The Royal Botanic Gardens and Domain | NSW Environment & Heritage

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The Royal Botanic Gardens and Domain

Item details

Name of item: The Royal Botanic Gardens and Domain
Other name/s: Tarpeian Way, Botanical Gardens
Type of item: Landscape
Group/Collection: Parks, Gardens and Trees
Category: Garden Botanic
Location: Lat: -33.8651315726 Long: 151.2168170590
Primary address: Farm Cove, Sydney, NSW 2000
Local govt. area: Sydney
Local Aboriginal Land Council: Metropolitan
Property description
Lot/Volume CodeLot/Volume NumberSection NumberPlan/Folio CodePlan/Folio Number
LOT1011 DP1199151
LOT1012 DP1199151
LOT1013 DP1199151
LOT1014 DP1199151
LOT25 DP39586
LOT26 DP39586
LOT27 DP39586
LOT30 DP39586
LOT32 DP39586
LOT33 DP39586
LOT34 DP39586
LOT35 DP39586
LOT51 DP47732
LOT6 DP775888
LOT10 DP779599
LOT1824 DP841390
LOT101 DP854472

Boundary:

Royal Botanic Gardens cover 29 ha of cultivated and intensely managed gardens in central Sydney, to the east of Sydney Cove. The site is bounded on the north by Sydney Harbour (Farm Cove), on the east by the waters of Wolloomooloo Bay and the line of Sir John Young Crescent, to the south by St Marys Road and to the west by Hospital Road and Macquarie Street. Listing excludes grounds of Government House. The Domain comprises of 34 hectares.
All addresses
Street AddressSuburb/townLGAParishCountyType
Farm CoveSydneySydney  Primary Address

Owner/s

Organisation NameOwner CategoryDate Ownership Updated
Royal Botanic Gardens and Domain TrustState Government 
Royal Botanic Gardens and Domain TrustState Government02 Oct 97

Statement of significance:

The ROYAL BOTANIC GARDENS AND DOMAIN collectively are of exceptional national, state and local significance as
(NB: see later entries for RBG alone, DOMAIN alone, CENTRAL DEPOT and DOMAIN OIL TANKS) :

GENERAL values:
- it is one of the earliest surviving colonial botanic gardens in the world and one of the oldest, richest and most extensive early public cultural landscapes in Australia with a substantially intact area and major precincts that are nationally rare from a historic, scientific, aesthetic and social perspective, and which continue to fulfil diverse use expectations by remaining freely accessible and in high demand from a broad community spectrum;

- as it contains three of the most important collections for botanical science in Australia notable for their rarity, diversity, size and scientific value - its living collection which is distinguished by many rare and unusual cultivated plants, the extensive preserved collections of the Herbarium and comprehensive botanical library (scientific/technical and research values);

Additionally the Domain is of historical and aesthetic value on a national level for its ability to demonstrate its dual role as the prime example of a pleasure ground attached to Government House and as a leading example of a public park developed from the mid 19th century (as an early designated landscape for public use (1831) the site was at the forefront of international concerns for the integration of public parks within city planning and development).

PRIMARY values:

- as an important and integral part of the boundaries - from 1792 - of the first permanent European settlement in Australia. It is also an integral part of a large group of early Australian colonial sites located along, and linked by, Macquarie Street, including the largest surviving group of Governor Macquarie-era places in Australia. Individually and collectively these sites have considerable potential to reveal much about the formative town planning, settlement and development pattern of the City of Sydney (historic and technical/research values);

- it contains one of the earliest established botanic gardens in the southern hemisphere (1816); the whole site comprises a broad and idiosyncratic collection of native and exotic plants (8000 taxa and 45,000 accessions) acquired over a period of 190 years for the purpose of scientific study including research for agriculture, ornamental horticulture and industry (scientific/technical/research and historic values);

- it contains three of the most valuable assets to botanical science in Australia - its living collection which is distinguished by many rare and unusual cultivated plants, the preserved collections of the herbarium and the RBG library archives (scientific/technical/research and historic values);

- it continues, uninterrupted, a close and direct link with the study, classification and cultivation of the indigenous vegetation of NSW from the time of Charles Fraser (1817) and remaining a core function of the institution and landscape (scientific/technical/research and historic values);

- the place has strong and direct associations with many notable early botanical explorers and collectors such as William Paterson, John Carne Bidwill, Ludwig Leichhardt and John Richardson; and with their important plant acquisitions still extant in the living and preserved collections (scientific/technical/research and historic values);

- it has strong and direct associations with various prominent early directors such as Charles Fraser, Richard and Allan Cunningham, Charles Moore and Joseph Maiden - who were largely responsible for the present overall form of the landscape as well as the content and organisation of the plant collections (scientific/technical/research and historic values);

- it has strong and direct associations with many distinguished 20th century scientists - such as Dr Darnell-Smith, Knowles Mair, Robert Anderson and Dr Lawrence Johnson - whose research, using the living and preserved collections of the place and building on the work of the 19th century RBG botanists, forms the basis of contemporary knowledge and understanding of Australian plants. The collections remain an important basis for contemporary research in systematic and horticultural botany and plant ecology by various Australian and international scientists (scientific/technical/research and historic values);

- it is closely associated with the history and development of the principal government residences - as well as the Governors - of New South Wales; and it remains an integral part of the historical and visual landscape of Government House and of the archaeological remains of the First Government House (scientific/technical/research and historic values);

- it is a nationally important representative example of a largely intact high-Victorian/Edwardian subtropical Gardenesque landscape design - retaining elements of the earlier Macquarie-era 'estate park' - with the capacity to indicate evolving landscape design styles in Australia over the past 200 years (historic & aesthetic values);

- it retains many important components of the various phases of its layout - including paths, fences, bedding areas, plantations, views, monuments, statuary, fountains, walling, steps, other landscape furnishings and gate houses - that give the landscape its distinctive visual and botanical character (historic, aesthetic & technical/research values);

- both the overall place as well as particular areas within it are highly valued by the community - for strong personal associations and memories, and for providing a sense of identity and continuity of use. The place has been, and continues to be, the focus of important historic events in the cultural and political life of New South Wales (social & historic values);

- it fulfils an important role as a part of the quintessential setting for nearby architectural landmarks such as the Sydney Opera House, St. Mary's Cathedral and Aurora Place - all having, individually, exceptional aesthetic value. The Tarpeian Rock is a prominent, dramatic and significant sandstone cliff landscape feature of the Domain facing Bennelong Point and the Sydney Opera House, cut for the extension of Macquarie Street and an example of 19th century romanticism (aesthetic value);

- it is an integral part of Sydney's scenic harbour landscape (aesthetic value);

- it remains a potent source of inspiration for artists and writers since the inception of the colony; and as a setting for public art (historic, aesthetic & social values);

- despite various interventions over the last 200 years it is still possible to appreciate the basic form of the pre-European landscape - the two ridged promontories enclosing the central gully (aesthetic value);

- the place demonstrates changing fashions in horticulture, garden design and ornament, and the practice of botany through its landscape and architectural design and art as it has continued to be developed, reshaped and embellished by successive directors and overseers (historic & aesthetic values);

- the trialling of various plant species - for example Canary Island date palms (Phoenix canariensis), brush box (Lophostemon confertus) and Hill's fig (Ficus microcarpa var. Hillii) - within the place has subsequently influenced their popularity and use throughout Sydney and beyond (scientific/technical/research and aesthetic values);

- as a landscape it has also been the setting for earlier important structures such as the Exhibition Palace, Fort Macquarie, the Crimean War period fortifications, the temporary Federation pavilion and for which some archaeological evidence may remain (scientific/technical/research values);

- from an early date the place developed, and continues to develop, a didactic role of increasing knowledge and understanding about plants through displays, public lectures, tours and social events based on the living collections and the landscape setting (social value).

THE ROYAL BOTANIC GARDENS, SYDNEY is of exceptional national, state and local significance:

as one of the earliest surviving colonial botanic gardens in the world and one of the richest and most extensive early public cultural landscapes in Australia with substantially intact major precincts that are nationally rare from a historic, scientific, aesthetic and social perspective.

