Homestead, The | NSW Environment & Heritage

Culture and heritage

Heritage

Homestead, The

Item details

Name of item: Homestead, The
Other name/s: The Homestead, Chipping Norton Homestead
Type of item: Complex / Group
Group/Collection: Residential buildings (private)
Category: Homestead building
Location: Lat: -33.9062905463 Long: 150.9590630280
Primary address: Charlton Avenue, Chipping Norton, NSW 2170
Parish: Holsworthy
County: Cumberland
Local govt. area: Liverpool
Local Aboriginal Land Council: Gandangara
Property description
Lot/Volume CodeLot/Volume NumberSection NumberPlan/Folio CodePlan/Folio Number
LOT354 DP752034
All addresses
Street AddressSuburb/townLGAParishCountyType
Charlton AvenueChipping NortonLiverpoolHolsworthyCumberlandPrimary Address

Owner/s

Organisation NameOwner CategoryDate Ownership Updated
Chipping Norton Lakes AuthorityState Government25 Mar 99

Description

Construction years: 1884-1893
Physical description: The Homestead Group consists of :
1. A late Victorian Italianate style residence of rendered brickwork with attached rear service/accommodation wings,
2. A pair of more recent outbuildings,
3. Remnant planting from earlier landscaping,
4. A small timber garden shed and
5. The site of the former timber stables.

The group is located on level land overlooking the sand mining activities of Lake Moore. The site landscaping comprises areas of grassed lawn scattered in an informal manner with a number of large trees and more recent shrubs and young trees. Early components which remain include pine trees, an olive grove and a number of large peppercorn trees. Interspersed with these, however, are some inappropriate plantings including melaleucas (LEP, 1995).

Grounds
The Homestead Group consists of a number of archaeological and early landscape features. The vegetation is a mixture of native and introduced trees, shrubs and grass species. Tree and shrub species include camphor laurels (Cinnamommum camphora), Himalayan cedar (Cedrus deodara), gums (Eucalyptus spp.), silky oaks (Grevillea robusta), jacarandas (J.mimosifolia), pencil cedar (Juniperus virginiana), oleander (Nerium oleander), African olives (Olea europaea var.africana), Monterey pines (Pinus radiata), Cape honeysuckle/tecoma (Tecomaria capensis and coastal redwood (Sequoia sempervirens)(1981 existing landscape plan, in Thorp, 1985).

Of the trees, four camphor laurels (Cinnamomum camphora, 3 growing very near to the original kitchen/laundry wing on the south-eastern side of The Homestead are over 100 years old. Other trees nearby include a group of tall fan palms (Washingtonia robusta) and Monterey pines further away. Underplantings under the camphor laurels close to The Homestead include ladder ferns (Nephrolepsis sp)., Kaffir lilies (Clivia miniata), a tree fern (Cyathea sp.), spider plants (Chlorophytum comosum) and Philodendron villosum. Areas of concrete paving are close to the original kitchen/laundry wing.

The present garden area surrounding the residence contains a number of archaeological elements. On the north and south side are several features that relate to the former garden layout. This includes an old driveway formation evident in the grass and remnants of former bitumen and concrete paths and garden edges. To the east of the house the remains of a concrete fountain structure are evident, it is now covered by a large wooden cover.

To the rear (south) of the building is a circular cistern constructed of brick. The cistern has diameter of c.2.6m and is 4m deep.

Outside the northern boundary of the group is a concrete horse trough that measures 3.2m x 0.85m.

The grounds also contain the archaeological site of the former late 19th century timber stables and coach house. Located south of the rear of the main house the site is marked by a wooden interpretative sign. Foundations of this structure still remain. The foundations are rectangular and displayed within them are a number of old agricultural tools. The signage, which is badly weathered and partly illegible, reads:
"This is the site of the former stables ? and coach house (north wing) which was erected in 1887
by WA Long the original owner of the Homestead. In the early 1920s the coach house became temporary accommodation for the Chipping Norton School until the Central Ave school was built.
The structure consisted of New Zealand ? weatherboard lining on ? framing with corrugated iron roofing and concrete floors. Unfortunately (?) the badly deteriorated building collapsed during storms in the early 1990.
Chipping Norton Lake Scheme." (LCC, 15/7/2004).

