Mountain View | NSW Environment & Heritage

Culture and heritage

Heritage

Mountain View

Item details

Name of item: Mountain View
Other name/s: Dight's Farm
Type of item: Complex / Group
Group/Collection: Farming and Grazing
Category: Homestead Complex
Location: Lat: -33.5998265183 Long: 150.7324455160
Primary address: 22 Inalls Lane, Richmond, NSW 2753
Parish: Ham Common
County: Cumberland
Local govt. area: Hawkesbury
Local Aboriginal Land Council: Deerubbin
Property description
Lot/Volume CodeLot/Volume NumberSection NumberPlan/Folio CodePlan/Folio Number
LOT12 DP588570
All addresses
Street AddressSuburb/townLGAParishCountyType
22 Inalls LaneRichmondHawkesburyHam CommonCumberlandPrimary Address
Dights HillRichmondHawkesbury  Alternate Address

Owner/s

Organisation NameOwner CategoryDate Ownership Updated
 Private 

Statement of significance:

The homestead on Dights Hill is a rare survivor, largely dating from the first quarter century of the colony. It is a substantially intact example of early building materials and techniques. It is a harmonious feature of the landscape which provides evidence of having set the example to establish the safe accommodation on the highlands out of reach of the flood waters of the Hawkesbury River. Documentary records and physical evidence support the educational and research potential of Dights Hill and the archaeological resource of an early farm complex. Well documented associations with exploration, pastoralism and prominent historical figures have attracted both local and overseas visitors with an interest in early Australian history to the site. These outstanding factors contribute to the exceptionally high significance of this item of National heritage.
Date significance updated: 26 Jul 06
Note: The State Heritage Inventory provides information about heritage items listed by local and State government agencies. The State Heritage Inventory is continually being updated by local and State agencies as new information becomes available. Read the OEH copyright and disclaimer.

Description

Builder/Maker: Lewis Jones, James Vincent
Construction years: 1804-1870
Physical description: Site:
A well sited homestead on Dight's Hill overlooking the Richmond Lowlands and is an integral part of the historic escarpment.
The nine acre highland farm was subdivided in the 1970s alienating the surviving outbuildings and landscape features. The barn, hayshed, coach house, servants sheds and horse mill were all demolished by 1978.

Garden:
A post and rail fence still bounds the front of the property facing Inall's Lane. A low-key driveway leads into the eastern side of the front garden to an open carport beside the main homestead and beside the southern end of the original cottage. A pedestrian path winds from a separate central southern gate to the front door. The front garden is now a semi-woodland planted partly to screen development south of Inalls Lane and adjacent on both sides - with trees including silver elm (Ulmus minor 'Variegata'), various English oaks (Quercus robur), Chinese elm (U.parvifolia), silky oak (Grevillea robusta), pepper(corn) tree (Schinus molle), desert ash (Fraxinus oxycarpa), pin oak (Q.palustris), crab apple (Malus sp./cv.), crepe myrtles (Lagerstroemia indica), Japanese maple (Acer palmatum), paperbark (Melaleuca sp.) and the scented flowering shrub Viburnum x carlesii.

The eastern side of the garden is notable for a number of tall trees providing screening and privacy to the neighbours, including smooth barked/coastal apple/Sydney red gum (Angophora costata), pepper(corn) tree, white cedar (Melia azederach var.australasica), white barked gums (possibly Eucalyptus rossii/Corymbia citriodora), a plane tree to the rear (Platanus x acerifolia), paperbarck and an Illawarra plum/brown pine (Podocarpus elatus).

The western side of the garden includes Chinese elm trees, a manna /flowering ash (F.ornus), Queensland black bean (Castanospermum australe), tsugi/Japanese cedar (Cryptomeria japonica), forest oaks (Allocasuarina torulosa), lily pilly (Syzygium australe), silky oaks.

The rear (northern) garden has open areas of grass fringed and spotted with trees, some large and mature, for privacy. A former central hedge running north-south is now overgrown with climbers (Pandorea species and others). Trees include jacaranda (J.mimosifolia), pepper(corn)s, box elder (Acer negundo), southern nettle (Celtis australis), mulberry (Morus sp.), white cedars, holly (Ilex aquifolium), variegated laurustinus (Viburnum tinus 'Variegata') (site visit, Stuart Read, 1/2010).

