Hammond and Wheatley Commercial Emporium | NSW Environment & Heritage

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Hammond and Wheatley Commercial Emporium

Item details

Name of item: Hammond and Wheatley Commercial Emporium
Type of item: Built
Group/Collection: Retail and Wholesale
Category: Shop
Location: Lat: -30.4517664921 Long: 152.8964329650
Primary address: 69-75 Hyde Street, Bellingen, NSW 2454
Parish: South Bellingen
County: Raleigh
Local govt. area: Bellingen
Local Aboriginal Land Council: Bowraville
Property description
Lot/Volume CodeLot/Volume NumberSection NumberPlan/Folio CodePlan/Folio Number
LOT10 DP844098
All addresses
Street AddressSuburb/townLGAParishCountyType
69-75 Hyde StreetBellingenBellingenSouth BellingenRaleighPrimary Address

Owner/s

Organisation NameOwner CategoryDate Ownership Updated
Davpond Pty. Ltd.Private11 Mar 99

Statement of significance:

The Hammond & Wheatley Commercial Emporium is a rare two-storey commercial building type, formerly common in regional areas. The construction of concrete block and large steel beams is unusual for the Federation period. Considerable original detail remains including decorative cement render to the fa├žade, pressed metal ceilings and cedar joinery.
Date significance updated: 28 May 07
Note: The State Heritage Inventory provides information about heritage items listed by local and State government agencies. The State Heritage Inventory is continually being updated by local and State agencies as new information becomes available. Read the OEH copyright and disclaimer.

Description

Designer/Maker: George Edward Moore
Builder/Maker: George Edward Moore
Construction years: 1908-1909
Physical description: The emporium is a two-storey building constructed of concrete blocks. Steel beams support the first floor front facade and were initially used to span across the shop windows below. Steel beams are also used within the floor to increase the available floor span. The beams are supported by slender steel columns which have been encased in timber and mirrors.

The ground floor is constructed of conventional timber framing with hardwood boarding. The first floor is in hardwood framing and boarding but panelled on the underside with an ornate 'Wunderlich' pressed metal ceiling.

The roof is a trussed roof, sheeted on top with galvanised corrugated steel and internally with pine tongue and groove boards. At the centre of the roof is a high clerestory surrounded by pivoting opening sashes.

The joinery in the turned posts on the top floor and the handrail around the mezzanine and staircase are made from local timbers - Cedar, Rosewood and Hoop Pine. (NSW Real Estate & LJ Hooker 1992) An awning extends over the footpath. Shop fittings do not generally survive. (Kass 1992:13)
Physical condition and/or
Archaeological potential:
The building is genrally intact, having been restored.
Modifications and dates: 1917 - Single storey addition
1917-1988 - The awning was demolished - supposedly in the 1930s and
minor changes were made as condition of the building deteriorated.
Mid 1980s - Restoration of exterior commenced
1988 - Complete restoration commenced
(NSW Real Esate & LJ Hooker 1992)
Current use: Commercial
Former use: Commerical

History

Historical notes: In 1900 W.J.Hammond and A.E.Wheatley purchased The Reform Store and changed the name to Hammond & Wheatley Pty Ltd. They built the business uo to such an extent the building was not large enough and they decided to extend. (Bellinger Courier Sun)

The two storey premises were constructed over the original Hammond & Wheatley store which began operations in 1900. The current building, Australia's first cement brick building, was completed in 1909. George Moore cast a sign on the front of the building claiming he was both the architect and the builder. In a small village, the project was a grand one. It is likely that the proprieters were influenced by grand shopping arcades such as 'The Strand" and 'The Queen Victoria Building'.

The store serviced the local areas by bullock team and boat. Its remarkable success and ensuing prosperity made possible the erection of a single storey addition in 1917. Mr Wheatley died early but the business remained in the Hammond family until 1988.

The 1908-09 building was one of the first buildings in Australia to be made of concrete block. George Moore was an extremely innovative builder and had imported a machine from America to build the blocks with. He put the machine to good use, building a number of other premises using the blocks. The Emporium was also one of the first buildings in Bellingen to use rolled steel beams as few buildings had previously had the scale to warrant this type of construction.

In the mid 1980s the exterior of the building was reconstructed, having deteriorated very badly over the passing years. During the reconstruction the shop continued to operate along it's traditional lines, selling principally clothing and fabrics. However, a door was opened through to the next door supermarket and a small museum for local displays was built on the first floor.