The Royal Botanic Gardens, Sydney has SCIENTIFIC significance:

- as it comprises an eclectic collection of native and exotic plants acquired over almost two centuries, for the purpose of scientific study including research for agriculture, ornamental horticulture and industry (scientific/technical/research and historic values);

- for the extraordinary breadth of the living collections for botanical science in Australia - its living collection which is distinguished by many rare and unusual cultivated plants, the extensive preserved collections of the Herbarium and comprehensive botanical library (scientific/technical/research values);

- as it contains three of the most important collections for botanical science in Australia - its living collection which is distinguished by many rare and unusual cultivated plants, the extensive preserved collections of the Herbarium and comprehensive botanical library (scientific/technical and research values);

- for the long standing close and direct link with the study, classification and cultivation of the indigenous plants of NSW, Australia and the South Pacific region, which remains a core function of the scientific institution and the Gardens (scientific/technical and research values);

- for the archaeological potential and remains of former Aboriginal and European occupation on the site. The Gardens are part of the clan territory, or country of the Gadigal people. As an integral part of the first permanent European settlement, they are the site of the first contact and the earliest European agricultural and horticultural site in Australia (scientific/technical and research values);

- for its natural significance as the habitat of several animal species considered to have high local conservation value including a colony of the threatened grey-headed flying foxes (Pteropus poliocephalus). Examples of native vegetation remain, as does the basic form of the pre-European landscape with two ridged promontories enclosing the central gully (scientific/technical and research values);

The Royal Botanic Gardens Sydney have HISTORIC significance:

- as the site of the first Government Farm activities in Australia, an attempt to support the vulnerable new colony in 1788. After the establishment of the Government Gardens c1816-17 it remained a prime site for the trailling of important economic botanical crops including the introduction of Busby's vines in 1830;

- as part of the Vice Regal Domain and for its association with prominent individuals especially Governors Phillip, Bligh, Macquarie & Mrs Macquarie, Darling, Denison and Brisbane;

- as the earliest established botanic garden in Australia, one of the earliest established botanic gardens in the southern hemisphere and among the earliest surviving colonial botanic gardens in the world;

- for the strong and direct associations with prominent early directors such as Charles Fraser, Richard & Allan Cunningham, Charles Moore, Joseph Maiden, who were largest responsible for the overall form of the Gardens' landscape, as well as the 19th century content and organisation of the plant collections;

- for its strong and direct associations with many distinguished 20th century scientists who have developed and codified knowledge and understanding of Australian plants through their researches using the Garden and Herbarium collections. These include Joseph Maiden, William F Blakeley, Lawrence Johnson and Barbara Briggs;

- as the study of the Gardens' living and preserved collections has formed the basis of much of the contemporary knowledge and understanding of Australian plants. This knowledge built on the extensive work by the 19th century government botanists and the plant acquisitions, whose collections are of notable early botanical explorers and collectors. These include William Paterson, Charles Fraser, Allan & Richard Cunningham, John Carne Bidwill and Ludwig Leichhardt; and their Aboriginal assistants, whose collections are extant in both the living and the preserved collections;

- as the landscape layout, horticultural dressing as well as embellishment with statuary, fountains, memorials and structures, are indicative of the evolution of landscape styles in Australia, the landscape has evolved from a small botanic garden of a traditional functional design within the Governor's Domain or 'estate park' of the Macquarie era, to the high Victorian Gardenesque which gradually replaced the 'park' and which forms the framework of the existing landscape;

- as the path system, walling and layout of the Middle Garden is one of the earliest surviving garden layouts in Australia. Although once the accepted mode for botanic gardens, especially systematic gardens - the rectangular grid layout, its importance enhanced by continuous maintenance over almost 2 centuries, is increasingly rare worldwide;

- as the design of the Lower Garden is an exceptional example of a 19th century landscape design displaying a major engineering feature in the sea wall and network of ponds. It exhibits Picturesque, naturalistic and Gardenesque design traits in its curvilinear pathway system with beds at junctions, the tradition of lawns for floral display now centred on the Choragic Monument (and views to Farm Cove and Government House);

- As the Garden Palace Grounds records historic layers in the remnants of the landscape design from the International Exhibition, including large scale terracing, the 1880s adaptation as a Victorian pleasure garden with associated Gardenesque layout, and early 20th century additions, particularly the Governor Phillip fountain;

- the Gardens are an integral part of a wider area that contains a large group of significant colonial sites and the oldest officially established Domain in Australia (1792). This historic area provides considerable potential to reveal much about the formative town planning, settlement and development pattern of Sydney;

- as it demonstrates the changing fashions in horticulture, garden design and ornament and the practice of horticultural botany, through its landscape, as it has continued to be developed, reshaped and embellished by successive directors and overseers (aesthetic & historic values);

The Royal Botanic Gardens Sydney have AESTHETIC significance:

- as part of the quintessential setting for one of the finest ensembles of public facilities including the Botanic Garden, Sydney Opera House, Government House, Conservatorium of Music and Sydney's scenic harbour at Farm Cove, that is outstanding in a national context and possibly internationally;

- as a largely intact designed landscape that is a place of beauty and peace in contrast to the hard edge of the surrounding city;

- as it contains buildings of refined design of the Victorian and Federation period such as the Macquarie Lodge (1848), Victoria Lodge (1863-5), the former residences of workers, overseers and directors and the 1878/1899 Anderson Building erected during the tenure of Colonial Architects Mortimer Lewis and James Barnet and Government Architect Walter Liberty Vernon. The Gardens also contain contemporary buildings of some significance representative of developments in Modern Movement architecture in Australia;

- as a source of inspiration for artists and writers since the inception of the colony and as a setting for the display of public art (aesthetic & historic values);

- as the place retains many fine components of the various phases of its layout including paths, fences, bedding areas, views, monuments, statuary, fountains, walling, steps and other landscape furnishings, these giving various compartments of the landscape distinctive visual and botanical character;

The Royal Botanic Gardens Sydney have SOCIAL significance:

- as they are highly valued by the community and are in high demand from a broad community spectrum. They fulfil diverse use expectations by remaining freely accessible. The Gardens as a cultural precinct provide a setting for recreation and relaxation, entertainment and events attracting over several million visitors and tourists every year;

- as from an early date developed, and continues to develop, a didactic role of increasing appreciation and conservation of plants. It performs this important educational role through displays, public lectures, tours and special events based on the living and preserved collections and the landscape setting;

- as the Herbarium contains one of Australia's most important collections of preserved plant specimens that is highly valued by the national and international scientific community for contemporary research into systematic and horticultural botany and plant ecology;

THE DOMAIN

The Domain is individually of exceptional value to Australia, NSW and Sydney:

- as an important and integral part of the boundaries, from 1792, of the first permanent European settlement in Australia. It is also an integral part of a large group of early Australian colonial sites located along, and linked by, Macquarie Street including the largest surviving group of Governor Macquarie-era places in Australia. Individually and collectively these sites have considerable potential to reveal much about the formative town planning, settlement and development pattern of the City of Sydney (historic value);

- for its close association with the development of the Royal Botanic Gardens and of botanical study in Australia, as the location of early (1788) agricultural, botanical and horticultural enterprise and, since 1848, through the joint management of the Domain and Gardens under one directorship (historic value);

- as a notable venue in the landscape of public protest, both collective and individual, as a place of assembly for the demonstration of concern, opposition and disquiet and in particular, to challenge Government policy and authority (historic and social value);

- as the home, from the 1870s, of the Domain orators - synonymous with free speech, a platform for a vibrant tradition of public speaking of all creeds, beliefs, life styles and political persuasions in the tradition of London's Hyde Park corner (historic & social value);

- as evidence of the erosion and alienation of public space under pressure of urban development and of dominance of transport issues in the history of planning in Sydney and a focus for debate concerning the value of public space and the rights of citizens;

- for its association with sporting history in Australia, as a venue for a wide range of sporting activities including the provision of sports facilities for city workers and firms' teams, the home of first class cricket in NSW from 1857-1871 and, in 1846, as the venue for the first swimming championship known to have been held in Australia. It is also known as the site of the first swimming championship known to have been held in Australia. It is also known as the site of the first formalised swimming in Sydney - an activity that continues at the site - and of the first public playground (gynasium)(historic & social value).

