Macquarie Lighthouse Site | NSW Environment & Heritage

Culture and heritage

Heritage

Macquarie Lighthouse Site

Item details

Name of item: Macquarie Lighthouse Site
Type of item: Built
Group/Collection: Transport - Water
Category: Lighthouse Station
Location: Lat: -33.8540252554 Long: 151.2853464330
Primary address: Old South Head Road, Vaucluse, NSW 2030
Parish: Alexandria
County: Cumberland
Local govt. area: Woollahra
Local Aboriginal Land Council: La Perouse
Property description
Lot/Volume CodeLot/Volume NumberSection NumberPlan/Folio CodePlan/Folio Number
LOT1 DP801240
LOT4 DP801240
LOT5 DP801240
LOT6 DP801240
LOT1 DP811578
LOT2 DP811578
All addresses
Street AddressSuburb/townLGAParishCountyType
Old South Head RoadVaucluseWoollahraAlexandriaCumberlandPrimary Address

Statement of significance:

The Macquarie Lighthouse site is of State significance as the location of the longest continuously operating site of a navigational beacon in Australia since 1794 and the site of the first lighthouse to be built in Australia in 1818.

The Macquarie Lighthouse is an important Australian historic landmark containing the rare remains of the early Palladian-inspired design by Francis Greenway and Governor Lachlan Macquarie, a rare replica of the original Greenway lighthouse, the oldest lighthouse keeper's quarters in Australia, and a substantial example of a mid-Victorian period NSW lightstation designed by James Barnet.
Date significance updated: 04 Sep 08
Note: The State Heritage Inventory provides information about heritage items listed by local and State government agencies. The State Heritage Inventory is continually being updated by local and State agencies as new information becomes available. Read the OEH copyright and disclaimer.

Description

Designer/Maker: James Barnet
Construction years: 1881-1883
Physical description: Lighthouse:
The Lighthouse is a circular tower approximately 5 metres in diameter with walls of sandstone blocks varying from .9m to 1.2m thick. The tower is founded on spread sandstone footings approximately 1.8m wide bearing on the rock. Two wings formerly containing generating equipment and a workshop are located on either side of the square base of the tower. These are constructed in solid sandstone blocks founded in the sandstone. Ground floor levels are concrete, over approximately one metre of graded packed rock. There are four levels of internal floors up to the lantern base level. Circular stairs and floor plate material are in cast iron while beams supporting the floors are rolled steel joists.

The gallery level around the lantern is of Melbourne bluestone and the railing is made of gunmetal. Roof domes over the ancillary wings are timber structures clad with lead sheeting.

Head Keeper's Cottage (1818, 1830s)
Part of the cottage is/was the sandstone pavilion designed by Francis Greenway along with the adjacent original lighthouse, in 1818. This pavilion was later incorporated into the cottage, which was further extended in the 1830s (Craze, 2017, 49; also Laing & Simmons Real Estate advert, same paper and date).

Assistant Keeper's Quarters /Cottage (1881)
Large sandstone home, built in 1881 to a design by Colonial Architect James Barnet. Extensively restored and renovated by Clive Lucas, Stapleton & Partners. Extensive grounds (Melocco, 2014, 5). Built in 1881 (Ray White, 2016).

Stables:

Town Houses:

Stone Retaining Walls and other buildings:
Other structures on the site include stone retaining wall and stone walls to former quarters (Anglin Associates 1989).
Modifications and dates: 1790, Captain Phillip directed erection of a flagstaff 'on a high bluff...at the entrance to the harbour...' in order to communicate the arrival of ships into Sydney Cove. The first signal from here was displayed in February of that year. It is believed that the present Signal Station is the site of the 1790 flagstaff.
Later 1790, Phillip commanded a column be erected near the flagstaff '... of a height sufficient to be seen from some distance at sea, and stonemasons were sent to quarry stone upon the spot for it...' The column was on a raised base measuring 16 foot square and had its own base of 4 foot square. The column was destroyed in 9/1792 by a storm. It was reportedly re-erected using bricks from Bennelong's disused hut on Bennelong Point.

During this period, access was via walking track approximately in the same location as the present Old South Head Road.

1803 surgeon John Harris offered to construct a road 15 feet wide for 100 pounds. By 1811 the eight miles of road and 11 bridges of Old South Head Road was completed ending at the Signal Station with a walking track down to Watsons Bay.