Homestead
The Homestead is a single storey Victorian Italianate residence of stuccoed brickwork with a hipped slate roof and rendered brickwork chimneys. A verandah surrounds two sides of the building, its slightly curved corrugated iron clad roof supported on circular cast iron columns and decorated with cast iron cornered brackets. On the front elevation the verandah abuts a hipped roofed wing and projecting 3 sided bay window. Italianate renderwork decoration includes brackets and raised panels under the eaves and mouldings around the round headed windows. The verandah floor is paved with tessellated tiles and edged with sandstone. The front door has fielded panels with stained glass leadlights above and in the fanlight and side light.
The interior of the house was described in the 1992 Heritage Study. There were five main rooms, each with good fireplace surrounds, mostly marble. The door and window joinery and architraves and skirtings were generally intact and in good repair. Some original plaster ceilings and cornices survived. Others were replaced with pressed metal. Towards the rear of the house was a large room lit by rooflights and paved with tessellated tiles. Access to the interior of the building was not gained during inspections undertaken in 2004 (LEP, 1995).
Physical condition and/or
Archaeological potential:
The potential archaeological resource described in section 3.2 could occupy a substantial area well beyond the immediate environs of the house and encompass a lengthy chronological period dating back to the earliest years of European occupation in this district with the possibility of even longer human association if Aboriginal relics were identified during the course of earthworks. Although areas of this site, essentially the former Block 354 of the Soldier Settlement subdivision, have been disturbed it all should still be considered archaeologically sensitive.

The identifiable archaeological resource is much smaller and is associated with the immediate environs of The Homestead. It may be demonstrated by comparing the results of the present survey with that of 1985 (Thorp) that this resource has been substantially reduced by the impact of works associated with the development of the lakes and parkland. None of these sites were recorded before they were destroyed or damaged.

The assemblage of identifiable sites encompasses items that substantially contribute to the documentation and interpretation of this place. These include what appear to be a rare form of underground storage, substantial additions to the Homestead and landscape components including the carriage drive.

In every case they have the potential to yield significant new information through archaeological investigation (Cultural Resources Management, in Rod Howard & Associates, CMP, 2004, 73).

The building is generally in good condition. It was restored and refurbished by the NSW Dept. of Public Works in the early 1990s (LCC, 15/7/2004).
Modifications to major frontages are relatively minor. Unsympathetic roll-up metal awnings recorded over the projecting bay windows in 1991 have since been removed. The building and site was refurbished by the Dept. of Public Works in the early 1990s and were most likely removed as part of these works. A wooden fence recorded to the rear of the house in 1992 has also been removed.

High archaeological potential.
The Homestead Group consists of a number of archaeological and early landscape features. The present garden area surrounding the large residence contains a number of archaeological elements. On the north and south side of the house are several features that relate to the former garden layout. This includes an old driveway formation evident in the grass and remnants of former bitumen and concrete paths and garden edges. To the east of the house the remains of a concrete fountain structure are evident, it is now covered by a large wooden cover.
To the rear (south) of the building is a circular cistern constructed of brick. The cistern has diameter of c.2.6m and is 4m deep.
Outside the northern boundary of the group is a concrete horse trough that measures 3.2m x 0.85m.

The grounds of the group also contain the archaeological site of the former late 19th century timber stables and coach house. (LCC, 15/7/2004).

A large amount of archaeological evidence may be observed on site, even during a cursory inspection, although the lack of precise documentation makes the location of specific sites difficult and some confusion over the nature of various sites complicates the issue. It is considered that aerial photographs would be of enormous value as would original copies of archival photographs. A complete survey of the site for archaeological features and landscape features is necessary.

