Tusculum | NSW Environment & Heritage

Culture and heritage

Heritage

Tusculum

Item details

Name of item: Tusculum
Type of item: Built
Group/Collection: Residential buildings (private)
Category: Villa
Location: Lat: -33.8711460893 Long: 151.2245241990
Primary address: 1-3 Manning Street, Potts Point, NSW 2011
Parish: Alexandria
County: Cumberland
Local govt. area: Sydney
Local Aboriginal Land Council: La Perouse
Property description
Lot/Volume CodeLot/Volume NumberSection NumberPlan/Folio CodePlan/Folio Number
LOT1 DP710723
LOT2 DP710723

Boundary:

Property size is 1473 square meters
All addresses
Street AddressSuburb/townLGAParishCountyType
1-3 Manning StreetPotts PointSydneyAlexandriaCumberlandPrimary Address

Owner/s

Organisation NameOwner CategoryDate Ownership Updated
Historic Houses Trust of NSWGeneral 

Statement of significance:

The principal cultural significance of Tusculum is its use as a residence by William Grant Broughton, first Bishop of Australia from 1836 to 1847, (1847-1852, Bishop of Sydney), during almost the entire period of his episcopacy. After Government House, it assumed the status of the most important domestic building in the colony. Designed by the prominent architect, John Verge for entrepreneur A.B. Spark, it was one of the first villas to be erected on Woolloomooloo Hill, as part of an elaborate attempt by the Colonial Government to establish a prestigious enclave for the gentry in the 1830s. It has very strong historical and architectural associations with its contemporary neighbour Rockwall, also designed by Verge. This pair are among a handful of colonial villas to have survived.

Apart from Bishop Broughton, the house is associated with many other prominent Sydney figures including Spark, a colonial merchant whose rapid rise and decline with the collapse of the Bank of Australia mirrored the depression of the 1840s.

The house signified the rise to respectability of the emancipist and former publican, William Long and his son William Alexander Long (responsible for major alterations and additions in the 1860s), It was associated with the politician the Hon Henry Edward Kater; the prominent lawyer Sir James Martin, the Lord Mayor of Sydney Sir William Manning and Orwell Phillips.

It is one of the few colonial houses in Sydney to display the attributes of a villa, with basement work areas and stair, demonstrating the "upstairs/downstairs" nature of domestic administration, typical of nineteenth century English houses.

It is an excellent example of the transformation of a Regency villa of high architectural quality into a mid-Victorian Italianate mansion (Clive Lucas & Partners, 1985, 48).
Date significance updated: 03 Jul 12
Note: The State Heritage Inventory provides information about heritage items listed by local and State government agencies. The State Heritage Inventory is continually being updated by local and State agencies as new information becomes available. Read the OEH copyright and disclaimer.

Description

Designer/Maker: John Verge
Construction years: 1831-1837
Physical description: Tusculum is a large two storey Regency mansion designed by John Verge, built 1831-35. Constructed from stuccoed brickwork it is surrounded on three sides by a fine Classical two storey verandah of the Ionic order, probably built sometime in the 1870s. Cedar of interiors imported from Lebanon; marble for flooring and chimney pieces imported from Tusculum in Italy. High shuttered French doors open on the broad verandahs. Original low pitched slate roof is now covered with tiles. (Australian Heritage Commission, Register of the National Estate).

Tusculum is one of the few remaining Regency houses remaining in Sydney. It is one of the few colonial houses to display the attributes of a villa with basement offices and stair.
Physical condition and/or
Archaeological potential:
Very good, maintained by the Royal Australian Institute of Architects.
Date condition updated:12 Jan 05
Modifications and dates: Gardens and grounds:
The setting which Tusculum once had, with a frontage to Woolloomooloo Bay, has been irretrievably destroyed. Although the removal of the 1920s and 1930s flats to the west (facing Tusculum Street) would enable the west faade (or original garden front) of the house to be revealed, such action, in itself, would not recapture the aesthetic significance of Tusculum as one of the villas of Woolloomooloo Hill, able to be seen from the city, as in the 19th century. Such action, would, however, assist in the appreciation of the exterior of the house and its villa form, and would enhance the quality and use of the internal spaces.