1816 a manned flagstaff, fire beacon, navigation column and a signal station.

1883 new lighthouse built to replace original 1816 lighthouse

2011 Lighthouse Keeper's Cottage (for lease - advertisement notes): large chef's kitchen, butler's kitchen, dining deck in courtyardand barbeque, gymnasium, spa, home ofice, multiple gas fireplaces, good storage, security systems, 3 car garage (Wentworth Courier advertisement, 8/9/2011).
Current use: Lighthouse
Former use: Aboriginal land, Lighthouse

History

Historical notes: Aboriginal Heritage
In February 2006 the Sydney Harbour Federation Trust commissioned the Australian Museum Business Services to carry out an Archaeological Survey of the Macquarie Lightstation. This was undertaken in conjunction with the La Perouse Aboriginal Land Council
.
The survey found no Aboriginal sites or objects on the surface and that the previous disturbance to the site made it highly unlikely that any Aboriginal material was pre-Greenway wall is likely to have come from an Aboriginal midden and appears to contain at least one possible artefact within it. It recommends that no further survey work is necessary or warranted. However, due to the shell midden material it recommends
recording the wall as an Aboriginal site. It also recommends that any work to the east of the Greenway wall that will result in the exposure of the sandstone platforms will require monitoring and detailed recording conducted by a qualified archaeologist.

European Occupation
The Macquarie Lightstation Precinct and surrounding lands were dedicated to navigational and communication activities from the very early years of the colony and remarkably continue to be associated with these uses today.

Early History of South Head (Pre- 1816)
As early as 1788, South Head was being used as a look-out point for boats entering and leaving the harbour. Prior to 1816 South Head was the site for a manned flagstaff, a fire beacon, a navigation column and a signal station.

In 1790, Captain Arthur Phillip directed a party of seamen from the Sirius to erect a flagstaff 'on a high bluff...at the entrance to the harbour...' in order to communicate the arrival of ships into the harbour back to the colony at Sydney Cove. The first signal from here was displayed in February of that year. It is believed that the present Signal Station is the site of the 1790 flagstaff.

Later that year, Phillip also commanded that a column be erected near the flagstaff. It should be '... of a height sufficient to be seen from some distance at sea, and the stonemasons were sent down to quarry stone upon the spot for the building...' The column was erected on a raised base measuring 16 foot square and had its own base of 4 foot square. The signalling activities at South Head were now two-fold, communicating news about the arrival of ships to the colony at Sydney Cove via semaphore, and informing ships of the location of the entrance to Port Jackson. By the end of 1790 the site was known as the 'Look-out Post' and there were huts and vegetable gardens adjacent to the flagstaff for the eleven men stationed there.

The column was destroyed in September 1792 by a major storm. It was reportedly re-erected using bricks from Bennelong's disused hut on Bennelong Point as there were not enough bricks available from the kilns in the Brickfields.

During this period, access to the site was via a walking track which was approximately in the same location as the present Old South Head Road. In 1803 surgeon John Harris offered to construct a road 15 feet wide for 100 pounds. By 1811 the eight miles of road and 11 bridges of Old South Head Road was completed. It terminated at the Signal Station with a walking track leading down to Watsons Bay.

The first Macquarie Lighthouse (1816 - 1878)
Following the end of the Napoleonic war in 1815, many more convicts were sent to New South Wales, with over 1000 arriving in 1818. The impending arrival of ships transporting convicts and an increase in the volume of shipping led to the commencement of a series of building projects in Sydney.

Governor Macquarie gave instructions that a lighthouse, the first in Australia, be constructed at the entrance to Port Jackson on South Head. Francis Greenway was appointed as architect and Captain John Gill as supervisor. Numerous people criticised the appropriateness of the site because of its distance 2 miles from the actual opening into the harbour. Greenway suggested North Head as an appropriate location, but this was dismissed by Governor Macquarie as being too remote. The foundation stone was laid on the 11th July 1816.

The lighthouse sat in an area compounded by four stone retaining walls with originally two corner lodges intended for the 'keepers of the Signals'. The construction of the tower was probably one of the most difficult constructions undertaken in the colony to date. The colony had a shortage of quality building materials and skilled labour which despite the skills of Greenway and Gill, proved to make the construction very difficult. In addition, Greenway and Gill often disagreed on best methods of construction leading to design and engineering compromises.