In addition to the above a considerable quantity of structures were located on the property which are either not mentioned in the original thesis or not explained and these must be considered, in particular a series of underground storage tanks, 2 small sheds to the north of the house in the olive trees, 2 or 3 small structures to the north-east of the house in the trees and a small cottage located immediately east of and adjacent to the house (Thorp, 1985, 23).
Date condition updated:10 Dec 07
Modifications and dates: The group was refurbished prior to 1992 with buildings repaired/restored, the landscape "tidied up" and a picket fence erected along the front (northern) boundary.
A wishing well "superstructure", constructed of timber with a shingled gable roof and a timber windlass, recorded over the brick cistern in 1992 has been removed (LCC, 15/7/2004).
Current use: residence; area used for recreation
Former use: Aboriginal land, farming, horse breeding, grazing, residence, community park

History

Historical notes: Situated near the Georges River north of Moorebank, Chipping Norton was a farming area throughout the 19th century and into the 20th century. It was named after an old English village by William Alexander Long, who was born in Sydney in 1839, went to England to study law, and later lived in Chipping Norton in Oxfordshire. He bought up a number of former land grants in the area at the turn of the century and called his homestead Chipping Norton. The horse stud on part of his property produced many fine young horses. He died in 1915 and the Government bought his estate and subdivided it into farming blocks for soldiers returning from the First World War (Pollen, 1996, 61).

The Homestead was built on land that, prior to European settlement, was largely characterised by open eucalypt forest with swamp areas along the river. There are no identified sites of Aboriginal occupation within The Homestead and its near environs. The earliest Europeans to visit the area of modern day Chipping Norton were George Bass and Matthew Flinders, followed by Governor Hunter in 1797. Land grants were made in the area from the late 1790s. The earliest alienation of The Homestead site for European occupation in the late eighteenth century is poorly documented.

One of the first settlers in the area was George Johnston of the NSW Corps who received a substantial land grant at the junction of the Georges River and Prospect Creek. Johnston's homestead, George's Hall, was built on a rise overlooking the river. Owing to flooding, a second house was built on the property in the 1830s. Both houses are still extant on the opposite side of the river from The Homestead. Johnston also held land in the area of The Homestead (90 acres). Johnston owned several major properties, including his main property at Annandale, and other holdings at Bankstown, Cabramatta and Lake Illawarra.

Adjoining Johnston's land south of the Georges River, was 85 acres granted to Thomas Rowley, another officer of the NSW Corps, in 1798. Rowley also held land at Bankstown, Petersham, and Liberty Plains (Concord) which was probably his principal residence. Rowley died of consumption in 1806.

On the basis of what is known of Johnston's and Rowley's activities as well as the more general pattern of documented occupation in this period it is unlikely that substantial dwellings were erected on either property. The earliest use of the site, after both grants were cleared, probably was for pasturage and/or agricultural development, grain or hay crops. It is possible that some small huts used by convict workers managing these activities were erected on the properties. There is little or no direct evidence for the use of the specific site of the later area of The Homestead, although the position of the Homestead on a rise above the river makes it a likely potential occupation site in earlier periods.

Rowley's grant passed to Robert Campbell junior by 1822. In 1837 the land was purchased by Samuel Bowler. The use of the site from the 1830s to the 1870s is unknown. It is possible that the land remaining in the Johnston family possession continued to be used in the same manner. Samuel Bowler kept the land for nearly thirty years. This length of time suggests that Bowler was using the property, probably as a farm. In 1865 Bowler sold the former Rowley grant to David Johnston, thus consolidating the two grants at the bend of the Georges River within one family ownership. The Johnston family of Georges Hall retained the land until 1883 when they sold the former Rowley grant to Alfred Smart, who had also acquired the adjoining Johnston grant. Smart sold both properties to William Long in 1884.

