Lynton | NSW Environment & Heritage

Culture and heritage

Heritage

Lynton

Item details

Name of item: Lynton
Type of item: Built
Group/Collection: Residential buildings (private)
Category: House
Location: Lat: -33.8809388517 Long: 151.1053303840
Primary address: 4 Clarence Street, Burwood, NSW 2134
Parish: Concord
County: Cumberland
Local govt. area: Burwood
Local Aboriginal Land Council: Metropolitan
Property description
Lot/Volume CodeLot/Volume NumberSection NumberPlan/Folio CodePlan/Folio Number
LOT21BDP2256
LOT22BDP2256
LOT7BDP2256
LOT8BDP2256
All addresses
Street AddressSuburb/townLGAParishCountyType
4 Clarence StreetBurwoodBurwoodConcordCumberlandPrimary Address

Owner/s

Organisation NameOwner CategoryDate Ownership Updated
 Private 

Statement of significance:

A large and unusual Federation mansion of considerable architectural interest which contributes greatly to the character of the area. The house is a local landmark, in original condition and retains its original curtilage. (Bazla and Issa 1986)
Date significance updated: 03 Oct 00
Note: The State Heritage Inventory provides information about heritage items listed by local and State government agencies. The State Heritage Inventory is continually being updated by local and State agencies as new information becomes available. Read the OEH copyright and disclaimer.

Description

Designer/Maker: Stanley Rickard
Construction years: 1906-
Physical description: Site:
Lynton is prominently sited on a rising ridge, set back from Clarence Street. Once there was a circular driveway in front. Note the remains of the circular rose garden and beds for annuals. Art Nouveau detailing inside and in the leadlight windows with plant imagery throughout (Heritage Council, 1981-4: Heritage Council of NSW, Conservation of the Federation House, a series of one-day seminars, 1981, 1982, 1983, 1984 - Walking Tour notes by Phillip Clements & Helen Powell, modified by Stuart Read).

(front to Clarence Street). A tall hedge of Photinia robusta planted in the 1980s screens much of a view of the house from Clarence Street but provides privacy. The entry gate has a lych gate over it, stone steps and a path to the north-western side of the house. Mature trees include a cock's comb coral tree (Erythrina crista-galli), fan palm (Washingtonia robusta), Bhutan cypresses (Cupressus torulosa).

(Rear to Church Street), Federation style stables with ornamental ridge capping on roof. Note the house's wooden fretwork and verandah columns. NB: Cocos Is./Queen palms & Lord Howe Island palms. (Read, Stuart, pers. comm., 17/5/2008)

House:
An ornate and highly individual treatment of the Federation idiom, the house displays a complexity of form and materials, ranging from its multi-gabled roof line, roughcast render and leaded quarry windows, to vigourous application to flat carved timber and stone work. Its ballroom is on the right hand side of the front door.

The grandeur of this setting was quite deliberately achieved with the house capturing so well the architectural qualities of the time. The most distinctive feature of this house is its picturesque roofline.

Ornamentation was not just restricted to the roof, wood, glass, and tiles were the other main modes of decoration. The influence of Art Nouveau is displayed throughout the house and can be seen in the plaster ceiling of the drawing room and entry hall. In the design of windows and doors, plants are depicted in leadlight with the vegetation, such as leaves and flowers buds, twining from the base of the design towards the top. Where a door has a fanlight and sidelight ( the two main entry doors) the vegetation envelopes the door itself by twining from the base of the sidelight and making its way to the other side of the fanlight. A small parapet wall facing the street has the name "Lynton" inscibed on it. Stables located to the rear of the property. (Balaz and Issa 1986).
Date condition updated:15 Aug 00
Modifications and dates: 1985 - Converted into a reception centre in 1985 when it was derelict, it was then restored. Alternations were made to the interior, including the installation of kitchen fittings and the upgrading of the bathrooms. Modifications to the roof included the improvement of rusted gutters and downpipes. Valleys and flatroofs replaced with new copper to original.
1990 a lych gate was erected over the Clarence Street gate entry and cedar balconies to the first floor were reinstated.
Further information: The house has received an award from the National Trust and has won the Bicentennial Restoration Competition.
Current use: Residence
Former use: Reception House

History

Historical notes: Burwood:
Parramatta Road was first created in 1791, a vital land (cf water) artery between Sydney Cove and Rose Hill's settlement and crops. Liverpool Road opened in 1814 as Governor Macquarie's Great South Road. Its winding route reflects pre-existing land grant boundaries. To Burwood's north over Parramatta Rd. was Longbottom Government Farm, staffed by convicts. This grew to over 700 acres on heavily timbered flat, sloping to swamps on Hen & Chicken Bay. Commissioner Bigge recorded how valuable timber (ironbark) was cut and sawn on the spot, conveyed to Sydney in boats by the river. 'Charcoal for the forges and foundries is likewise prepared here' he noted.