(Conybeare Morrison, 3/2003, amending Britton, Morris & Annable, 2000)

The gardens and Domain also have exceptional HISTORICAL significance as:

- the second oldest Botanic gardens in the southern hemisphere (officially established in 1816), Rio de Janeiro being the oldest;
- the site of the first attempts at agriculture in the colony in 1788 and a rare example on a world scale where a modern nation's first attempts at feeding itself can be traced and seen;
- the site of Governor Phillip's farm within the middle garden, still evident in the way the axes of the current beds and paths follow the original furrows;
- a core remnant of Governor Phillip's original Government/Governor's Domain (1792);
- an important part of Governor Macquarie's plan for Sydney;
- the first extensive open space designated in Sydney, and representative of a small group of early 19th century public spaces in Sydney;
- a site of early public recreation since 1831, in continuous public use since;
- evidence of remnant native vegetation remaining from the time of white settlement of the Sydney area.
- retention of many important structures and memorials from early Colonial times when the gardens formed part of the original Governor's Domain (such as the c.1812 Macquarie wall and gateway, Mrs Macquarie's Road, fountains, statues, gates, a varied collection of buildings both public (eg: herbarium) and private (eg; Victoria Lodge gate house, Superintendent's residence/Cunningham Building, Old Herbarium/Anderson Building));
- a beautiful and varied collection of plants, statuary, fountains, monuments, and structures representative of Victorian cultural attainments and garden embellishments;
- demonstrating a very early example of providing public access to open space or parkland (1831 cf 1850s in England);
- their being the site of the first zoo in Australia;
- their being the site of the 1878 International Exhibition, and Garden Palace, a major event for Sydney and the first such exhibition in Australia, featuring works of art and industry. (Westcott and Broadbent, AHC, modified Read, S., 2003)

The gardens and Domain demonstrate strong or special ASSOCIATIONS with the life and works of persons, groups of persons of importance in NSW's cultural and natural history, including:
- their association with the work and influence of key figures in the European scientific world such as Sir Joseph Banks, Sir William Hooker and Joseph Dalton Hooker at Kew Gardens, London;
- their association with the life and works of past Domain overseers, including David Wilson, August Kloster and James Jones, many of whom made significant contributions to the development of the Domain and other public areas in Sydney designed by the Directors of the Botanic Gardens and their staff;
- for their rich heritage of memorials as elements of urban design, including the Domain's Henry Kendall memorial seat, the Palace Garden Gates and wall, the Cunningham memorial island and obelisk, the monument to the forces of the Desert Mounted Corps wall, the Captain Arthur Phillip fountain monument and the sunken garden memorial to the Pioneers;

The gardens and Domain have AESTHETIC significance for the following reasons:
- as a palimpsest of one hundred and fifty years of colonial and Victorian garden design with some very fine late 19th century landscaping;
- for demonstrating a mixture of early 19th century garden design styles with Colonial style geometric beds in the middle garden and picturesque romantic style features such as serpentine paths and island beds in the other areas;
- their design as a public pleasure garden, containing many enclosed scenes enhanced with decorative foliage and water forms and providing many enframed views across the harbour;
- for the public role key Directors such as Moore and Maiden played in propagating and promoting rainforest tree and palm species and good design in garden making in the planting of public streets, parks and institutional grounds around NSW;
- their continuing educational role in demonstrating high standards of ornamental horticulture to the public;
- as an important major defining landscape and recreational asset of Sydney;
- for the Domain's role as a contributing and defining element providing continuity in the series of public parklands extending from Hyde Park to the Royal Botanic Gardens, important in the open space network of the City of Sydney;
- because of the reciprocal visual relationship between the Gardens and Domain and the historic buildings group along Macquarie Street, Hospital Road and St. Mary's Cathedral. These buildings are part of the setting of the Gardens and Domain, and the Gardens and Domain in turn form a parkland backdrop setting for these buildings, which is appreciated by their users and the public;
- for including a number of individually significant structures of high aesthetic value such as the Art Gallery of NSW, the Domain Lodge and a group of statues and memorials including the Robert Burns statue;
- for their rich tradition of gently curving walls, including the two Macquarie walls, the Farm Cove sea wall, the Woolloomooloo gates and wall, the Government House western terrace walls and the walls that originally contained the Domain (GML, 1999).

The gardens and Domain have SCIENTIFIC significance as:
- Australia's oldest scientific institution (1816);
- continuing centre for scientific research, particularly in systematic taxonomic botany;
- historic centre for economic botany and experimental horticulture, being a key place for exportation of Australian native plants (most active period of exporting to Europe was up until 1820), and for the importation, acclimatisation, propagation and dispersal of plants establishing many of Australia's horticultural and agricultural industries, such as the wine and olive industries and experimenting with many others (opium poppies, eucalypt oil distillation);
- their demonstration of the extensive international colonial exchange network of botanic gardens in promoting plant exploration, discovery, taxonomy, propagation, dispersal and cultivation;
- their association with the work and influence of key figures in the European scientific world such as Sir Joseph Banks, Sir William Hooker and Joseph Dalton Hooker at Kew Gardens, London;
- their association with the work and influence of key figures in Australian botany such as Alan Cunningham, Charles Fraser, John Carne Bidwill, Charles Moore, Joseph Maiden;
- their rich (c110 species) and early (1860s) collection of temperate and subtropical climate palms, considered one of the finest in the world;
- their fine collection of trees from the South Pacific and other Pacific regions, including of the Araucariaceae family (eg: the Araucaria and Agathis genera) and figs (the genus Ficus).

The gardens and Domain have SOCIAL significance for the following reasons:
- they demonstrate a very early example of providing public access to open space or parkland (1831 cf 1850s in England);
- their long and continuing role in providing pleasure, edification and interest to the public while at the same time representing key social values such as law, order and social status;
- their recreational use by the community over a long period and the domain which has traditionally been the centre for political and religious discussion and meetings and continues to provide venues for large public gatherings and entertainment;
- their being the site of the first zoo in Australia (1860 aviary);
- their being the site of the 1878 International Exhibition, and Garden Palace, a major event for Sydney and the first such exhibition in Australia, featuring works of art and industry;
- their continuing role in public education through lectures, demonstration plantings etc on the value and diversity of plants, their beauty, range, uses and cultivation, and more recently on nature conservation and biodiversity issues;
- their continuing educational role in demonstrating high standards of ornamental horticulture to the public;
- as a significant site for political and religious discussion and meetings, democratic debate and the expression of dissent, in the Domain;
- as demonstration of the importance placed upon accessible and inalienable public space in Sydney, which dates back to the 1830s;
- as a habitat to a threatened fauna species, the grey headed flying fox (bat).

The gardens and Domain are identified in the Archaeological Zoning Plan for Central Sydney as an Area of Archaeological Potential, with the potential to yield information that will contribute to an understanding of NSW's cultural or natural history. It is an area potentially rich in archaeological remains, dating from Aboriginal occupation and the earliest years of the establishment of the colony.

(AHC, Henty, Broadbent; modified Read, S., 2003)

CENTRAL DEPOT
The Central Depot is of historical significance for its previous use as the kitchen garden associated with Government House (1813-1870) and its ongoing historic use as a centre for plant propagation, cultivation and display serving the Royal Botanic Gardens, Sydney. It contains several rare late 19th and early 20th century glasshouses, and retains evidence of their original heating systems. The Central Depot is of research significance for its archaeological potential (CLSP, 2005, p27).

The archaeology within the Central Depot belongs to all of the identified time frames of the overall statement of archaeological significance for the Botanic Gardens. The early remains of the first farm, and the Macquaries' landscaping of the Domain all built by convicts, are of exceptional State heritage significance. Other archaeological evidence, glasshouses and the boiler room equipment and such, associated with the development of the Botanic Gardens can contribute to the story of Gardens and has high Local archaeological significance. (Casey & Lowe, 2005, p.21).

DOMAIN OIL TANKS (Preliminary SOS):
The Domain oil tanks are:
1) a relic of the various construction activities associated with the war effort and with the operation of Garden Island as the headquarters of the Australian Navy (criterion (a) historic);
2) associated with the Department of Defence and its operations during World War 2 (criterion (b) association);
3) demonstrative of mass and reinforced concrete construction methods developed by the Metropolitan Water & Sewerage & Drainage Board (MWS & DB) for water (and other liquid) storage purposes in the early 20th century (criterion (e) technical/research);
4) the only example in Sydney of underground wartime fuel storage tanks (criterion (f) rarity); and
5) representative of tanks constructed by the MWS & DB for the storage of fluids in the early 20th century and reflect the then latest development of a construction design dating from the mid 19th century (criterion (g) representative).
(Godden Mackay Logan, 2003).