The original garden of Tusculum has been progressively alienated over the years, and the present setting represents only a small portion of the former garden. It would therefore not be possible to reconstruct the garden which once existed around the house. However it is possible to construct a garden as an appropriate setting for the house (CMP, 1985, section 6.4.7 Setting & 6.4.8 Garden).

- An appropriate setting for the building should be provided and maintained;
- The practical impossibility of reconstructing the elaborate 19th century garden of Tusculum should be recognised;
- The front fence to Manning Street should be reconstructed to its c.1920 state (from photographic evidence (CMP, 1985, (Policy) 7.5 Setting).

The spacious setting which Tusculum once enjoyed as one of the villas of Woolloomooloo Hill, has been savagely eroded by a series of subdivisions. There is no visible evidence of the 19th century garden of Tusculum. Archaeological investigation may produce some evidence (CMP, 1985, section 4.3.3 Garden - original).

Post 1920 modifications evidence includes:
Drawing of H.E. Ross and Rowe, Architects, and Consulting Engineers, dated February 1928, approved March 1928. Work included: Demolition of steps to verandah on western side-Construction of bathrooms and WCs on western verandah at both levels - RSJs to ceiling of Billiard Room - SW wing (Billiard Room) chimney, chimney breasts and fireplaces demolished - Alterations to room over Billiard Room for operating Theatre; wall repositioned, new doors-Construction of new sterilising room, supported by concrete column below - New Doctor's dressing room - now removed - Construction of bathroom on northern verandah at ground floor- Glass partitions to eastern verandah, near entrance - WC removed from - WC removed from near upper stair (SE wing) - Construction of rooms on eastern verandah (first floor) On the drawing of Spain and Cosh, Architects, dated April 1933, approved 16th June, 1933. Work included: First floor SE wing completely rebuilt (at higher level) -New stairs and other alterations at southern end of SE -Western wall (external), repositioned - External door to relocated - Construction of new rooms on eastern verandah (first floor) - Space F10 enlarged and former bathroom made open - Construction of bathroom and WC on first floor northern verandah -New partitions and an opening enlarged to stair hall. A measured drawing, prepared by C.C. Phillips, Architect, dated 22nd February 1954 shows a number of items not included in the 1933 Spain and Cosh plan. - Fireplace to removed (breast relocated) - Porte cochere still in existence - Doctors' dressing room still in existance, Additional partition. - Verandah divided into 5 rooms. A drawing by C.C. Phillips dated 23rd March 1956 shows a proposed three-storey wing with eighteen hotel rooms (120 feet by 19 feet). This proposal did not proceed,and in September that year a further scheme was prepared. A drawing dated 14th September 1956 indicates major alterations and additions to Tusculum, accommodating 34 units. As with C.C. Phillips' earlier proposal of March 1956, this work was not undertaken. (Clive Lucas & Partners P/L 1985 Pages 10-13) Conservation works between 1985-87 included the demolitions of accretions to reveal the original form of the building while preserving significant elements and components including the Edwardian staircase. (Clive Lucas & Partners P/L 1985 '7.0 Draft Conservation Policy' Pages 60-64. A set of Working Drawings is held by RAIA (NSW Chapter).
Further information: In 1919 a special issue of 'Art in Australia' was published, edited by Sydney Ure Smith and Bertram Stevens in collaboration with William Hardy Wilson. It was the editors' desire 'to set forth in the finest form possible what good work had been done in one branch of the art of architecture in this country.'

A photograph of Tusculum by Harold Cazneaux was included in this publication. It was one of the first buildings to achieve such recognition as a residence of architectural distinction at that date.

Tusculum has been leased for 99 years at a peppercorn rate to the RAIA NSW Chapter in return for conservation of the main building and long term maintenance.
Current use: offices
Former use: residence

History

Historical notes: In the 1830s the whole area from Potts Point to Kings Cross and up to Oxford Street was known as Darlinghurst- probably named in honour of Governor Ralph Darling (1824-31)'s wife, Eliza. The rocky ridge that extended inland from Potts Point was called Eastern or Woolloomooloo Hill from the early days of white settlement. The earliest grant of land on Woolloomooloo Hill was made to Judge-Advocate John Wylde in 1822. In 1830 Wylde sold six of his 11 acres on the Point to Joseph Hyde Potts, accountant to the Bank of NSW, after whom Potts Point is named.