Homestead:
The building is an early Colonial Georgian homestead, comprising several elements.

The original two-roomed sandstock brick cottage with mud/shell mortar and plaster has a corrugated iron roof, central chimney and original joinery and dates from c1804. The original kitchen with a large fireplace and a bread oven was added pre 1812. This single storey section has brick floors covered by concrete.

The 1812 and 1820s two storey additions are sandstock brick with mud/shell mortar and plaster with a hipped corrugated iron roof and an asymmetrical single-storey verandah with iron roof supported by tapered hardwood octagonal columns over Marulan stone flagging. Internal joinery includes a built -in cupboard (1812), cedar chimney pieces and hardwood flooring with handmade nails survive.

Unusual features include a mock chimney on the west end to achieve Georgian symmetry and nine pane sliding sash windows in the upper storey.

The building remains largely unaltered from the 1870s when the link section was constructed, the south-west and south-east elevations were stuccoed and the shingle roof was replaced with corrugated iron.
Physical condition and/or
Archaeological potential:
Physical condition is good. Archaeological potential is medium.
Date condition updated:22 May 01
Modifications and dates: c1804 two roomed sandstock brick cottage with mud-/shell mortar and plaster and shingle roof.
1812 and 1820s two storey additions in sandstock brick with shingle roof.
1812 built-in cupboard, chimney pieces and hardwood flooring all survive

1870s: Brick two storey link section between original cottage and 1812 addition. Iron roof replaced shingles.
1970s: Removal of internal brick wall in original cottage. Rebuilding of brick wall north east elevation. Concrete verandah along north west elevation. Iron roof over stone flagging south east elevation, kitchen, bathrooms and laundry in link section.
1970s the nine acre highland farm was subdivided alienating the surviving outbuildings and landscape features.
by 1978 the barn, hayshed, coach house, servants sheds and horse mill were all demolished
Current use: Residence
Former use: Residence; farm

History

Historical notes: INDIGENOUS OCCUPATION
The lower Hawkesbury was home to the Dharug people. The proximity to the Nepean River and South Creek qualifies it as a key area for food resources for indigenous groups (Proudfoot, 1987).
The Dharug and Darkinjung people called the river Deerubbin and it was a vital source of food and transport (Nichols, 2010).

NON-INDIGENOUS OCCUPATION
Governor Arthur Phillip explored the local area in search of suitable agricultural land in 1789 and discovered and named the Hawkesbury River after Baron Hawkesbury. This region played a significant role in the early development of the colony with European settlers established here by 1794. Situated on fertile floodplains and well known for its abundant agriculture, Green Hills (as it was originally called) supported the colony through desperate times. However, frequent flooding meant that the farmers along the riverbanks were often ruined.

Governor Lachlan Macquarie replaced Governor Bligh, taking up duty on 1/1/1810. Under his influence the colony prospered. His vision was for a free community, working in conjunction with the penal colony. He implemented an unrivalled public works program, completing 265 public buildings, establishing new public amenities and improving existing services such as roads. Under his leadership Hawkesbury district thrived. He visited the district on his first tour and recorded in his journal on 6/12/1810: 'After dinner I christened the new townships...I gave the name of Windsor to the town intended to be erected in the district of the Green Hills...the township in the Richmond district I have named Richmond...' the district reminded Macquarie of those towns in England, whilst Castlereagh, Pitt Town and Wilberforce were named after English statesmen. These are often referred to as Macquarie's Five Towns. Their localities, chiefly Windsor and Richmond, became more permanent with streets, town square and public buildings.

Macquarie also appointed local men in positions of authority. In 1810 a group of settlers sent a letter to him congratulating him on his leadership and improvements. It was published in the Sydney Gazette with his reply. He was 'much pleased with the sentiments' of the letter and assured them that the Haweksbury would 'always be an object of the greatest interest' to him (Nichols, 2010).

In marking out the towns of Windsor and Richmond in 1810, Macquarie was acting on instructions from London. All of the Governors who held office between 1789 and 1822, from Phillip to Brisbane, recieved the same Letter of Instruction regarding the disposal of the 'waste lands of the Crown' that Britain claimed as her own. This included directives for the formation of towns and thus the extension of British civilisation to its Antipodean outpost (Proudfoot 1987, 7-9).