2 grants were critical on Burwood's clay: Captain Thomas Rowley's Burwood Farm estate and William Faithful's 1000 acre grant to its south in Enfield covered most of modern Burwood. Rowley, adjutant of the NSW Corps, named it after the farm he'd lived on in Cornwall. 1799 and subsequent grants brought it to 750 acres but he continued to live at Kingston Farm in Newtown until his death in 1806. He'd bought some of the first Spanish merinos brought from the Cape Colony in 1797, others being sold to Macarthur, Marsden & Cox. The southern boundary of his farm was approximately Woodside Avenue & Fitzroy Street.

Under Rowley's will the estate passed to his 3 underage children- executors Dr Harris & Major Johnstone were both involved in the 1808 Bligh rebellion and returned to England for the court martial. Governor Macquarie appointed Thomas Moore as guardian and executor. In 1812 he wrongfully auctioned the estate. It was bought by Sydney businessman Alexander Riley. He's believed to have built Burwood Villa in 1814 (perhaps on older (1797) foundations of Rowley's shepherd's cottage) and lived here until departing for England in 1817. In 1824 Joseph Lycett described the estate. 500 acres had been cleared for pasture. Lycett in Views of Australia described 'a garden of 4 acres in full cultivation, containing upwards of three hundred Trees, bearing the following choice fruits, viz. The Orange, Citron, Lemon, Pomegranate, Loquat, Guava, Peaches, Nectarines, Apricots, Apples, Pears, the Cherry, Plums, Figs, Chestnuts, Almonds, Medlars, Quinces; with abundance of Raspberries, Strawberries, and the finest Melons. &c'.

Until the 1830s Burwood consisted of a few inns along the highways and 2 or 3 huge, undeveloped estates within the next 20 years these began to break up, attracting settlers and encouraging the growth of embryo villages at Burwood & Enfield. Riley died in 1833 and Rowley's children, now of age, started legal proceedings and regained possession of the 750 acre estate. It was divided between Thomas jnr., John, John Lucas* and Henry Biggs. Almost at once they subdivided into lots of 4-20 acres for country homes and small farms. In 1834 Burwood estate was held by John Lucas, husband of Thomas's daughter Mary Rowley), who divided 113 of his 213 acres into small allotments for sale. Streets such as Webb, Lucas Rd., Wentworth Rd. & Strathfield's The Boulevarde reflect the boundaries of these subdivisions/estates.

To the south (including the land later the Appian Way) was William Faithful's grant of 1000 acres (1808) at 'Liberty Plains'. Faithful was a private in the NSW Corps: discharged in 1799 he became Captain Foveaux's farm manager, and this connection got him the grant. Apart from 15 acres of Sarah Nelson's on Malvern Hill (Croydon), Faithful's Farm extended from Rowley's farm to Cooks River and west to Punchbowl Rd. The government retained a right to build a road through it (doing so in 1815: Liverpool or the Great South Road), and to cut 'such timber as may be deemed fit for naval purposes' - the area was thick with tall ironbark. Faithful exchanged it in 1815. Alexander Riley bought his 200 acres north of the new road incorporating it into his Burwood estate. This was jointly owned by the Rowley family after 1833 and had no streets across it, only a few tracks.

Despite opening up of the Rowley estate there was little settlement in Burwood between the 2 highways before 1860. Sydney Railway Company opened the first rail to Parramatta in 1855. Burwood 'station' (just west of Ashfield station, one of the first stations) was a wooden platform near a level crossing over the grassy track that was Neich's Lane* (later Burwood Rd). This was beside 'the newly laid out township of Cheltenham'. Speedy transport meant subdivision and consolidation followed, filling out the area. Burwood's biggest growth spurt was between 1874 & 1900 (Burwood's population was, respectively: 1200-7400, an increase not matched since. *1835 maps show this as the only track between Parramatta / Liverpool Roads in Burwood.

Burwood's first public school was c.1838. In 1843 land on Burwood Rd. was granted to the Anglican Church for a school. St. Mary's Catholic Church opened in 1846, a Presbyterian Church in 1857 and St. Paul's Anglican in 1871. Mansions of the 1870s+ such as The Priory were due to a firm belief in its health-giving climate, compared to the smog and crowding of the city suburbs. They were built as quasi-ancestral estates, perhaps in blissful ignorance of how quickly suburbs can evolve. Living was primitive: no street lighting (1883+), home lighting by candle or lamp (oil, kerosene after 1860), no gas (1882+), no piped water (1886+), home wells/tanks, few bathrooms, no indoor toilets, with pans (1880+) replacing outdoor cess pits.

