

To view the schedule click on the Standard Exemptions for Works Requiring Heritage Council Approval link below.
Sep 5 2008
21(1)(b)Conservation Plan submitted for commentTenterfield Railway Station Conservation Management Plan, 11 December 2000 prepared for State Rail Authority of NSW by David Scobie Architects Pty Ltd (authors David Scobie and Dr. John Ferry) not endorsed by Heritage Council. Oct 9 2015

PDF Standard exemptions for works requiring Heritage Council approval

Listings

Heritage ListingListing TitleListing NumberGazette DateGazette NumberGazette Page
Heritage Act - State Heritage Register 0126702 Apr 99 271546
Heritage Act - s.170 NSW State agency heritage register     
Local Environmental Plan 199603 May 96 0552074

References, internet links & images

TypeAuthorYearTitleInternet Links
TourismAttraction Homepage2007Heritage Express Journeys View detail
WrittenLongworth, Jim2012Conservation Guide: Railway Gardens View detail

Note: internet links may be to web pages, documents or images.

rez
(Click on thumbnail for full size image and image details)

Data source

The information for this entry comes from the following source:
Name: Heritage Office
Database number: 5045121
File number: 12/14516


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