By the late 1820s Sydney was a crowded, disorderly and unsanitary town closely settled around the Rocks and Sydney Cove, with a European population of around 12000. Governor Darling was receiving applications from prominent Sydney citizens for better living conditions. The ridge of Woolloomooloo Hill beckoned, offering proximity to town and incomparable views from the Blue Mountains to the heads of Sydney Harbour.

In 1828 Darling ordered the subdivision of Woolloomooloo Hill into suitable 'town allotments' for large residences and extensive gardens. He then issued 'deeds of grant' to select members of colonial society (in particular, his senior civil servants). The first 7 grants were issued in 1828, with the other allotments formally granted in 1831.

The private residences that were built on the grants were required to meet Darling's so-called 'villa conditions' which were possibly determined and overseen by his wife, who had architectural skills. These ensured that only one residence was built on each grant to an approved standard and design, that they were each set within a generous amount of landscaped land and that, in most cases, they faced the town. By the mid-1830s the parade of 'white' villas down the spine of Woolloomooloo Hill presented a picturesque sight, and was visible from the harbour and town of Sydney. (State Library, 2002).

Tusculum was named by its original owner, Alexander Brodie Spark (1792-1856), after a town in the Alban Hills, 10 kilometres south-east of Rome where wealthy Romans built luxurious villas - that of Cicero being especially famous. The name of A.B. Spark's other property, 'Tempe' also has classical origins.

The building of the house signified Spark's rise to good fortune during the 1820's. He arrived in Sydney as free settler in 1823. His success in shipping and commerce meant that he was quickly accepted as an influential member of colonial society. Spark had received a literary education, which may account for the naming of his villa. His 1828 grant of over 9 acres was one of the few original grants made to a private citizen. John Verge's plan for Tusculum was approved by Governor Darling in 1830. Spark probably built it as an investment property, as he only lived there for a brief period. The villa was under construction from 1831-5. (State Library, 2002).

His failure to occupy it symbolised Spark's financial decline, the collapse of the Bank of Australia and the depression of the 1840s. Spark sent a plan of his proposed house to the Colonial Secretary on 1st June 1830, explaining that the plan had been prepared for some time, but that he had wanted to make it more 'ornamental'. This is 10 months prior to the first reference to Spark's house in John Verge's ledger. It is possible that Spark may have had the earlier plan prepared independently, and engaged Verge to assist in making it 'more ornamental'. John Verge's Ledger records details of the commission from 'Plans' in 1831 to 'Details for Pilasters front door of' shortly before completion in 1836.

Alterations were made in 1836 to suit its first tenant, Bishop Broughton. The Broughtons made Tusculum a centre of hospitality and, after Government House, it was the most important domestic building in the colony. (State Library, 2002). The Broughton papers contain several references to the unfinished state of the house when he moved in during 1836, and the alterations and improvements he undertook 'to bring the premises into a state of decency.'

In Broughton's early years at Tusculum a garden was established - there are references to a kitchen garden, rose trees from England etc. In 1839 he had shelves put up for his library so that his books could be 'released from captivity, and placed in security from damp and dust'.

An interesting letter from Emily Crawley (nee Broughton) to Phoebe Boydell, dated 22nd September 1850, describes the accommodation arrangements at Tusculum for the Conference of Australasian Bishops held in October that year. Bishop Broughton lived at Tusculum from 1836 to 1851 - for almost the full length of his episcopacy. He appears to have been occasionally unsettled by his accommodation, with numerous references in his letters to his desire to relocate. Broughton had difficulty in obtaining suitable alternative accommodation, and became resigned to the circumstances of Tusculum.

Broughton took out another lease on the property for seven years in 1848 at (Pounds)300 p.a. (letter to Coleridge, 16th February 1848) - 'lt is a sad, imperfect place and anything but episcopal in pretensions: but it is in a cheerful situation and good air, and answers my, purposes tolerably well.'