The Tarpeian Way
The Tarpeian Way is of State significance for its prominence as a quarried, weathered sandstone cliff face, with stone steps and iron railing, which defines the northern boundary of the Royal Botanic Gardens and the southern boundary of the Sydney Opera House. The drama, scale and simplicity of the quarried sandstone face of theTarpeian Wall plays a crucial role in supporting the entry point and setting of the Sydney Opera House, where it provides an enclosing 'backstage wall' to the open forecourt space. It is considered a 'crucial element in [the World Heritage] Buffer Zone . . . including its steps and upper perimeter fence. Although not legally on the Sydney Opera House site, it immediately borders and defines its southern edge and the open space of the forecourt. Because of its scale, location and configuration, it plays a crucial role in the approach and entry experience, setting, and definition, of the Sydney Opera House site.' (Croker, 2010, p55). A substantial rock cutting of the Bennelong headland, undertaken in 1880 at a cost of 6000 pounds, it enabled the extension of Macquarie Street. 'Its vertical quarried sandstone face, with its steps and fence, is an historic artefact in its own right and retains the only visible evidence of activities on the Sydney Opera House site predating the Opera House itself.' (Croker, 2010, p55) Its traces of anti-Vietnam War graffiti dating from the 1970s are of State significance as a remnant of an important Australian social movement in a major public space. The Tarpeian Way is of local significance for its associations with politicians and bureaucrats who authorised and undertook the cutting in 1880 including Sydney Alderman C. Moore, J. S. Farnell, then Minister for Lands, E. Bradridge, City Surveyor and Mr. Moriarty, the Engineer for Harbours and Rivers. The Tarpeian Way has an unusually dramatic, classical association through its name with the famous rock in Rome from which prisoners were hurled to their deaths in ancient times. The Tarpeian Way is of State social significance for the high regard in which it is held as a dramatic backdrop to the forecourt space of the Sydney Opera House, and as an access point between the Sydney Opera House and the royal Botanic Gardens. It is often used by members of the public enjoying its marvellous views of the Sydney Opera House and harbour setting.
Date significance updated: 22 Sep 98
Note: The State Heritage Inventory provides information about heritage items listed by local and State government agencies. The State Heritage Inventory is continually being updated by local and State agencies as new information becomes available. Read the OEH copyright and disclaimer.

Description

Designer/Maker: Charles Moore (overall structure; key elements); Joseph Maiden (ditto); various others (elements)
Builder/Maker: Charles Fraser; Allan Cunningham; Richard Cunningham; Charles Moore; Joseph Maiden; Carrick Chambers
Construction years: 1816-
Physical description: The Gardens consist of 29 hectares of closely cultivated land surrounded by 51 hectares of park lands comprising the Sydney Domain. A large and complex public botanic garden, largely of late 19th Century character; being not only an historic site of the first importance but containing within it numerous structures which have been nominated separately (see nominations by the National Trust (NSW). A predominantly nineteenth century character of landscape layout strengthened by large mature trees.

Traditionally designated as four areas reflecting its development - the Middle Garden, the Upper Garden the Lower Garden and the Garden Palace Grounds. (National Trust of Australia (NSW) - 1981

The layout of the Gardens is exceptionally important, each area (the Middle garden, the Lower Garden, the Palace Lawn etc.) reflecting an important stage in the development of the gardens and the current fashion in landscape design almost from the founding of the colony. The squared beds of the Middle Garden are traditionally believed to reflect the first furrows and shortly thereafter the first garden plots of the new settlement.

The old Garden Palace grounds is the area bordering Macquarie Street and the Conservatorium of Music (former Government House stables). The Middle Garden is the first farm site. The Upper garden comprises of the southern section housing administrative offices and National Herbarium on Mrs Macquarie's road as well as the nursery and depot area bordering the Cahill Expressway. The Lower Garden comprises the rest of the area extending north of the Middle Garden to Farm Cove.

The Garden Palace grounds being the highest point have excellent views and are maintained as lawn areas, garden beds, Australian shrubs and turf species. The area was originally enclosed by a paling fence for grazing the Governor's stock. An ornamental fence was constructed along Macquarie Street and in the grounds stood the Garden Palace built 1879 which was destroyed by fire in 1882.

The Middle Garden is now the most closely cultivated section of the gardens where both native and exotic species are well labelled. It included the spring walk famous for its azalea display (currently (2003) undergoing renovation), one of the finest collections of outdoor palms in the world and a 1970s succulent garden.

Some of the Lower Garden was laid out by Charles Fraser and features ponds which are frequented by waterfowl including Australian Black Swans which breed successfully in the environment. (Westcott and Broadbent 1976)

The Middle Garden
The long rectangular beds have evolved from the rectangular beds of the earliest garden. The land before the first Government House and Bennelong Point was laid out in the manner of an English park, the Botanic Garden was treated in a purely functional way. The gate in the wall which Macquarie had completed in 1816 to protect the garden from the harbour, and which now separates the Middle and Lower Gardens. (National Trust of Australia - (NSW) ,1981).

Fraser's plantings in what is now called the "Palm Grove", made between 1827-8 from his Brisbane district and northern NSW travels survive, and include hoop pines (Araucaria cunninghamii), weeping lilly pillies (Waterhousia floribunda), a hoop pine (Araucaria cunninghamii), 2 swamp oaks (Casuarina cunninghamiana) on the eastern side of the palm grove. On his death in 1831 he was succeeded by Richard Cunningham. His brother, the explorer Alan Cunningham was also a director. A native red cedar Fraser collected in 1822 formerly thought to have been from the Parramatta region has been genetically tested and found to have been collected in the Dorrigo region. This tree grows still near the Palm House (beside Farm Cove Creek in Bed 9).

Charles Moore planted the Palm Grove which has an internationally significant collection of palms and rainforest species in the Middle Garden.

Lower Gardens
Charles Moore directed the reclamation of and expansion of the 'Lower Garden' into Farm Cove, extending the gardens' pleasure grounds with curving pleasure walks, tree and shrubbery plantings. This work took place over 30 years, resulting in a gardenesque parkland which retains much of its original layout and composition today. Within this layout there are collections of plants of note, including from the Canary Islands, New Zealand and the Pacific Islands.

Domain
The Tarpeian Rock is a prominent, dramatic and significant sandstone cliff landscape feature on the north west boundary of the Domain facing Bennelong Point and the Sydney Opera House, cut for the extension of Macquarie Street. It derives its name from the famous rock on the Capitoline Hill in Rome from where prisoners were hurled to their deaths in ancient times. A stairway gives access from close to the Sydney Opera House to the top of the rock and Domain. An early carving in the sandstone cliff is located about 3 metres above the fifth step from the base of the cliff. The carving reads "The Tarpeian Way". It possibly dates from the time of construction in the 1880s. (City of Sydney Heritage Database inventory 8013)
Physical condition and/or
Archaeological potential:
Physical condition is good.

GENERAL ARCHAEOLOGICAL POTENTIAL:
Collectively the Royal Botanic Gardens has high archaeological significance. The heritage and archaeological resources comprising the garden are well-understood. They aggregate into specific clusters known as the Middle Garden, the Upper Garden the Lower Garden and the Garden Palace Grounds.


ARCHAEOLOGICAL POTENTIAL SPECIFIC TO APPLICATION No. 2002/S60/168: (New phase of an upgrade for the water supply)
The Archaeological Assessment and Research Design: Royal Botanic Gardens and Outer Domain [Godden Mackay Logan, 1999] identified areas of high through to low potential, and areas that were archaeologically sterile, as they were the result of land reclamation (refer to Figures 5.1-5.3).

The proposed pipeline route does not intersect the area of high archaeological potential. Parts of the route go through sterile land. Mrs Macquarie's Walk is intercepted at one point by Project 2.