The lighthouse tower was essentially completed by December 1817 when Macquarie wrote to Lord Bathurst, the British Secretary of State to inform him of the 'Very Elegant and Strong Stone Tower and Light House' erected at South Head. At this time the lantern was yet to be completed as they were waiting for the arrival of the plate glass from England. Bathurst responded favourably to Macquarie despite the fact that work on the lighthouse had commenced without obtaining official approval from Britain On the 16th December 1817, the Governor and Mrs Macquarie and a party of their friends went to inspect the tower. On the same day, before breakfast, Francis Greenway received his emancipation papers at the Lighthouse.

The lighthouse was operational permanently from 1818 and was under the supervision of the former quartermaster for the first Fleet and retired harbourmaster, Robert Watson.

Shortcomings in the construction of the tower became evident early on. By 1822 it was deemed necessary to carry out emergency structural repairs as some stones had fallen from the arches during that year. This work included the reconstruction of the supporting arches, the repointing of stones, and the introduction of a large iron hoop to support the base of the tower. Further repairs were undertaken in 1830 and a verandah was added on the western face of the building. In 1836 new quarters were built in the south-west corner of the site for the Head Keeper. In 1866 further structural repairs were required to the lighthouse including the addition of more iron straps around the tower.

The tower was now distinctly dilapidated and in 1873 it was agreed that the light cast by the Macquarie Tower was not sufficiently strong for its important location, and that new, more powerful lighting technology should be used. However, the lantern on the Macquarie Tower was too small to accommodate the new apparatus.

In 1857 the Dunbar was wrecked on South Head, and the Catherine Adams on North Head. These tragedies highlighted the need to more clearly define the entry to the harbour. The wreck of the Dunbar in particular showed the deficiencies of the Macquarie Light, as it appeared that the Gap may have been mistaken for the harbour entry. As a consequence the Hornby light was constructed at the extreme northerly end of South Head in 1858. In 1878, approval was given to replace the Greenway-built tower with a new tower.

The Barnet Lighthouse (1878 - 1937)
James Barnet was the architect responsible for the project and his design was clearly based on Greenway's original, a mark of the respect held for Greenway's work. Although the building is seen as a replica of Greenway's design, Barnet incorporated other changes in the appearance of the building, particularly in the proportions of the elements, and, notably, in the larger domes and ventilators over the side wings and the projecting gallery of bluestone at the top of the tower.

The light commenced operation in 1883 and had a range of twenty five nautical miles. The technology used in this lighthouse (it was one of the first electrically powered lighthouses in the world) was such that a higher level of expertise in the maintenance was required and hence a larger number of staff. This led to the construction in 1881 of two semidetached cottages for the assistants to the Head Keeper. In 1885 new quarters were built for the Engineer and his assistant.

The Head Keeper's Quarters were modified in 1887 after complaints about the standard
of accommodation. The western wing of this building was added in 1899. Despite having once been thought to be the 'most efficient light in the world', by 1909 it was deemed to be obsolete, unable to cope with the heavy winter fogs. In 1912, following a call to standardise all lighthouses, the electric light at the Macquarie Lighthouse was replaced with a kerosene system. The new fuel was cheaper to run and required just two men to operate. On 1st July 1915 all the ocean lighthouses were transferred to the control of the Commonwealth Lighthouse Service.

World War II to Present (1939 - 2006)
The fortifications at South Head were upgraded during World War II. At the lightstation, this included the construction of an observation post east of the lighthouse and a nearby shaft and tunnel, the location of which has since been obscured.

After the war there was a rapid development in other navigational systems, and the lighthouse became simply one of a number of aids which enabled the mariner to determine his exact position. The importance of manned lighthouses such as Macquarie also decreased with the advent of integrated air systems for surveillance, search and rescue.

By 1965 the existing garage to the east of the Head Keeper's Quarters had been constructed and in 1970 the 1885 Barnet-designed Engineer and Assistant's Quarters were demolished to make way for the existing row of four townhouses. These originally accommodated the Workshop Supervisor and the Mechanics (Maritime Aids). The road access on the southern side of the site was also constructed during this time.

The station was fully automated in 1976 but the residences remained occupied by staff. In 1980 the Commonwealth Department of Construction carried out a series of works to return the Head Keeper's Quarters to its 1899 form in anticipation of it opening as a museum; however the decision to set up a museum was never taken.