By 1843 there was a serious financial crisis in the colony, and the Darlinghurst grantees suffered. They pressed for the freedom to subdivide their land, and Sydney's first exclusive suburb opened up to investors. From the early 1850s, the Gold Rush boosted the economy, and interest in the land available at Darlinghurst grew. The first subdivisions occurred around the edges of the original grants, with blocks of a size that allowed other grand houses to be built and new streets formed. In the 1870s, heavy land taxes imposed by the administration of the Premier, Sir Henry Parkes, led to another wave of subdivisions of the original grants. The late 19th century saw the final demise of the grounds surrounding the original villas, and in some cases, the villas themselves. (State Library, 2002).

Broughton was no longer living at Tusculum in 1851, the year prior to his departure. Tusculum was then purchased by William Long. (Clive Lucas & Partners P/L (Ref 1), 8-9)

The authorship of the substantial alterations undertaken at Tusculum for William Long is not certain. It is likely that John F. Hilly may have been the architect. Hilly did a lot of work in the Potts Point, Darlinghurst and Woolloomooloo areas and owned a local quarry. The cast iron balustrade design on the verandahs at Tusculum is very similar to those at Fiona, Edgecliff (1864), Guntawang (1869-70) and the Prince of Wales Theatre (1863) all works of Hilly.

Tusculum was auctioned on 21st October 1904. Lewis Edward Isaacs bid (Pounds)3,750 for Lot 1 which included the house. Isaacs engaged the architect, John Burcham Clamp to undertake extensive alterations to the staircase and stair hall and a tender was let to Mr. John White. Tusculum was purchased by Orwell and Alfred Phillips in 1906. Orwell later purchased his brother's share in the property. It is likely that Burcham Clamp was also responsible for the Billiard Room addition. He did other work for the Phillips family (such as a house at Moss Vale, c.1915). (Note: Later owners and their modifications are documented under Modifications).

In the 1920s and 1930s, the original villas and the later grand 19th century residences were demolished to make way for blocks of flats, hotels and later, soaring towers of units. Today only 5 of the original 17 villas still stand, with the lost villas and other grand houses commemorated in the names of the streets of Potts Point, Darlinghurst and Kings Cross (State Library, 2002).

Following its use as a serviceman's club during WW2 and a private nursing home, the building fell into disrepair and was the subject of a compulsory resumption in 1983, being the first under the provisions of the (then) recently gazetted NSW Heritage Act 1977.

Subsequently, the Royal Australian Institute of Architects (NSW Chapter) leased Tusculum for 99 years, on the condition that it will be responsible as custodian for the restoration and maintenance of the building and for making it available for public enjoyment. In addition, the Government sold the freehold of the back section of the Tusculum site to the RAIA and the Heritage Council gave permission for a new building to be constructed adjoining the villa. The new building, which was the subject of a national competition, won by the architectural firm Levine & Durbach, houses the RAIA and subsidiary organisations, a 143 seat auditorium, and offices.

The restored villa is used for meeting rooms, a gallery and for receptions.

The two buildings operate as one complex, a combination of restored nineteenth century heritage and quality 1980s architecture. Clive Lucas, OBE, FRAIA, a prominent conservation architect and the leading authority on John Verge was commissioned by the RAIA to undertake the conservation work. The restoration is intended to evoke the early to mid Victorian period and was completed in 1987 in accordance with the 'Draft Conservation Policy' in Reference 1. Both buildings were officially opened by the Premier of NSW on 11 March 1988 (Press release RAIA c1988).