The 1880s+ was the era of the debates that led to Australia's fractious states combining into a single Federation, declared at Sydney's Centennial Park, in 1901. Skilled tradesmen and materials were plentiful and comparatively cheap, and combined with the improvement in building techniques associated with cavity walls, damp-courses and terracotta tiled rooves, provided the means for an era of intense building activity. Unlike the Victorian era's large commercial and Government building, the main thrust of the Federation era was constructing new suburbs around Sydney harbour with shops for the middle classes.

Between 1889 and 1918 Australia's population swelled from 3 to 5 million triggering an urgent need for housing. Suburban spread was greatly assisted by expansion of the public transport system of trams, ferries and trams, which formed a well-integrated pre-car transport system. Rapid suburban growth brought increased interest in town planning and the British concept (Ebenezer Howard's 'Garden City') of the Garden Suburb, spurred on by the Federal Capital Competition of 1912. 1913's arrival from North America of winners, Walter Burley & Marion Mahony Griffin, saw formation of the Town Planning Association of NSW, with architect John Sulman as president. Founding members Sulman and J.P.Fitzgerald were among witnesses at the 1900 Royal Commission into the Improvement of the City of Sydney and suburbs. This made the first attempt at a comprehensive review of Sydney's problems, gathering many reform ideas. It recognised the relationship between planning and local government and advocated introduction of a town planning bill along the lines of John Burns' 1900 English Bill. Some recommendations, such as introducing building regulations for the whole metropolitan area 'to prevent the straggling of suburbs and to ensure development along harmonious lines' went into 1919's Local Government Act.

The 'Garden Suburb' came to mean a suburb with special areas zoned for different uses, e.g.: residential and commercial; an absence of attached terraces with free-standing houses, wide tree-lined streets, 'nature strips' on footpaths, parks reserves and gardens. Much-derided rear lanes and rights-of-way became redundant with sewerage and the provision of side access between houses. Verandas and bay windows were means of integrating house & garden.

Tree-lined streets such as Burwood Rd., The Appian Way or The Boulevard in Strathfield were in marked contrast to most development in Australian cities of the late 19th century. (Fraser, Hugh, in Heritage Council of NSW, 1981-4, amended and added to by Stuart Read, 17/5/2008 with excerpts from Eric Dunlop (1975)).

Lynton:
Lynton was designed for Arthur Hezlett by architect Stanley Rickard in 1906.

The Burwood Historical Society and the National Trust of Australia (N.S.W) nominated a group of Federation houses in Burwood for protection under the Heritage Act in 1981. An Interim Conservation Order was placed on the heritage precinct on 20th November. This nomination came into being principally because Lynton exhibited similar features to a fine collection of Federation style mansions that formed a coherent and well preserved streetscape.

There were intially five houses protected in the precinct, all of Federation design. It was agreed that the order should be allowed to expire on the precinct as the area would be protected under a local enivronment plan, but that Lynton one of the most outstanding buildings should be protected by a Permanent Conservation Order.

When Lynton was purchased by an Alderman of Burwood in 1985, the building was converted for use as a reception centre. In the process of conversion the removal of walls between the major rooms took place. It was at the time in derelict condition. The owner subsequently restored the house.

Lynton was listed on the State Heritage Register on 2 April 1999.

Historic themes

Australian theme (abbrev)New South Wales themeLocal theme
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Environment - cultural landscape-Activities associated with the interactions between humans, human societies and the shaping of their physical surroundings Landscapes and gardens of domestic accommodation-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Environment - cultural landscape-Activities associated with the interactions between humans, human societies and the shaping of their physical surroundings Landscapes demonstrating styles in landscape design-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Accommodation-Activities associated with the provision of accommodation, and particular types of accommodation – does not include architectural styles – use the theme of Creative Endeavour for such activities. (none)-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Accommodation-Activities associated with the provision of accommodation, and particular types of accommodation – does not include architectural styles – use the theme of Creative Endeavour for such activities. Housing the prosperous - mansions in town and country-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Land tenure-Activities and processes for identifying forms of ownership and occupancy of land and water, both Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Changing land uses - from rural to suburban-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Towns, suburbs and villages-Activities associated with creating, planning and managing urban functions, landscapes and lifestyles in towns, suburbs and villages Developing suburbia-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Creative endeavour-Activities associated with the production and performance of literary, artistic, architectural and other imaginative, interpretive or inventive works; and/or associated with the production and expression of cultural phenomena; and/or environments that have inspired such creative activities. Landscaping - Federation period-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Creative endeavour-Activities associated with the production and performance of literary, artistic, architectural and other imaginative, interpretive or inventive works; and/or associated with the production and expression of cultural phenomena; and/or environments that have inspired such creative activities. Architectural styles and periods - Federation Queen Anne-