ARCHAEOLOGICAL POTENTIAL SPECIFIC TO APPLICATION No. 2004/S60/120: (Replanting of tree avenue in the Domain adjacent to Hospital Road with 30 new trees):
"The assessment of the archaeological features in the western area of the Philip Precinct suggests that:

"(1) the 1830s drain is unlikely to be impacted;

"(2) the sites of Bligh's Ditch and the Technological Museum are likely to be impacted by the work and the impact has the potential to remove a proportion of this significant resource; and

"(3) artefact deposits associated with fills across the precinct are also likely to be disturbed.
Date condition updated:25 Jun 13
Modifications and dates: June 1788 - Governor Phillip reports '9 acres of corn'.
September 1788 - 20 acres cleared for crops
1789 - agricultural activity mainly relocated to Rose Hill (Parramatta) due to much greater crop success there
1792 - Phillip's domain marked out.
1800-07 - grants of land made to private farmers in Farm Cove's east (Anson's Point).
1807 - Governor Bligh resumes Domain (19acres), controls private farming in Woolloomooloo Bay and terminates farm leases in eastern side of Farm Cove. Carriage roads made around Bennelong's Point and Farm Cove for the Governor.
C1812 - 5 acres added, landscaped by Fraser south of Macquarie Wall in Lower gardens, 24 acres total area.
1812-1816 - Macquarie Wall built in Lower Gardens
1816 - gardens recognised as Botanic Gardens. Mrs Macquarie's Road around the Domain to Mrs Macquarie's Point finished, running north of the Government gardens/nursery at some distance from the shore, and bridging over Farm Cove Creek.
1821 the Government House stables (now the Conservatorium of Music) completed in the Domain's north near Bridge Street.
1825 - Governor Brisbane extended gardens west of Farm Cove Creek, for an experimental garden, to acclimatise Australian plants for export and imported plants
1831 - public use of the Domain was formally invited and became accepted policy (very controlled before that).
1830s - Lower Garden area at head of Farm cove developed and shoreline laid out in an ornamental fashion with serpentine paths.
1833 - four gardens recognised: botanic (the lower garden at the head of the cove); fruit garden; the experimental garden and the kitchen garden, still producing food for the Governor's table.
1837-45 (New) Government House built in Domain north of Gardens.

1847 - fig tree avenue of Moreton Bay figs (Ficus macrophylla) planted, lining main public entry to gardens from Macquarie Street eastward (now the line of the Cahill Expressway).
1848 - Moore appointed, renovated paths throughout upper gardens, built new paths in lower garden. 3 acres were added to the gardens between 1848 and 1858.
1848-1879 Moore organised construction of sea wall and reclamation of Farm Cove's tidal flats (work proceeded in two stages) to expand the Lower Garden by 3 acres, the wall built of stone recycled from demolished Old Government House in Bridge Street, and a long walk was established along Farm Cove. Ponds in lower garden laid out, water supply for upper gardens aided by water pipe installed from Macquarie Street.

1850s - vista pavilions added in gardens, one with a thatched roof.
1852 - Sydney based herbarium started (Moore)
1857 - small portion of Governor's kitchen garden (Upper Garden) converted to Gardens.
1860 - an aviary opened (site of current succulent/cacti garden) after public lobbying. 1862 a zoo was incorporated.
1860 - original grape vines uprooted
1862 - Palm grove established near Middle Garden, summer houses built in gardens.
1863 - cottage built near Governor's Bathing house for Government House gardener.
C1865 - Domain gate lodge and gates built, (Hospital Road, Prince Albert Road), Victoria Lodge gate house and gates built (first stage) at east of Gardens near Mrs Macquarie's Point
Late 1860s - main part of Governor's kitchen garden (Upper garden) given up as an addition to the Upper Garden

1870 - Governor's private gates built (now Opera House gates).
1870s - demolished convict barracks built in Cunningham's time, and old glasshouses in former Governor's kitchen garden to make open grassed areas of Upper Garden.
1871 - 5 acres of former Governor's kitchen garden converted to Botanic Gardens, used as a nursery and propagating ground
1873 - Main entry gates built, off Fig Tree Avenue (east of Bent Street, now Cahill Expressway)
1874 - Italianate style 2 storey Superintendent/Director's residence (now the Cunningham building) with tower was built, near Woolloomooloo gates).
1876 - Palm house glasshouse built in Middle Garden.

1878-9 - single storey herbarium and overseer's residence built. Garden Palace built and 'instant' gardens around it, near Macquarie Street/Bent Street on former grazing land in Upper Garden. Exhibition opens 1879.
1880 - a monkey house was built as part of the zoo.
1882 - Garden Palace destroyed, only sandstone and iron gates survive. After clean up 19 acres (7.7ha of new gardens were added to the RBG "Palace Garden").
1882 on - Maiden adds lighting (e.g.: on sea walk on Farm Cove), seating, lavatories, drinking fountains, pathways. 1883 - zoo relocated to Moore Park, incorporated 5 acres (2ha) of Outer Domain into the Lower Garden, completing the ring of waterfront along Farm Cove. Maiden moved and displayed the remnants of the exhibition fire to a pavilion in the Domain which became the official museum, incorporating a herbarium.
1883 - zoo relocated to Moore Park. 5 acres (2ha) of Outer Domain was incorporated into the Lower Garden, completing the ring of waterfront along Farm Cove.
1896-1901 - Maiden installed new lighting, seating, lavatories, fountains and pathways. Lighting along the sea walk and the lower garden installed, making the ring of water front of the lower gardens complete.
1897 - Governor Phillip fountain built near Macquarie Street/Garden palace gates
1899 - new herbarium building (second storey added by Govt. Architect Vernon to existing building, ground floor adapted as lecture hall and library, museum and admin centre built

1901 - Maiden has obelisk erected in pond, housing relocated remains of Allan Cunningham from Devonshire St. cemetery. Maiden also drained and sewered the gardens.
1908-1916 - Conservatorium of Music created in adapted former Governor's Stables in Western Domain
1912 - Palm house glass house has new superstructure, designed by Government Architect George McRae.
1916 - there were 72.6 hectares of gardens/Domain
1920s - cut and cover tunnelling to create City Loop underground rail line in western Domain
1926 - Spring walk replanted
1936 - succulent garden created on site of former aviaries/zoo, in eastern section of gardens near Herbarium
1938 - Pioneer Memorial Women's' Garden opened, laid out in sunken circular area under centre of former Garden Palace dome.

1940 - aviary removed.
1956 - Outer Domain land taken by Sydney City Ccl. to construct a car park (the Domain Car Parking station), loss of 47 relatively rare trees, and land
1958-60s - Cahill Expressway resumption and construction work began, bisecting Domain and Gardens, partly destroying Fig Tree Avenue (first entrance, planted 1847) and loss of 24 palm trees and 12 other trees lost. New Gardens entrance made on Macquarie Street with pools and prostrate plants, and recycled gates from the post-Garden Palace fire. Gardens and Domain were sewered for the first time since 1792.
1959 - 'Royal' added to the designated Botanic Gardens
1969 - Mair inherited task of completing reconstruction of gardens post Cahill Expressway and Domain car parking station, using Australian native plants extensively (SW corner near State Library) and New Zealand natives (SE corner near Woolloomooloo gates). Mair removed many of the glasshouses

1970-71 Mair instigates design and construction of Pyramid glasshouse (now Tropical Centre). Timbers replaced in Palm House glasshouse.
1970s - 63.04 hectares (of 72.6 hectares in 1916)
1970-80 - new succulent and cacti garden built on site of former aviary/zoo near Mrs Macquarie's Road.
1982 - new Herbarium built (named the Brown building) linking old 1899 herbarium and former Director's residence. The old herbarium (1899) was adapted as visitor centre, shop, renamed Anderson Building, former Director's residence renamed Cunningham building, adapted for use as staff offices. Thematic approach to planting promoted, new section of tropical and subtropical rainforest flora planted near pyramid glasshouse.

1988-9 - new rose garden built near Bridge Street gates (since removed). New curved glasshouse built adjoining (east of) Pyramid glasshouse, intended for ferns. Since adapted for tropical plants.
1992-3 - Palm house glasshouse reconstructed to 1912 form, adapted to be an exhibition space. About 50% of original glazing recycled on south side, also c1920s patterned glass reused. New electrical system installed.

1990s - Asian themed plants garden added in Lower Garden below kiosk and east of Twin ponds. A new fernery was built in the Middle Gardens adjoining the gardens nursery area and palm grove. Considerable upgrade works undertaken pre 2000 Olympics, including adaptation of existing buildings for new central shop and toilets. New herb garden built in western side of Lower gardens below conservatorium. Cadi Jam Ora garden created in Middle Garden area.