In 1989 all staff associated with the Commonwealth Department of Shipping and Transport left the site. The Commonwealth leased the Assistant Keepers' Quarters in 1991 and the Head Keeper's Quarters in 1994 as private residences, both for 125 years. The townhouses are now leased as residences on a short-term basis and the lighthouse is leased to AMSA (Australian Maritime Safety Authority).

In 2018 the Sydney Harbour Trust celebrated the Bicentennary of the Macquarie Lightstation - holding a free community access day on 1/12/2018 (Wentworth Courier, 28/11/18). A milestone 200th anniversary ceremony was held with Federal Environment Minister Melissa Price, NSW Heritage Minister and local MP Gabrielle Upton MP, Woollahra Mayor Peter Cavanagh and Councillors (WMC, 12/12/18).

Historic themes

Australian theme (abbrev)New South Wales themeLocal theme
1. Environment-Tracing the evolution of a continent's special environments Environment - naturally evolved-Activities associated with the physical surroundings that support human life and influence or shape human cultures. Cultural - Coasts and coastal features supporting human activities-
1. Environment-Tracing the evolution of a continent's special environments Environment - naturally evolved-Activities associated with the physical surroundings that support human life and influence or shape human cultures. Changing the environment-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Events-Activities and processes that mark the consequences of natural and cultural occurences Developing local landmarks-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Transport-Activities associated with the moving of people and goods from one place to another, and systems for the provision of such movements Wharf and shipping history-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Transport-Activities associated with the moving of people and goods from one place to another, and systems for the provision of such movements Maintaining maritime transport routes-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Transport-Activities associated with the moving of people and goods from one place to another, and systems for the provision of such movements Building and maintaining public light houses and stations-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Land tenure-Activities and processes for identifying forms of ownership and occupancy of land and water, both Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Naming places (toponymy)-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Land tenure-Activities and processes for identifying forms of ownership and occupancy of land and water, both Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Demonstrating Governor Macquarie's town and landscape planning-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Towns, suburbs and villages-Activities associated with creating, planning and managing urban functions, landscapes and lifestyles in towns, suburbs and villages Beautifying towns and villages-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Towns, suburbs and villages-Activities associated with creating, planning and managing urban functions, landscapes and lifestyles in towns, suburbs and villages Planning relationships between key structures and town plans-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Towns, suburbs and villages-Activities associated with creating, planning and managing urban functions, landscapes and lifestyles in towns, suburbs and villages Role of transport in settlement-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Towns, suburbs and villages-Activities associated with creating, planning and managing urban functions, landscapes and lifestyles in towns, suburbs and villages Developing civic infrastructure and amenity-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Towns, suburbs and villages-Activities associated with creating, planning and managing urban functions, landscapes and lifestyles in towns, suburbs and villages Creating landmark structures and places in regional settings-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Utilities-Activities associated with the provision of services, especially on a communal basis Ports and shipping infrastructure-
7. Governing-Governing Government and Administration-Activities associated with the governance of local areas, regions, the State and the nation, and the administration of public programs - includes both principled and corrupt activities. Developing roles for government - providing rail transport-
7. Governing-Governing Government and Administration-Activities associated with the governance of local areas, regions, the State and the nation, and the administration of public programs - includes both principled and corrupt activities. Developing roles for government - building and operating public infrastructure-
7. Governing-Governing Government and Administration-Activities associated with the governance of local areas, regions, the State and the nation, and the administration of public programs - includes both principled and corrupt activities. Developing roles for government - conserving cultural and natural heritage-
7. Governing-Governing Government and Administration-Activities associated with the governance of local areas, regions, the State and the nation, and the administration of public programs - includes both principled and corrupt activities. Direct vice-regal governance (pre 1856)-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Creative endeavour-Activities associated with the production and performance of literary, artistic, architectural and other imaginative, interpretive or inventive works; and/or associated with the production and expression of cultural phenomena; and/or environments that have inspired such creative activities. Designing in an exemplary architectural style-
9. Phases of Life-Marking the phases of life Persons-Activities of, and associations with, identifiable individuals, families and communal groups Associations with James Barnet, Colonial (government) Architect-
9. Phases of Life-Marking the phases of life Persons-Activities of, and associations with, identifiable individuals, families and communal groups Associations with Francis Greenway, emancipist architect-
9. Phases of Life-Marking the phases of life Persons-Activities of, and associations with, identifiable individuals, families and communal groups Associations with Aaron Muron Bolot, architect-