The Historical Analysis and Archaeological Assessment report which forms Part 1 of this document outlines the history of the subject property and its environs from pre-European occupation through the first land grants in the district during the late eighteenth century, agricultural uses throughout much of the nineteenth century up to the establishment of a private racecourse and nearby residence by horse trainer and politician William Long in the mid 1880s. Mr Long called his estate Chipping Norton. In 1893 the Chipping Norton Estate comprised over 500 acres, making it one of the largest private landholdings in the area.

The 1890s recession severely affected Long who was forced to mortgage the entire estate by 1899.

The history of the property is then traced following a succession of owners in the early twentieth century to the time when it was associated with the Soldier Settlement Area and subdivided into a series of small farms. At this time block containing The Homestead also had a Cottage/office, Bulk Stable with stalls and bails, Coach house and stables, as well as a number of sheds and windmills.

The Homestead was requisitioned for wartime occupation by the military in 1942-43, and became the home of the Fairall family during the 1960's and 1970s. In 1975 The National Trust of Australia (NSW) classified the property for its cultural heritage values.

In 1978, The Homestead was acquired by the NSW Department of Environment and Planning as part of a larger acquisition for the purposes of implementing the Chipping Norton Lakes Scheme. The Homestead was leased as a restaurant and entertainment facility in the early 1990s. The place was added to the surrounding reserve for public recreation in April 1992, when Liverpool City Council as Trust manager for the reserve became the lessor of the Lease. Following expiry of the lease in 1998, Liverpool City Council has been investigating appropriate future uses for The Homestead (Rod Howard & Associates, et al., 2004).