2000-01 new Police Memorial wall erected in outer Domain south of Art Gallery. Conservatorium redevelopment, demolition of trial grass beds and incorporation of new roof garden areas to gardens over new conservatorium. New land bridge built over Cahill Expressway/Eastern Distributor redevelopment, linking Art Gallery, Mrs Macquarie's Road, Domain and Gardens, small additional land area and new native plantings to the Domain.

2002 - Boy Charlton Pool redevelopment in outer Domain on Woolloomooloo Bay.
2003 - Fig tree avenue (Cahill Expressway median) removed - planted 1847), rose garden removed for redevelopment, Spring Walk plantings (Azaleas etc) removed for fumigation/fallowing of soil).

4/2004 four mature trees (camphor laurel, gum, Moreton Bay fig) removed from western edge of Domain Phillip Precinct, near Hospital Road. (Public protest at this)
2004 - RTA widening of Cahill Expressway (southern side to Domain) to create one more traffic lane for Cross City Tunnel. Application for construction of sound walls (stone/concrete on south side; timber and concrete/iron rail on north side) of Cahill Expressway.
4/2006 - sandstone noise barrier built in Sydney's Domain will also now serve as a permanent monument to Australians who have given their lives in non-combat overseas missions. The first to be recognised will be nine servicemen and women who died in the recent Sea King disaster in Indonesian island of Nais on April 2. (Premier's press release, 24/4/2006).
2007 - Palm House - major renovations - timber & glazing repairs, painting, guttering, shade screens; Cottages 5 & 6 on Mrs Macquarie's Road were amalgamated to allow for easier use by the Friends of the Gardens; Pioneer Garden & Palace Garden Gates fountains recommissioned using recycled water; 2 new water tanks installed in new Palace Rose Garden; Camellia collection relocated into one area around Rathborne Lodge; a second Begonia garden was developed; Turf Plots on northern side of Palace Garden reinstated; first stage of main pond landscape renewal completed; Farm Cove Seawall damaged in 3 places by a commercial vessel - repairs done over several months; new path in the Domain linking existing paths near Victoria Lodge & Fleet Steps; stormwater diversion allowed refilling of the Twin Ponds; upgraded Domain path lighting; new interpretive signs installed for 150th anniversary of the Spring Walk; new Palace Rose Garden, Begonia & Camellia gardens (RBG Annual Report, 2006/7).
Current use: Botanic Gardens, Herbarium, research, public passive & active recreation, events
Former use: Aboriginal land, Government Domain, Government kitchen garden

History

Historical notes: The Royal Botanic Gardens developed from the site of the first farm in Australia. It is the second oldest Botanic gardens in the Southern hemisphere, the only older one being in Rio de Janeiro. Phillip set the land aside for the Crown but did not determine what its purpose would be. He said it should be free of leaseholds but then allowed people to use it anyway, as did subsequent Acting Government and Governors (Colleen Morris, pers.comm., 23/6/2016).

Set aside for a "farm and garden" by Governor Phillip, the site received the first plants and seeds (brought by Phillip from Rio de Janiero and the Cape of Good Hope on the First Fleet). The longitudinal beds of shrubs visible today in the 'Middle Garden' follow the direction of the original farm furrows.

By June 1788, Phillip reported 'a farm of 9 acres of corn' by a stream which still flows through the present palm grove into appropriately named Farm Cove. By September 1788 20 acres were cleared for crops. By 1789 agricultural activity had been mainly relocated to Rose Hill (Parramatta) due to much greater crop success there, and poor soil/results at Farm Cove.

Between 1800 and 1807 grants of land were made under Governors Paterson and others to private farmers in Farm Cove's east (Anson's Point). The main botanic garden function was transferred to Rose Hill (Parramatta) between 1800 and 1810 under Governor King.

Governor Bligh determined it should be the Governor's Domain in 1807 and the boundaries, especially the southern boundary, were changed (Colleen Morris, pers.comm., 23/6/2016). From 1807 Bligh resumed the Domain (19 acres), cancelled and converted former private farm grants on the eastern side of Farm Cove to public land incorporated back into the Governor's Domain. Farming activity decreased, buildings were demolished near (present) Government House and carriage roads around Bennelong Point and Farm Cove were constructed, along with the planting of a shrubbery and laying out of walks.

The southern part of the Domain was not set aside as a public park until 1810 (Colleen Morris, pers.comm., 23/6/2016).

C1812 - 5 acres added, landscaped by Charles Fraser south of Macquarie Wall in the Lower Gardens, 24 acres in total area.

Governor Macquarie improved the garden, building a protecting wall on the harbour side and constructing and landscaping a road running around the Domain, north of the Government gardens/nursery at some distance from the shore, and bridging over Farm Cove Creek to Mrs. Macquarie's Chair on Mrs Macquarie's Point in the east. Swamp mahogany (Eucalyptus robusta) trees were planted to line this road, perhaps the earliest "Street trees" planted in the colony. Another 1813-1816 planting was of the black booyong (Heritiera actinophylla) west of the palm grove, which remains. On the completion of these works the area was officially inaugurated as a Botanic Garden in 1816. In 1821 the Government House stables (now the Conservatorium of Music), designed by Government Architect Francis Greenway, was completed in the Domain's north near Macquarie and Bridge Streets.

Charles Fraser (Superintendent 1821-31) was the first botanist appointed to develop the gardens along scientific lines. Fraser made many inland excursions particularly with John Oxley and brought back plants and specimens. Fraser's plantings between 1827-8 from his Brisbane district and northern NSW travels survive, and include hoop pines (Araucaria cunninghamii), weeping lilly pillies (Waterhousia floribunda), a hoop (or Moreton Bay) pine (Araucaria cunninghamii), 2 swamp oaks (Casuarina cunninghamiana) on the eastern side of the palm grove. On his death in 1831 he was succeeded by Richard Cunningham. His brother, the explorer Alan Cunningham was also a director. A native red cedar Fraser collected in 1822 formerly thought to have been from the Parramatta region has been genetically tested and found to have been collected in the Dorrigo region. This tree grows still near the Palm House (beside Farm Cove Creek in Bed 9).

1825 - Governor Brisbane extended gardens west of Farm Cove Creek, for an experimental garden, to acclimatise Australian plants for export and imported plants

1829 543 cultivars/varieties of grapes (vines) donated by James Busby to the Gardens. 1829-60 - The wine growing industry of New South Wales began in the gardens with some vines being brought out with the First Fleet (1788), and a large supplementary collection of vine cultivars donated by James Busby in the 1820s and early 1830s. For 25 years, vines propagated from these plants were distributed throughout the colony and the parent plants were uprooted in 1860.

1831 - public use of the Domain was formally invited by Governor Darling, and became accepted policy (very controlled before that). In the 1830s the Lower Garden area at the head of Farm cove was developed and the shoreline laid out in an ornamental fashion with serpentine paths.

1833 - four gardens were recognised: the botanic garden (the lower garden at the head of the cove); the fruit garden; the experimental garden and the kitchen garden, still producing food for the Governor's table.

1837-45 (New) Government House built in the Domain's north (north of the current extent of the Gardens).

1847 - fig tree avenue of Moreton Bay figs (Ficus macrophylla) planted, lining main public entry to gardens from Macquarie Street eastward (now the line of the Cahill Expressway).
1848 - John Carne Bidwill was appointed (the first such title) Director, by Governor Fitzroy. Meantime in England horticulturist Charles Moore was appointed Director by the English Government. Moore displaced Bidwill, who was offered the post of Commissioner of Lands, Wide Bay (Moreton Bay penal settlement, now modern-day Maryborough).
Moore renovated paths throughout the upper gardens, built new paths in lower garden.

Moore (1820-1905) botanist, was born Charles Muir, in Dundee, Scotland, educated there and in Dublin where his brother David became director of Glasnevin Botanic Garden in 1838; the family name changed when they moved to Ireland. Charles worked as botanist on the Ordnance Survey of Ireland and trained at the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew (London) and at Regent's Park (the London, later Royal Horticultural Society). Moore faced local resentment by displacing J.C. Bidwill, and was obstructed by some members of the Sydney Botanic Gardens' committee of management. He found the gardens badly neglected and was instructed to restore their scientific character, without destroying their value for recreation. He labelled the plants, with the system still followed today. He avidly collected for the gardens and corresponded widely for exchanges of seeds and plants. In 1850 he gathered specimens from the New Hebrides, Solomon Islands and New Caledonia. Moore estalbished a medicinal plant garden and herbarium. To increase attention to economic botnay he started a library and added a room where he lectured to university students until 1882. Govenor Fitzroy abolished the committee of management in 1851 but amateur scientists and disgruntled nurserymen secured a select committee on the Gardens' management. Chaired by G.R.Nichols it included Moore's old antagonists. He was subjected to a searing examination, his qualifications were challenged and 'no effort was spared to emabarrass him and condemn his administration'. The committee reported that although Moore had acted with ability and industry, much had been left undone, but Governor Denison ignored their plea that he should henceforth be merely the curator (King, 1974).