Assessment of significance

SHR Criteria a)
[Historical significance]
Lynton was designed as an individual house set in its own garden. The house was built in Federation style giving a unity to the area not usually found in other development of the time. Lynton only represents an important period in Australian architectural and social history but, indeed, reflects the concept of the time. (Balaz and Issa 1986)
SHR Criteria c)
[Aesthetic significance]
Lynton exhibits many of the features that are distinctive to the Federation Style. Visible is the gabled high pitched roof. Double hung and the use of leadlight and stained glass windows are also apparent.. Detailed timber columns and valances range along the verandah with the motif repeated in the window hoods and the barge boards. The upper floor is set within the roof space in the form of gabled dormers. Gables are half timbered and stuccoed and the roof is slte with terracotta ridgings. (Balaz and Issa 1986)
SHR Criteria f)
[Rarity]
It is the only house remaining in the block on a large area of land with frontage to Clarance Street.
SHR Criteria g)
[Representativeness]
Lynton is a distinctive example of the Federation Style. Lynton only represents an important period in Australian architectural and social history but, indeed, reflects the concept of the time.
Assessment criteria: Items are assessed against the PDF State Heritage Register (SHR) Criteria to determine the level of significance. Refer to the Listings below for the level of statutory protection.

Procedures /Exemptions

Section of actDescriptionTitleCommentsAction date
57(2)Exemption to allow workHeritage Act See file for various details.


Order Under Section 57(2) to exempt the following activities from Section 57(1):
1. Maintenance where maintenance means the continuous protective care of the fabric, contents, gardens and setting of the place. Maintenance does NOT include renovation, restoration, major repairs, excavation. Painting of previously unpainted surfaces, change of colour schemes or paint types or extensive lopping of trees.
2. Repairs to components of the place where this involves replacing missing or deteriorated fabric to match the existing fabric in all respects.
3. Repainting of all previously painted interior surfaces. Repainting of all previously painted exterior surfaces in the same colour scheme and paint type. Alterations to existing exterior colour schemes are to be approved by the Manager, Heritage Branch, NSW Department of Planning.
4. Repairs to services where this does not involve alterations to or opening up of existing early fabric.
5. Alterations to the interiors of rooms identified in the following schedule, provided that such alterations do not affect the external appearance of the house or outbuildings. This does NOT include removal of any sections of walls, door and window architraves or the stable ceilings.
Nov 18 1994
57(2)Exemption to allow workStandard Exemptions SCHEDULE OF STANDARD EXEMPTIONS
HERITAGE ACT 1977
Notice of Order Under Section 57 (2) of the Heritage Act 1977

I, the Minister for Planning, pursuant to subsection 57(2) of the Heritage Act 1977, on the recommendation of the Heritage Council of New South Wales, do by this Order:

1. revoke the Schedule of Exemptions to subsection 57(1) of the Heritage Act made under subsection 57(2) and published in the Government Gazette on 22 February 2008; and

2. grant standard exemptions from subsection 57(1) of the Heritage Act 1977, described in the Schedule attached.

FRANK SARTOR
Minister for Planning
Sydney, 11 July 2008

To view the schedule click on the Standard Exemptions for Works Requiring Heritage Council Approval link below.
Sep 5 2008

PDF Standard exemptions for works requiring Heritage Council approval

Listings

Heritage ListingListing TitleListing NumberGazette DateGazette NumberGazette Page
Heritage Act - State Heritage Register 0028402 Apr 99 271546
Heritage Act - Permanent Conservation Order - former 0028418 Dec 83 160 
Local Environmental Plan 001921 Jul 89 0844570
Register of the National Estate  11 Aug 86 2010002

References, internet links & images

TypeAuthorYearTitleInternet Links
WrittenDunlop, Eric1975Harvest of the years - the history of Burwood, 1874-1975
WrittenHugh Fraser, Phillip Clements & Helen Powell, modified by Stuart Read1984Conservation of the Federation House, a series of one-day seminars, 1981, 1982, 1983, 1984
WrittenM. Balaz and M. Issa1986Lynton House

Note: internet links may be to web pages, documents or images.

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(Click on thumbnail for full size image and image details)

Data source

The information for this entry comes from the following source:
Name: Heritage Office
Database number: 5045288
File number: S90/04891 & HC 33026


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