Historic themes

Australian theme (abbrev)New South Wales themeLocal theme
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Agriculture-Activities relating to the cultivation and rearing of plant and animal species, usually for commercial purposes, can include aquaculture Private farming-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Agriculture-Activities relating to the cultivation and rearing of plant and animal species, usually for commercial purposes, can include aquaculture cropping river flats-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Agriculture-Activities relating to the cultivation and rearing of plant and animal species, usually for commercial purposes, can include aquaculture Farming wheat and other grains-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Agriculture-Activities relating to the cultivation and rearing of plant and animal species, usually for commercial purposes, can include aquaculture Clearing land for farming-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Agriculture-Activities relating to the cultivation and rearing of plant and animal species, usually for commercial purposes, can include aquaculture Farming by detainees and prisoners-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Agriculture-Activities relating to the cultivation and rearing of plant and animal species, usually for commercial purposes, can include aquaculture Ancillary structures - windmills-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Agriculture-Activities relating to the cultivation and rearing of plant and animal species, usually for commercial purposes, can include aquaculture Farming with convict labour-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Agriculture-Activities relating to the cultivation and rearing of plant and animal species, usually for commercial purposes, can include aquaculture Ancillary structures fencing-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Agriculture-Activities relating to the cultivation and rearing of plant and animal species, usually for commercial purposes, can include aquaculture Cereal production-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Agriculture-Activities relating to the cultivation and rearing of plant and animal species, usually for commercial purposes, can include aquaculture Cropping-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Agriculture-Activities relating to the cultivation and rearing of plant and animal species, usually for commercial purposes, can include aquaculture Rural Estates-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Environment - cultural landscape-Activities associated with the interactions between humans, human societies and the shaping of their physical surroundings Significant Places How are significant places marked in the landscape by, or for, different groups-Monuments and Sites
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Environment - cultural landscape-Activities associated with the interactions between humans, human societies and the shaping of their physical surroundings Developing local, regional and national economies-National Theme 3
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Pastoralism-Activities associated with the breeding, raising, processing and distribution of livestock for human use pastoral homestead-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Pastoralism-Activities associated with the breeding, raising, processing and distribution of livestock for human use Modifying landscapes to increase productivity-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Accommodation-Activities associated with the provision of accommodation, and particular types of accommodation – does not include architectural styles – use the theme of Creative Endeavour for such activities. Country Homes-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Accommodation-Activities associated with the provision of accommodation, and particular types of accommodation – does not include architectural styles – use the theme of Creative Endeavour for such activities. gentlemen's residences-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Accommodation-Activities associated with the provision of accommodation, and particular types of accommodation – does not include architectural styles – use the theme of Creative Endeavour for such activities. Adapted heritage building or structure-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Accommodation-Activities associated with the provision of accommodation, and particular types of accommodation – does not include architectural styles – use the theme of Creative Endeavour for such activities. Country Villa-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Accommodation-Activities associated with the provision of accommodation, and particular types of accommodation – does not include architectural styles – use the theme of Creative Endeavour for such activities. Housing farming families-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Land tenure-Activities and processes for identifying forms of ownership and occupancy of land and water, both Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Resuming private lands for public purposes-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Land tenure-Activities and processes for identifying forms of ownership and occupancy of land and water, both Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Sub-division for soldier settlements-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Land tenure-Activities and processes for identifying forms of ownership and occupancy of land and water, both Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Sub-division of large estates-
7. Governing-Governing Defence-Activities associated with defending places from hostile takeover and occupation Soldier Settlement schemes and facilities-
7. Governing-Governing Defence-Activities associated with defending places from hostile takeover and occupation Involvement with the Second World War-
7. Governing-Governing Government and Administration-Activities associated with the governance of local areas, regions, the State and the nation, and the administration of public programs - includes both principled and corrupt activities. State government-
7. Governing-Governing Government and Administration-Activities associated with the governance of local areas, regions, the State and the nation, and the administration of public programs - includes both principled and corrupt activities. resumption for heritage conservation-
7. Governing-Governing Government and Administration-Activities associated with the governance of local areas, regions, the State and the nation, and the administration of public programs - includes both principled and corrupt activities. Grants of land for agriculture-
7. Governing-Governing Government and Administration-Activities associated with the governance of local areas, regions, the State and the nation, and the administration of public programs - includes both principled and corrupt activities. local government-
7. Governing-Governing Government and Administration-Activities associated with the governance of local areas, regions, the State and the nation, and the administration of public programs - includes both principled and corrupt activities. Public works-
7. Governing-Governing Government and Administration-Activities associated with the governance of local areas, regions, the State and the nation, and the administration of public programs - includes both principled and corrupt activities. Developing roles for government - conserving cultural and natural heritage-
7. Governing-Governing Government and Administration-Activities associated with the governance of local areas, regions, the State and the nation, and the administration of public programs - includes both principled and corrupt activities. Developing roles for government - building and operating public infrastructure-
7. Governing-Governing Government and Administration-Activities associated with the governance of local areas, regions, the State and the nation, and the administration of public programs - includes both principled and corrupt activities. Developing roles for government - parks and open spaces-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Leisure-Activities associated with recreation and relaxation Horse racing-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Leisure-Activities associated with recreation and relaxation community park-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Leisure-Activities associated with recreation and relaxation Visiting heritage places-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Leisure-Activities associated with recreation and relaxation Enjoying public parks and gardens-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Leisure-Activities associated with recreation and relaxation Gathering at landmark places to socialise-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Sport-Activities associated with organised recreational and health promotional activities Racing horses-
9. Phases of Life-Marking the phases of life Persons-Activities of, and associations with, identifiable individuals, families and communal groups Associations with William Long, farmer-
9. Phases of Life-Marking the phases of life Persons-Activities of, and associations with, identifiable individuals, families and communal groups Associations with racehorse 'Grand Flaneur'-
9. Phases of Life-Marking the phases of life Persons-Activities of, and associations with, identifiable individuals, families and communal groups Associations with Thomas Rowley, NSW Corps soldier, farmer-
9. Phases of Life-Marking the phases of life Persons-Activities of, and associations with, identifiable individuals, families and communal groups Associations with Robert Campbell Jr., businessman, farmer-
9. Phases of Life-Marking the phases of life Persons-Activities of, and associations with, identifiable individuals, families and communal groups Associations with Samuel Bowler, farmer-
9. Phases of Life-Marking the phases of life Persons-Activities of, and associations with, identifiable individuals, families and communal groups Associations with David Johnston, farmer-
9. Phases of Life-Marking the phases of life Persons-Activities of, and associations with, identifiable individuals, families and communal groups Associations with Alfred Smart, farmer-
9. Phases of Life-Marking the phases of life Persons-Activities of, and associations with, identifiable individuals, families and communal groups Associations with the Fairall family, farmers-