1848-1879 Moore organised construction of the sea wall and reclamation of Farm Cove's tidal flats (work proceeded in two stages) to expand the Lower Garden by 3 acres, the wall being built of stone recycled from demolished Old Government House in Bridge Street, and a long walk was established along Farm Cove. Ornamental ponds in the lower garden were laid out using Farm Cove creek, water supply for upper gardens was aided by water pipe installed from Macquarie Street.

1850s - vista pavilions added in gardens, one with a thatched roof.
1852 - the Sydney based herbarium collection started (Moore)
1857 - a small portion of the Governor's kitchen garden (Upper Garden) was converted to Gardens.

In 1857 Moore visited the Blue Mountains and in 1861 the Richmond and Clarence Rivers to collect timber specimens for the London (Great) Exhibition of 1861 and he published a 'Catalogue of Northern Timbers', which he later revised several times. He continued to improve the gardens, reclaimed land in Farm Cove and secured a water supply (King, 1974).

1860 - an aviary opened (site of current succulent/cacti garden) after public lobbying. The original grape vines were uprooted.
1862 - The Palm grove was established near the Middle Garden, summer houses built in gardens. A Zoo was added to aviary area, Sydney and Australia's first. Considerable plantings of NSW/Qld rainforest tree species, and palms.
1863 - cottage built near Governor's Bathing house for Government House gardener.
C1865 - Domain gate lodge and gates built, (Hospital Road, Prince Albert Road), Victoria Lodge gate house and gates was built (first stage) at east of Gardens near Mrs Macquarie's Point
Late 1860s - main part of Governor's kitchen garden (Upper garden) given up as an addition to the Upper Garden.

In 1867 Moore was appointed commissioner for the Paris (International) Exhibition that year, he was releived of his duties for arriving too late with his exhibits by visiting the gardens of the Governor's residence in Kandy (Sri Lanka/Ceylon). He also toured France and Spain on behalf of the citrus industry. In 1869 he visited Lord Howe Island and in 1874 attended the Botanical Congress and the International Horticultural Exhibition in Florence (King, 1974).

1870 - Governor's private gates built (now Opera House gates).
1870s - demolished the convict barracks built in Cunningham's time, and old glasshouses in former Governor's kitchen garden to make open grassed areas of Upper Garden.
1871 - 5 acres of the former Governor's kitchen garden was converted to Botanic Gardens, used as a nursery and propagating ground
1873 - Main entry gates built, off Fig Tree Avenue (east of Bent Street, now Cahill Expressway)
1874 - Italianate style 2 storey Superintendent/Director's residence (now the Cunningham building) with tower was built, near Woolloomooloo gates).

1876 - Palm house glasshouse built in Middle Garden.
In 1876 Moore was appointed commissioner for the Philadelphia and Melbourne (International) Exhibitions, that year. A member of the Hyde Park Improvement Committee, he became a trustee for Hyde, Phillip and Cook Parks in 1878 (King, 1974).
1878 - single storey herbarium and overseer's residence built.
Moore landscaped and planted the grounds of the Garden Palace built in 1879 for Sydney's (first) International Exhibition (King, 1974). The Palace was built on land between the Government House stables (now the Conservatorium of Music) and Governor Bourke's statue, an area until then used for grazing. The Palace was built to a design by Government Architect James Barnet for the first Australian International Exhibition. It was the epitome of the High Victorian style, complemented by the surroundings new gardens. Its dome was 100 feet (30.5m) in diameter under which was a statue of Queen Victoria; there were four corner towers, and a floor area of over 8.5 acres (3.4ha), making it a major landmark in the city landscape. The exhibition was an enormous public event sponsored by the Agricultural Society of NSW, displaying products of the arts and industry, museum collections from the library of the Linnean Society (botany and natural sciences), and 0.4ha exhibition of specimen displays from the Museums Collection of the Technological, Industrial and Sanitary Museum of NSW, (organised by its then Curator, Joseph Maiden)(the museum eventually became the Museum of Applied Sciences later the Powerhouse Museum), and its surrounding 'instant' gardens of lawns, bedding and shrubberies around it, near Macquarie Street/Bent Street.

Charles Moore was a founding trustee of the National Park (Royal) and elective trustee of the Australian Museum in 1879 and chairman of the Vine Diseases Board and planner of Centennial Park in 1887. He was a fellow of the Linnaean and Royal Horticultural Societies and an associate of the Royal Botanic Society in London. From 1856 he had served on the council of the Philosophical Society (Royal SOciety of NSW after 1866), was president in 1880 and published four papers in its 'Proceedings'. In NSW he was a councillor of the (Royal) Zoological, Agricultural and Acclimatisation Societies. Moore published 'A Census of the Plants of NSW' (Sydney, 1884) but his major work was 'Handbook of the Flora of NSW' (1893) in which he was helped by Batch. Moore retired as director on 5 May 1896 and visited Europe. Predeceased by his wife Elizabeth Bennett (nee Edwards) in 1891 he died childless in 1905 in Paddington and was buried beside his wife in the Anglican section of Rookwood cemetery. Nineteen species of plants were named after him (King, 1974).

1880 - The Tarpeian Way, including a stone stairway of 53 steps, is cut out of the rocky escarpment north of Bennelong Point, forming a south east boundary to the gardens.

1880 - a monkey house was built as part of the zoo.
1880 - Tarpeian Way constructed
From Sydney Morning Herald, 4 October 1880: 'Originally the Tarpeian Way was that rocky point near the fort on which the citizens were wont to assemble to witness regattas. The point is one which commands a view as extensive as that obtainable from Mrs. Macquarie's chair. The ruggedness of the rocks has succumbed to the artisan's skill, and instead of the rough boulders which used to exist, the rock presents a smooth face, about thirty-five feet in height, and several hundred foot in length, and a well graduated sweep from Messrs. Flood's stores, in Macquarie Street, to within a short distance of the Garden gates. On the top also, the rocks have been faced for an equal length, and formed into what is called the Tarpeian Way; and the stone from here, and also from the side, has been utilised in forming the substantial sea-wall being extended round the Gardens to the Chair. So that here there has been a double attempt to beautify nature. On coming from the Gardens one reaches the Tarpeian Way through pillars of beautifully-toned stone and by ascending fifty-three well formed wide stone steps. The Way itself may be regarded as the highest level pathway of the street, and precautions have, by the erection of a dwarf wall and iron railing, been taken to prevent people falling over the rock. By-and-bye the Way, which at present is simply gravelled, and has a watercourse along it, will be asphalted; and the face of the rock Mr. C. Moore intends shall be beautified with creepers in a manner similar to that adopted in the Argyle Cut. The citizens have been relieved of nearly all expense in connection with the matter, the whole work having been effected by the Government. All the citizens have had to pay for is the inscription of the name on the pillars at the two entrances. Eventually, we are informed, the way will be widened by the annexation of a small point of ground, which at present is enclosed by a fence, although for all purposes of foot traffic it is sufficiently wide already. This, then is, the work which now forms such an imposing feature in the approach to the Gardens.

'Its history is as follows: When Mr. J. S. Farnell, the present member for St. Leonards, first assumed the position of Minister for Lands, he was induced by Alderman C. Moore to visit the locality in which it is situated, and to inspect the plans which Mr. E. Bradridge, the late City Surveyor, had prepared for carrying it out. Mr. Moriarty, the Engineer for Harbours and Rivers, under whose direction the work has been executed, was also present. Mr. Farnell seems to have been deeply impressed with the necessity for the work, and a sum of 6000 pounds was placed on the Estimates for carrying it on. Objections were at first raised against the width of the way being taken from the Government House grounds; but after some deliberation, and when it was explained that it would be only utilised by pedestrians, they were waived, and the work was permitted to proceed. The classic name chosen by Mr. Alderman Moore, and sanctioned by the Sydney Municipal Council, seems to have been impressed on Mr. Moore's mind, when, during his visit to Rome, a few years ago, he stood upon the Tarpeian rock itself.