In 1988 redevelopment of Hammond & Wheatley was begun under the new owner. A cafe was added and the ground floor was subdivided into three shops. The subdivision was sympathetic to the floor and little else of the interior was altered. (NSW Real Estate & L.J Hooker 1992)

Historic themes

Australian theme (abbrev)New South Wales themeLocal theme
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Commerce-Activities relating to buying, selling and exchanging goods and services (none)-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Commerce-Activities relating to buying, selling and exchanging goods and services Retailing-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Environment - cultural landscape-Activities associated with the interactions between humans, human societies and the shaping of their physical surroundings Developing local, regional and national economies-National Theme 3
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Towns, suburbs and villages-Activities associated with creating, planning and managing urban functions, landscapes and lifestyles in towns, suburbs and villages 19th century suburban developments-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Towns, suburbs and villages-Activities associated with creating, planning and managing urban functions, landscapes and lifestyles in towns, suburbs and villages Beautifying towns and villages-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Towns, suburbs and villages-Activities associated with creating, planning and managing urban functions, landscapes and lifestyles in towns, suburbs and villages Commercial store, shop-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Towns, suburbs and villages-Activities associated with creating, planning and managing urban functions, landscapes and lifestyles in towns, suburbs and villages 19th Century Infrastructure-

Assessment of significance

SHR Criteria a)
[Historical significance]
Associative - Its association with the commercial development of the town (Kass 1992:13)
SHR Criteria c)
[Aesthetic significance]
Its contribution to the visual character of the main street of the settlement and the architectural quality of detail and the intactness of the fabric. (Kass 1992:13)
SHR Criteria e)
[Research potential]
An early example of the use of concrete blocks (Kass 1993:13)
SHR Criteria f)
[Rarity]
Aesthetically rare (Kass 1992: 13)
Assessment criteria: Items are assessed against the PDF State Heritage Register (SHR) Criteria to determine the level of significance. Refer to the Listings below for the level of statutory protection.

Procedures /Exemptions

Section of actDescriptionTitleCommentsAction date
57(2)Exemption to allow workHeritage Act See File For Schedule


(1) The maintenance of any building or item on the site where maintenance means the continuous protective care of existing material; and
(2) Garden maintenance including cultivation, pruning, weed control, the repair and maintenance of existing fences, gates and garden walls, and tree surgery but not extensive lopping.
Aug 4 1989
57(2)Exemption to allow workStandard Exemptions SCHEDULE OF STANDARD EXEMPTIONS
HERITAGE ACT 1977
Notice of Order Under Section 57 (2) of the Heritage Act 1977

I, the Minister for Planning, pursuant to subsection 57(2) of the Heritage Act 1977, on the recommendation of the Heritage Council of New South Wales, do by this Order:

1. revoke the Schedule of Exemptions to subsection 57(1) of the Heritage Act made under subsection 57(2) and published in the Government Gazette on 22 February 2008; and

2. grant standard exemptions from subsection 57(1) of the Heritage Act 1977, described in the Schedule attached.

FRANK SARTOR
Minister for Planning
Sydney, 11 July 2008

To view the schedule click on the Standard Exemptions for Works Requiring Heritage Council Approval link below.
Sep 5 2008

PDF Standard exemptions for works requiring Heritage Council approval

Listings

Heritage ListingListing TitleListing NumberGazette DateGazette NumberGazette Page
Heritage Act - State Heritage Register 0018602 Apr 99 271546
Heritage Act - Permanent Conservation Order - former 0018628 May 82 74 
Regional Environmental Plan  23 Dec 94   
Register of the National Estate  21 Mar 78   

Study details

TitleYearNumberAuthorInspected byGuidelines used
Wyong Shire Heritage Study1994S04Rod Howard Heritage Conservation Pty Ltd  Yes

References, internet links & images

TypeAuthorYearTitleInternet Links
WrittenBellinger Courier-Sun 'Hammond & Wheatley. The first Building in Australia with Solid Concrete Blocks.' In Dept Urban Affairs & Planning Central Registry File
WrittenNSW Real Estate Coffs Harbour & LJ Hooker Bellingen1992Property Report. Bellingen's Hammond & Wheatley Commercial Emporium.

Note: internet links may be to web pages, documents or images.

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Data source

The information for this entry comes from the following source:
Name: Heritage Office
Database number: 5045183
File number: S90/05728 & HC 32589


Every effort has been made to ensure that information contained in the State Heritage Inventory is correct. If you find any errors or omissions please send your comments to the Database Manager.

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