Lowland Durham Bowes and highland Dight's Farm/ Mountain View:
John Dight (1772 - 1837) with his wife Hannah (1781 - 1862) and baby daughter Sarah arrived in the colony on 12 June 1801 as free settlers on board the 'Earl Cornwallis'. They received a grant on 31 March 1802 of 155 acres from Governor King at Mulgrave Place - later called Richmond - the grant to be known as 'Durham Bowes'. This grant was on the eastern bank of the Hawkesbury River, downhill and slightly north of the location of the later Dight's Farm/ today's Mountain View. Richard Rouse and his sons (of Rouse Hill house and farm) had various grants on the opposite, western bank of the Hawkesbury River. Surveyor James Meehan laid out the grants in the area.

Various disputes arose among grantees about access to the nearby towns. Settlers fenced off access routes across their grants.

The Hawkesbury River was in flood three times during 1806 causing the destruction of the Dight's four roomed brick dwelling on their lowlands grant. This induced them to purchase 9 acres on the highlands to safely accommodate their growing family. It was on the south-west corner of Edward Luttrell's 1804 grant and became known as Dight's Hill. The farm was advertised to be let in 1808 when John Dight was Superintendent of Carpenters at the Commissariat Store in Parramatta during Richard Rouse's absence from that position (see Rouse Hill House and farm - separate NSW State Heritage Register item).

In March 1812 John Dight contracted with Lewis Jones - who together with carpenter James Vincent were described in the Bigge report of 1820 as 'two of the best builders in this part of the colony' to erect a dwelling house of two storeys for the sum of twenty six pounds. This building was next to, but independent of the original dwelling and consisted of one room on each storey. The contract was witnessed by Margaret Catchpole the esteemed convict nurse.

Governor Macquarie wrote to Earl Bathurst in 1817 and expressed indignation at the obstinacy of the Hawkesbury settlers, continuing to reside on lands subject to flooding. In 1819 Richmond's populace petitioned Macquarie with many disputes over access to the towns (around other grants). Surveyor James Meehan's recommendations were disregarded. William Cox Jnr. of Hobartville fenced off the road to Dight's Farm, meaning that John Dight had to go the long way around his land daily to reach his lowland farm (R.Sharpe, 1/2010).

John and Hannah Dight's family increased to thirteen children with the birth of their eighth daughter Sophia in November 1823. Two years later Elizabeth their second daughter married Hamilton Hume the explorer, following his return from discovering a route to Port Phillip.

During the 1820s and 1830s the sons of John and Hannah Dight were establishing themselves as pastoral pioneers in areas they had helped discover - Hunter River, Liverpool Plains, Namoi and Macintyre Rivers, Hume River (Murray ) and the Yarra River, where John the younger and his brother Charles built the river's first (water-powered) flour mill.

The building remains little-altered from the 1870s when the link section was constructed, the south-west and south-east elevations were stucco-ed and the shingle roof was replaced with corrugated iron.

A 1920s photograph from the Dight family showed the homestead complex in a fairly open grassed landscape with few trees.

In the 1970s an internal brick wall was removed in the original cottage and a brick wall on the north-east elevation was rebuilt. 9 acres of the former highland farm was subdivided, alienating the surviving outbuildings and landscape features. By 1978 the barn, hayshed, coach house, servants' sheds and horse mill were all demolished.