Recommended management:

Recommendations

Management CategoryDescriptionDate Updated
Recommended ManagementReview a Conservation Management Plan (CMP) 
Recommended ManagementPrepare a maintenance schedule or guidelines 
Recommended ManagementCarry out interpretation, promotion and/or education 

Procedures /Exemptions

Section of actDescriptionTitleCommentsAction date
57(2)Exemption to allow workStandard Exemptions SCHEDULE OF STANDARD EXEMPTIONS
HERITAGE ACT 1977
Notice of Order Under Section 57 (2) of the Heritage Act 1977

I, the Minister for Planning, pursuant to subsection 57(2) of the Heritage Act 1977, on the recommendation of the Heritage Council of New South Wales, do by this Order:

1. revoke the Schedule of Exemptions to subsection 57(1) of the Heritage Act made under subsection 57(2) and published in the Government Gazette on 22 February 2008; and

2. grant standard exemptions from subsection 57(1) of the Heritage Act 1977, described in the Schedule attached.

FRANK SARTOR
Minister for Planning
Sydney, 11 July 2008

To view the schedule click on the Standard Exemptions for Works Requiring Heritage Council Approval link below.
Sep 5 2008

PDF Standard exemptions for works requiring Heritage Council approval

Listings

Heritage ListingListing TitleListing NumberGazette DateGazette NumberGazette Page
Heritage Act - State Heritage Register 0021402 Apr 99 271546
Heritage Act - Permanent Conservation Order - former 0021418 Feb 83 320751
Local Environmental Plan 025203 Feb 95 011653
National Trust of Australia register  10468   

References, internet links & images

TypeAuthorYearTitleInternet Links
WrittenHistoric Buildings Group, Special Projects Section1985Chipping Norton House - Emergency Repairs; Extent of works on main house
WrittenKalemae, S. B. Arch thesis for University of Sydney
WrittenPollen, Francis (ed.)1996'Chipping Norton' in "The Book of Sydney Suburbs"
WrittenRappoport P/L2008Specification of Works - Proposed Tree Works & Landscaping at The Homestead - 1 Homestead Avenue - Chipping Norton
WrittenRappoport P/L2008Statement of Heritage Impact - Proposed Tree Works & Landscaping at The Homestead- 1 Homestead Avenue - Chipping Norton
WrittenRod Howard & Associates2007Proposed removal of three trees at The Homestead, Chipping Norton: statement to accompany section 60 application
WrittenRod Howard & Associates, Cultural Resources Management and Mayne-Wilson & Associates2004The Homestead Chipping Norton: Conservation plan
WrittenWendy Thorp Consultant Archaeologist1985Preliminary Archival & Archaeological Assessment - Chipping Norton Homestead

Note: internet links may be to web pages, documents or images.

rez rez rez rez rez rez
rez
(Click on thumbnail for full size image and image details)

Data source

The information for this entry comes from the following source:
Name: Heritage Office
Database number: 5045196
File number: 10/15944; S90/03601; HC 32784


Every effort has been made to ensure that information contained in the State Heritage Inventory is correct. If you find any errors or omissions please send your comments to the Database Manager.

All information and pictures on this page are the copyright of the Heritage Division or respective copyright owners.