Historic themes

Australian theme (abbrev)New South Wales themeLocal theme
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Environment - cultural landscape-Activities associated with the interactions between humans, human societies and the shaping of their physical surroundings Gardens and landscapes reminiscent of an 'old country'-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Accommodation-Activities associated with the provision of accommodation, and particular types of accommodation – does not include architectural styles – use the theme of Creative Endeavour for such activities. Gentlemens Mansions-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Accommodation-Activities associated with the provision of accommodation, and particular types of accommodation – does not include architectural styles – use the theme of Creative Endeavour for such activities. Housing the prosperous - mansions in town and country-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Land tenure-Activities and processes for identifying forms of ownership and occupancy of land and water, both Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Sub-division of large estates-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Towns, suburbs and villages-Activities associated with creating, planning and managing urban functions, landscapes and lifestyles in towns, suburbs and villages Indicators of early town planning and the disposition of people within the emerging settlement-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Towns, suburbs and villages-Activities associated with creating, planning and managing urban functions, landscapes and lifestyles in towns, suburbs and villages Creating landmark structures and places in urban settings-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Towns, suburbs and villages-Activities associated with creating, planning and managing urban functions, landscapes and lifestyles in towns, suburbs and villages Developing suburbia-
7. Governing-Governing Government and Administration-Activities associated with the governance of local areas, regions, the State and the nation, and the administration of public programs - includes both principled and corrupt activities. Developing roles for government - providing rail transport-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Creative endeavour-Activities associated with the production and performance of literary, artistic, architectural and other imaginative, interpretive or inventive works; and/or associated with the production and expression of cultural phenomena; and/or environments that have inspired such creative activities. (none)-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Domestic life-Activities associated with creating, maintaining, living in and working around houses and institutions. At home with a national leader-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Domestic life-Activities associated with creating, maintaining, living in and working around houses and institutions. Living in suburbia-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Religion-Activities associated with particular systems of faith and worship (none)-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Religion-Activities associated with particular systems of faith and worship Practising Anglicanism-
9. Phases of Life-Marking the phases of life Persons-Activities of, and associations with, identifiable individuals, families and communal groups (none)-
9. Phases of Life-Marking the phases of life Persons-Activities of, and associations with, identifiable individuals, families and communal groups Associations with John Verge, architect-
9. Phases of Life-Marking the phases of life Persons-Activities of, and associations with, identifiable individuals, families and communal groups Associations with Bishop William Grant Broughton, Anglican bishop of Australia-
9. Phases of Life-Marking the phases of life Persons-Activities of, and associations with, identifiable individuals, families and communal groups Associations with Slim Dusty-

Assessment of significance

SHR Criteria a)
[Historical significance]
Designed by the famous architect John Verge, Tusculum is one of the finest Regency mansions in Sydney remaining from the early Colonial period. It was built between 1831-35 for wealthy merchant A B Spark but its first occupant was Bishop Broughton, first Bishop of Australia. The building retains important historical associations with many famous people of the early Colonial era.Together with its neighbour 'Rockwall', also by John Verge, Tusculum was one of the first villas built on Woolloomooloo Hill as part of the Colonial Government’s attempt to establish a prestigious enclave for the gentry in the 1830s. It retains strong historical and architectural associations with Rockwall, one of the few other colonial villas to have survived. (Clive Lucas & Partners, pp49-49)
SHR Criteria c)
[Aesthetic significance]
A building of elegant detail and proportion, Tusculum retains strong associations with Rockwall, as two related works by the one architect in the same locale. Tusculum is one of the few colonial houses to display the attributes of a villa, with basement service rooms and stair. It is an excellent example of the transformation of a Regency villa of high architectural quality into a mid-Victorian Italianate mansion. (Clive Lucas & Partners, pp48-49)
SHR Criteria d)
[Social significance]
During its occupation by Bishop Broughton, it assumed the status of the most important domestic building in the colony, after Government House. As a social document, Tusculum demonstrates the 'upstairs / downstairs' nature of domestic administration, typical of nineteenth century English houses.

In its association with A B Spark, it symbolises a rise in his fortune in the 1820s, financial decline with the collapse of the Bank of Australia, through to the depression of the 1840s. It is the principal physical manifestation of the life of the emancipist William Long and his family whose occupation, alterations and substantial additions indicate his rise to fortune social acceptance as a merchant. (Clive Lucas & Partners, pp48-49)

Tusculum was one of a few buildings to achieve recognition in the early twentieth century as a residence of significance reflecting a growing maturity. Its resumption by the New South Wales Government was the first instance of the application of the provisions of the NSW Heritage Act, 1977 and indicates awareness and acceptance of the principles of heritage conservation. In the custody of the Royal Australian Institute of Architects NSW Chapter, Tusculum has been restored to evoke the early to mid-Victorian period. It is accessible to the public through public openings and through its use as a conference and meeting venue in association with the activities of the RAIA. (Press release RAIA c March 1988)
SHR Criteria e)
[Research potential]
The site offers potential to explore the construction techniques and materials of Colonial Sydney and of later periods and as an example for comparative analysis of a rare villa design.
SHR Criteria f)
[Rarity]
One of a handful of colonial villas and a rare surviving work of John Verge, a prominent architect of colonial times.
Integrity/Intactness: Retaining significant components of the original Verge design, with overlays of other periods particularly 1870's verandah rework and internal stair modifications dating to Edwardian times. Accretions removed in 1980s conservation work include fire-damage.
Assessment criteria: Items are assessed against the PDF State Heritage Register (SHR) Criteria to determine the level of significance. Refer to the Listings below for the level of statutory protection.