Historic themes

Australian theme (abbrev)New South Wales themeLocal theme
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Agriculture-Activities relating to the cultivation and rearing of plant and animal species, usually for commercial purposes, can include aquaculture Clearing land for farming-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Agriculture-Activities relating to the cultivation and rearing of plant and animal species, usually for commercial purposes, can include aquaculture Clearing land for farming-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Exploration-Activities associated with making places previously unknown to a cultural group known to them. (none)-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Accommodation-Activities associated with the provision of accommodation, and particular types of accommodation – does not include architectural styles – use the theme of Creative Endeavour for such activities. (none)-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Accommodation-Activities associated with the provision of accommodation, and particular types of accommodation – does not include architectural styles – use the theme of Creative Endeavour for such activities. Housing for farm and station hands-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Accommodation-Activities associated with the provision of accommodation, and particular types of accommodation – does not include architectural styles – use the theme of Creative Endeavour for such activities. Housing farming families-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Accommodation-Activities associated with the provision of accommodation, and particular types of accommodation – does not include architectural styles – use the theme of Creative Endeavour for such activities. Housing ordinary families-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Accommodation-Activities associated with the provision of accommodation, and particular types of accommodation – does not include architectural styles – use the theme of Creative Endeavour for such activities. Bungalows-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Land tenure-Activities and processes for identifying forms of ownership and occupancy of land and water, both Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Expressing lines of early grant allotments-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Land tenure-Activities and processes for identifying forms of ownership and occupancy of land and water, both Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Changing land uses - from rural to suburban-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Land tenure-Activities and processes for identifying forms of ownership and occupancy of land and water, both Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Fencing boundaries - wooden post and rail-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Land tenure-Activities and processes for identifying forms of ownership and occupancy of land and water, both Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Granting Crown lands for private farming-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Land tenure-Activities and processes for identifying forms of ownership and occupancy of land and water, both Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Sub-division of large estates-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Towns, suburbs and villages-Activities associated with creating, planning and managing urban functions, landscapes and lifestyles in towns, suburbs and villages Vernacular hamlets and settlements-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Towns, suburbs and villages-Activities associated with creating, planning and managing urban functions, landscapes and lifestyles in towns, suburbs and villages Developing towns in response to topography-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Towns, suburbs and villages-Activities associated with creating, planning and managing urban functions, landscapes and lifestyles in towns, suburbs and villages Rural orchards-
5. Working-Working Labour-Activities associated with work practises and organised and unorganised labour Working independently on the land-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Creative endeavour-Activities associated with the production and performance of literary, artistic, architectural and other imaginative, interpretive or inventive works; and/or associated with the production and expression of cultural phenomena; and/or environments that have inspired such creative activities. Architectural styles and periods - colonial homestead-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Creative endeavour-Activities associated with the production and performance of literary, artistic, architectural and other imaginative, interpretive or inventive works; and/or associated with the production and expression of cultural phenomena; and/or environments that have inspired such creative activities. Vernacular structures and building techniques-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Creative endeavour-Activities associated with the production and performance of literary, artistic, architectural and other imaginative, interpretive or inventive works; and/or associated with the production and expression of cultural phenomena; and/or environments that have inspired such creative activities. Building in response to natural landscape features.-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Creative endeavour-Activities associated with the production and performance of literary, artistic, architectural and other imaginative, interpretive or inventive works; and/or associated with the production and expression of cultural phenomena; and/or environments that have inspired such creative activities. Building in response to climate - verandahs-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Creative endeavour-Activities associated with the production and performance of literary, artistic, architectural and other imaginative, interpretive or inventive works; and/or associated with the production and expression of cultural phenomena; and/or environments that have inspired such creative activities. Landscaping - colonial period-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Creative endeavour-Activities associated with the production and performance of literary, artistic, architectural and other imaginative, interpretive or inventive works; and/or associated with the production and expression of cultural phenomena; and/or environments that have inspired such creative activities. Landscaping - 20th century post WW2-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Creative endeavour-Activities associated with the production and performance of literary, artistic, architectural and other imaginative, interpretive or inventive works; and/or associated with the production and expression of cultural phenomena; and/or environments that have inspired such creative activities. Interior design styles and periods - Colonial-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Domestic life-Activities associated with creating, maintaining, living in and working around houses and institutions. Living in, adapting and renovating homes for changing conditions-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Domestic life-Activities associated with creating, maintaining, living in and working around houses and institutions. Living in a rural homestead-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Leisure-Activities associated with recreation and relaxation Gathering at landmark places to socialise-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Leisure-Activities associated with recreation and relaxation Visiting heritage places-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Leisure-Activities associated with recreation and relaxation Gardening-
9. Phases of Life-Marking the phases of life Persons-Activities of, and associations with, identifiable individuals, families and communal groups Associations with Hamilton Hume, explorer and grazier-
9. Phases of Life-Marking the phases of life Persons-Activities of, and associations with, identifiable individuals, families and communal groups Associations with John and Hanna Dight, Hawkesbury settlers, farmers-
9. Phases of Life-Marking the phases of life Persons-Activities of, and associations with, identifiable individuals, families and communal groups Associations with Aaron Muron Bolot, architect-