Assessment of significance

SHR Criteria a)
[Historical significance]
The Macquarie Lightstation is of national significance for its association with the development of lighthouses in the nineteenth century being the first purpose-built lightstation in Australia and now Australia's longest serving lightstation. The lightstation is one of a group of buildings on South Head that includes the Signal Station, its quarters and flagstaff, and the Hornby Lighthouse and its quarters which collectively are able to demonstrate the historical importance of early coastal signals and navigation aids to the colony in its early years and throughout the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. (Clive Lucas Stapleton & Partners, 2001)
SHR Criteria b)
[Associative significance]
The Macquarie Lightstation is of national significance for its rare association with a series of important historical figures. It has important historical associations with Colonial Architect Francis Greenway (1777-1837); Governor Lachlan Macquarie (1761-1824); Government Architect James Barnet (1827-1904); and the Chance Brothers and Co. Lighthouse Engineers and Constructors of Birmingham (suppliers of lanterns, optics, pedestals and light sources for the Barnet Lighthouse). (Clive Lucas Stapleton & Partners, 2001)
SHR Criteria c)
[Aesthetic significance]
The Macquarie Lightstation exhibits outstanding landmark and landscape qualities. The site is a landmark and has long been an identifying symbol Sydney. At the time it was built, the original lighthouse was clearly visible the approach by sea, the Governor's Domain, and many places around the harbour. The picturesque and romantic qualities of the lighthouse in its coastal setting have been recorded in many early paintings, sketches and later photographs, all of which has contributed to its landmark qualities. Barnet's decision to replicate the aesthetic of the Greenway tower in the 1880s suggests an early social and aesthetic approval of Greenway's design and the landmark qualities that were already valued. The lightstation contributes a significant romanticised landscape to Sydney Harbour as a whole, with a distinctive landscape aesthetic: the institutional neatness and stoic associations contrasted with the rugged scale of the clifftop, windblown landscape bounded on two sides by windy coastal reserves. (Clive Lucas Stapleton & Partners, 2001)
SHR Criteria d)
[Social significance]
The Macquarie Lightstation is highly valued by the local Woollahra community, the larger population of Sydney and has national significance for its cultural associations with the early European colonisation of Australia. The lighthouse symbol appears on the coat of arms of the Woollahra Municipal Council indicating its significance as a local landmark. It is also on Macquarie University's coat of arms assuming the symbolic meanings of guiding light or teaching beacon. The high value accorded the Macquarie Lightstation is also demonstrated by its numerous listings in all heritage registers indicating wide agreement that the site is of exceptional national significance. Public tours of the lighthouse have been conducted regularly and there is an
identified need to increase public access to and interpretation of the site.

The Macquarie Lightstation is of Aboriginal cultural significance. Despite having no site-specific archaeological potential, the shell midden material used in the production of mortar for the Greenway compound wall has significance as objects in themselves. Their presence on the site enhances the Aboriginal heritage of the diverse archaeological resource of the South Head area as a whole. (Clive Lucas Stapleton & Partners, 2001)
SHR Criteria e)
[Research potential]
The Macquarie Lightstation contains archaeological remains of exceptional significance, relating to the original Greenway precinct and possibly earlier due to its connection to the 1790 'lookout' site. The sites of the former roads, corner lodges and stone walling have exceptional potential to reveal information about their detailed design. The lightstation also constitutes an early, little - disturbed early colonial site relating to Greenway, Macquarie and the early development of Sydney. As such, it is extremely rare and of national significance. It has the potential to reveal much information about the early development of the colony and about early nineteenth century aesthetic concepts as understood by Macquarie and Greenway. Due to the unique time span of the occupation of the place, it also has the rare archaeological potential to provide information about the nature of its former buildings and design layout as a whole as well as its occupational and technological history as a NSW lightstation. (Clive Lucas Stapleton & Partners, 2001)
SHR Criteria f)
[Rarity]
The Macquarie Lightstation precinct, even though little physical evidence survives, is of rare architectural significance. Its original architectural configuration can be understood from the evidence on site, below ground and the early descriptions and images. The Palladian composition, the walled compound, and the corner lodges with chinoiserie detail in the roofs, all conform to the then popular taste.