Recommended management:

Update Fabric Survey and Conservation Analysis to indicate original fabric after conservation works completed in 1987. It would therefore not be possible to reconstruct the garden which once existed around the house. However it is possible to construct a garden as an appropriate setting for the house (CMP, 1985, section 6.4.7 Setting & 6.4.8 Garden). - An appropriate setting for the building should be provided and maintained; - The practical impossibility of reconstructing the elaborate 19th century garden of Tusculum should be recognised; - The front fence to Manning Street should be reconstructed to its c.1920 state (from photographic evidence (CMP, 1985, (Policy) 7.5 Setting). The spacious setting which Tusculum once enjoyed as one of the villas of Woolloomooloo Hill, has been savagely eroded by a series of subdivisions. There is no visible evidence of the 19th century garden of Tusculum. Archaeological investigation may produce some evidence (CMP, 1985, section 4.3.3 Garden - original).

Procedures /Exemptions

Section of actDescriptionTitleCommentsAction date
57(2)Exemption to allow workHeritage Act Record converted from HIS events. Refer to standard exemptions gazetted 23 October 1998.

Order under Section 57(2) to exempt the following activities from Section 57(1):
with respect to the carrying out of an activity by the Council of the City of Sydney pursuant to an Order by that Council under sections 317B or 317D of the Local Government Act, 1919, subject to the prior approval of the Heritage Council of NSW, on the building known as 'Tusculum', Nos 1-3 Manning Street Potts Point.
Dec 31 1982
57(2)Exemption to allow workStandard Exemptions SCHEDULE OF STANDARD EXEMPTIONS
HERITAGE ACT 1977
Notice of Order Under Section 57 (2) of the Heritage Act 1977

I, the Minister for Planning, pursuant to subsection 57(2) of the Heritage Act 1977, on the recommendation of the Heritage Council of New South Wales, do by this Order:

1. revoke the Schedule of Exemptions to subsection 57(1) of the Heritage Act made under subsection 57(2) and published in the Government Gazette on 22 February 2008; and

2. grant standard exemptions from subsection 57(1) of the Heritage Act 1977, described in the Schedule attached.

FRANK SARTOR
Minister for Planning
Sydney, 11 July 2008

To view the schedule click on the Standard Exemptions for Works Requiring Heritage Council Approval link below.
Sep 5 2008

PDF Standard exemptions for works requiring Heritage Council approval

Listings

Heritage ListingListing TitleListing NumberGazette DateGazette NumberGazette Page
Heritage Act - State Heritage Register 0002702 Apr 99 271546
Heritage Act - Permanent Conservation Order - former 0002714 Dec 79 1786350
Heritage Act - s.170 NSW State agency heritage register     
National Trust of Australia register  1058705 Apr 76   
Register of the National Estate 203421 Mar 78   

References, internet links & images

TypeAuthorYearTitleInternet Links
TourismAttraction Homepage2007Passion Walking Tour View detail
WrittenCasey & Lowe Archaeologists2010Tusculum Forecourt Carpark - Archaeological Monitoring
WrittenCasey & Lowe Archaeologists2010Tusculum, 3 Manning Street, Potts Point - Archaeological Site Inspection 2 February 2010
WrittenClive Lucas & Partners Pty Ltd.1985Tusculum 1-3 Manning Street Potts Point, NSW, Australia: conservation analysis and draft conservation policy arising out of the statement of cultural significance
WrittenDavid Liddle2004Archival heritage record, first floor renovations, Tusculum, Potts Point
WrittenState Library of NSW2002Villas of Darlinghurst (exhibition catalogue), entry on Tusculum
WrittenTerry Kass1983History of "Tusculum", 1-3 Manning Street, Potts Point.

Note: internet links may be to web pages, documents or images.

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Data source

The information for this entry comes from the following source:
Name: Heritage Office
Database number: 5045157
File number: 10/03818; S90/06199 & HC 32078


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