Assessment of significance

SHR Criteria a)
[Historical significance]
The item is historically significant because John Dight was one of the early Colony's most respected free settlers. The establishment of his farm complex on the highlands pre-dated Governor Macquaries edict of 1810 which required the settlers to provide flood free accommodation for themselves and their stock etc.
SHR Criteria b)
[Associative significance]
The item is significant because of its association with John Dight, one of the colony's most respected free settlers. Dight's example in relocating his homestead to the high ground above the floodplain had a significant influence on later settlement patterns. Dight was a free settler, and for a time, Superintendent of Carpenters at the Commissariat Store in Parramatta during Richard Rouse's absence from that position.
SHR Criteria c)
[Aesthetic significance]
The item is aesthetically significant because of its harmonious relationship with the landscape. Its setting on the floodbank escarpment overlooking the lowland farms is an integral part of an historic landscape.
SHR Criteria d)
[Social significance]
The social significance is demonstrated in the continuing interest of professionals, students and the general public because of the items association with prominent historic figures and the age of the building.
SHR Criteria e)
[Research potential]
The item is a well documented resource of the building materials and techniques from the beginning of the 19th century together with a well documented social history. The existence of the 1812 building contract between John Dight and Lewis Jones which relates to the intact building is exceptional.
SHR Criteria f)
[Rarity]
The item is an important survivor from the first quarter of the colony.
SHR Criteria g)
[Representativeness]
The item represents a substantial building with a sequential pattern of growth which can be easily interpreted.
Integrity/Intactness: It survives remarkably intact.
Assessment criteria: Items are assessed against the PDF State Heritage Register (SHR) Criteria to determine the level of significance. Refer to the Listings below for the level of statutory protection.

Recommended management:

Setting needs a DCP and careful control to reinstate views to mountains and lowlands where possible, and control height and proximity of adjacent/nearby development

Procedures /Exemptions

Section of actDescriptionTitleCommentsAction date
57(2)Exemption to allow workStandard Exemptions SCHEDULE OF STANDARD EXEMPTIONS
HERITAGE ACT 1977
Notice of Order Under Section 57 (2) of the Heritage Act 1977

I, the Minister for Planning, pursuant to subsection 57(2) of the Heritage Act 1977, on the recommendation of the Heritage Council of New South Wales, do by this Order:

1. revoke the Schedule of Exemptions to subsection 57(1) of the Heritage Act made under subsection 57(2) and published in the Government Gazette on 22 February 2008; and

2. grant standard exemptions from subsection 57(1) of the Heritage Act 1977, described in the Schedule attached.

FRANK SARTOR
Minister for Planning
Sydney, 11 July 2008

To view the schedule click on the Standard Exemptions for Works Requiring Heritage Council Approval link below.
Sep 5 2008

PDF Standard exemptions for works requiring Heritage Council approval

Listings

Heritage ListingListing TitleListing NumberGazette DateGazette NumberGazette Page
Heritage Act - State Heritage Register 0004402 Apr 99 271546
Heritage Act - Permanent Conservation Order - former 0004412 Feb 82 230615
Local Environmental Plan  18 Dec 89   
Register of the National Estate  21 Mar 78   

Study details

TitleYearNumberAuthorInspected byGuidelines used
Colonial Landscapes of the Cumberland Plain and Camden, NSW2000 Morris, C., & Britton, G./NSW National Trust (for the Heritage Council of NSW)  Yes

References, internet links & images

TypeAuthorYearTitleInternet Links
WrittenNichols, Michelle (Local Studies Librarian)2010Macquarie and the Hawkesbury District
WrittenP & R Sharpe1995Dight's Farm Consevation Plan
WrittenProudfoot, Helen1987The Historic Buildings of Windsor & Richmond

Note: internet links may be to web pages, documents or images.

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(Click on thumbnail for full size image and image details)

Data source

The information for this entry comes from the following source:
Name: Heritage Office
Database number: 5045229
File number: S90/06008 & HC 32289


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