The physical evidence on the site and the historic visual connections to and from the lightstation provide important evidence about the building program during Governor Macquarie's Administration. The Lightstation demonstrates the three typical objectives of the Macquarie's: 1. Building for Function; 2. Building for aesthetic and 'civilising'; 3. Building for establishing symbols of British Empire on the far side of the world. (Clive Lucas Stapleton & Partners, 2001)
SHR Criteria g)
[Representativeness]
The Macquarie Lightstation is one of approximately 13 major surviving NSW coastal lightstations able to demonstrate evidence of changing lighthouse technology and the lifestyle and social organisation of a working lightstation. The Head Keeper's Quarters is the earliest, most intact freestanding lightkeeper's residence in Australia. The site is also a good example of Barnet's work and despite the pre-existing architecture and layout; Barnet's influence is clearly evident in the design of the interior of the lighthouse and the Assistant Keepers' Quarters. (Clive Lucas Stapleton & Partners, 2001)
Assessment criteria: Items are assessed against the PDF State Heritage Register (SHR) Criteria to determine the level of significance. Refer to the Listings below for the level of statutory protection.

Recommended management:

Recommendations

Management CategoryDescriptionDate Updated
Recommended ManagementReview a Conservation Management Plan (CMP) 
Recommended ManagementPrepare a maintenance schedule or guidelines 
Recommended ManagementCarry out interpretation, promotion and/or education 

Procedures /Exemptions

Section of actDescriptionTitleCommentsAction date
57(2)Exemption to allow workHeritage Act See File For Schedule


Order Under Section 57(2) to exempt the following activities from Section 57(1):
* Garden maintenance including cultivation, pruning and tree surgery but not including extensive lopping, weed control and the repair and maintenance of existing fences, gates and garden walls;
* Changes of use;
* Subdivision;
* Maintenance and repair of existing water storage facilities and reticulation;
* Maintenance and repairs to existing access roads;
* Tree lopping and vegetation clearance associated with the maintenance of existing overhead power lines by the Woollahra County Council;
* Building maintenance, including painting, where it is in accordance with the Conservation Plan.
Aug 11 1989
57(2)Exemption to allow workStandard Exemptions SCHEDULE OF STANDARD EXEMPTIONS
HERITAGE ACT 1977
Notice of Order Under Section 57 (2) of the Heritage Act 1977

I, the Minister for Planning, pursuant to subsection 57(2) of the Heritage Act 1977, on the recommendation of the Heritage Council of New South Wales, do by this Order:

1. revoke the Schedule of Exemptions to subsection 57(1) of the Heritage Act made under subsection 57(2) and published in the Government Gazette on 22 February 2008; and

2. grant standard exemptions from subsection 57(1) of the Heritage Act 1977, described in the Schedule attached.

FRANK SARTOR
Minister for Planning
Sydney, 11 July 2008

To view the schedule click on the Standard Exemptions for Works Requiring Heritage Council Approval link below.
Sep 5 2008

PDF Standard exemptions for works requiring Heritage Council approval

Listings

Heritage ListingListing TitleListing NumberGazette DateGazette NumberGazette Page
Heritage Act - State Heritage Register 0067702 Apr 99 271546
Heritage Act - Permanent Conservation Order - former 0067711 Aug 89 0885529
Local Environmental Plan  10 Mar 95   
Register of the National Estate  21 Oct 80   
Commonwealth Heritage ListMacquarie Lighthouse Group, Vaucluse10536504 Sep 08   

References, internet links & images

TypeAuthorYearTitleInternet Links
Tourism 2007Macquarie Lighthouse Site View detail
TourismAttraction Homepage2007Macquarie Lighthouse Site View detail
WrittenClive Lucas Stapleton & Partners2001Macquarie Lighthouse Conservation Plan
WrittenCraze, Kirsten2017'Cottage offers stunning slice of history - Vaucluse: 167 Old South Head Road
WrittenLaing & Simmons Real Estate2017advertisement - Vaucluse - 167 Old South Head Road
WrittenMelocco, Jen2014'Buy a slice of history - keeper's cottage for sale'
WrittenRay White (Real Estate) P/L2016Vaucluse - The Keeper's Cottage - iconic Sydney landmark on over 2600sq.m.
WrittenSivric, Helena2011Flash Home'll go in a blink
WrittenSydney Harbour Federation Trust2007Management Plan Macquarie Lightstation View detail

Note: internet links may be to web pages, documents or images.

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Data source

The information for this entry comes from the following source:
Name: Heritage Office
Database number: 5045203
File number: EF10/17892; S90/4214; HC891152


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