'Tarpeia was the daughter of Tarpeius the governor of the Roman citadel of the Saturnian Hill, afterwards called the Capitoline. She was tempted by the gold of the Sabine bracelets and collars to open a gate of the fortress to Tatius and his Sabines. As these entered they threw upon her their shields, and thus crushed her to death. She was buried on the hill, and her memory was preserved by naming the rock after her. A legend still exists in Rome to the effect that the fair Tarpeia ever sits in the heart of the hill, covered with gold and jewels, and bound by a spell.

'In 'Coriolanus' Shakespeare refers more than once to the rock. Brutus says, 'Marcius is worthy of present death,' lo which his brother tribune Sicinius Velutus replies, 'Therefore, lay hold of him; bear him to the rock Tarpeian, and from thence into destruction cast him;' and further on 'He shall be thrown from the Tarpeian rock with rigorous hands.' Coriolanus himself indomitably says, 'Or pile ten hills upon the Tarpeian rock that the precipitation might down stretch below the beam of sight; yet will I still be thus to them.' Judging from these and other passages the ancient Romans had a liking, which is now happily out date, for pronouncing 'the steep Tarpeian death.' Lord Macaulay also refers to the same classical ground.

1882 - The Garden Palace was destroyed by fire, only sandstone and iron gates survive. After the clean up 19 acres (7.7ha of new gardens were added to the RBG "Palace Garden"). Maiden moved and displayed the remnants of the exhibition fire to a pavilion in the Domain which became the official museum, incorporating a herbarium.

In 1882 Moore was involved in the dismissal of Captain R.R.Armstrong and in 1883 had J.C. Dunlop and his wife removed for displaying 'uxorious affection' in the gardens. Dunlop successfully sued Moore in the Water Police Court but in June the magistrate's decision was reversed by Colonial-Secretary, ALexander Stuart (King, 1974).

Scottish gardener Alexander Grant was born in 1845 at Cullen, Scotland and served an apprenticeship in the gardens of Cullen House in Banffshire. Before migrating to Australia in 1878 he followed his profession in several Scottish gardens, including the Botanic Gardens in Edinburgh. Grant arrived in the colony in 1878 and worked first at Yaralla, Concord for the Walkers for some considerable time, then at Rosemont, Woollahra for Alexander Campbell MLC, then for Mr Tooth at the Swifts, Darling Point, which he planned and laid out. There is no record of where Grant was living while working at Yaralla and Rosemont, though from 1881 he lived at 'Willow Cottage in Point Piper Road - west side (later Ocean Street), Paddington' until he moved to quarters in the Botanic Gardens, Sydney in 1882 for work there. It is likely that the positions at Yaralla and Rosemont both included quarters for a single man and that only after he married Margaret Stevenson in January 1880 was he obliged to find alternative accomodation (Willow Cottage)(Grant, 1997).

1882 on - Director Charles Moore added lighting (eg: on the sea walk along Farm Cove), seating, lavatories, drinking fountains and pathways.
1883 - the zoo was relocated to Moore Park. 5 acres (2ha) of Outer Domain was incorporated into the Lower Garden, completing the ring of waterfront along Farm Cove.
1880s - The Tarpeian Rock is a prominent, dramatic and significant sandstone cliff landscape feature on the north west boundary of the Domain facing Bennelong Point and the Sydney Opera House, cut for the extension of Macquarie Street. It derives its name from the famous rock on the Capitoline Hill in Rome from where prisoners were hurled to their deaths in ancient times. A stairway gives access from close to the Sydney Opera House to the top of the rock and Domain. An early carving in the sandstone cliff is located about 3 metres above the fifth step from the base of the cliff. The carving reads "The Tarpeian Way". It possibly dates from the time of construction in the 1880s. (City of Sydney Heritage Database inventory 8013)

1896-1901 - Maiden installed new lighting, seating, lavatories, fountains and pathways. Lighting along the sea walk and the lower garden installed, making the ring of water front of the lower gardens complete.
1897 - the Governor Phillip fountain built near Macquarie Street/Garden palace gates
1899 - a new herbarium building (a second storey was added by Govt. Architect Vernon to the existing building, with its ground floor adapted as a lecture hall and library, an adjacent museum and admin centre was built (now the Anderson Building). The National Herbarium of NSW was officially opened in 1901, but was operating some time before then. In the early 20th century, Maiden visited the British Museum (now the Natural History Museum), negotiating to get dried plant specimens collected by Joseph Banks and Daniel Solander on Captain Cook's voyage in 1770 - 862 of these specimens are now held in the Herbarium in Sydney. The herbarium also contains some collections of botanist Allan Cunningham post-dating 1816, one of Australia's most prolific plant collectors - who became Director the the Sydney Botanic Garden in 1837. It also includes over 1000 specimens collected by explorer and naturalist Ludwig Leichhardt between 1842 and 1848.. During his term, Maiden developed the herbarium collection and organised a coterie of like-minded collectors with a variety of specialisations, especially for non-vascular plants such as mosses, liverworts, fungi, algae and lichens. Notable among these was Rev. Walter Watts, who collecteed some 12,000 specimens of liverworts and mosses from 1909-16 (Summerell, 2018, 8-9).
1901 - Maiden had an obelisk erected in a central pond, housing the relocated remains of Allan Cunningham from Devonshire St. cemetery. Maiden also drained and sewered the gardens.

1908-1916 - Conservatorium of Music created in adapted former Governor's Stables in Western Domain
1912 - Palm house glass house has new superstructure, designed by Government Architect George McRae.
1916 - there were 72.6 hectares of gardens/Domain.
1920s - cut and cover tunnelling to create City Loop underground rail line in western Domain
1926 - Spring walk replanted

1936 - succulent garden created on site of former aviaries/zoo, in eastern section of gardens near Herbarium
1938 - The Pioneer Memorial Women's' Garden opened, laid out in sunken circular area under the centre of the former (1879-82) Garden Palace dome. Laid out by Andersons & Co. of Sydney.
1940 - the aviary was removed.
1956 - Outer Domain land was taken by Sydney City Ccl. to construct a car park (now the Domain Car Parking station), loss of 47 relatively rare trees, and land

1958-60s - Cahill Expressway resumption and construction work began, bissecting Domain and Gardens, partly destroying Fig Tree Avenue (first entrance, planted 1847) and loss of 24 palm trees and 12 other trees lost. A new Gardens entrance was made on Macquarie Street with pools and prostrate plants, and recycled sandstone and iron gates from the post-Garden Palace fire. This entrance leads to the Palace Gardens. Gardens and Domain were sewered for the first time since 1792.

In 1959 the term 'Royal' was added to the designation Botanic Gardens following the landing of Queen Elizabeth II in Farm Cove - this being the first site in Australia on which a reigning monarch had stood.

In 1968 the Herbarium was combined with the Royal Botanic Gardens.
1969 on - further reconstruction and planting after completion of Cahill Expressway and Domain Parking station. Australian and New Zealand native plants were extensively used, in the plantings near the Bent Street/Macquarie Street entrance (opposite the State Library) and Woolloomooloo gates near Mrs Macquarie's Road.
Many glasshouses were removed in the 1970s under Director Mair, and the new Pyramid Glasshouse, built in 1970-71, designed by Anchor, Mortlock & Murray. The first of its kind in the world, it contained a spiral staircase to allow visitors to observe all levels of tropical plant growth within.

1972-85 Dr Lawrence Johnson Director, proposed the 'thematic' planting scheme in evidence today. NSW and Qld rainforest trees collected by Fraser, the Cunninghams and Charles Moore scattered throughout the gardens were supplemented by a new section of tropical and subtropical rainforest flora near the Pyramid glasshouse. The palm collection, which is planted in three separate groves in the gardens, was thinned of duplicate species, particularly in Moore's original palm grove, and new species were added.

The fig (Ficus) collection, mainly in the lower garden, was rationalised and is now centred on the slope below Government House, with many additional species added. A garden bed of local native species was added near the Cunningham building in the Upper garden, and the long bed of native small trees and shrubs along the boundary of the gardens on Macquarie Street was thickened with new plantings. A collection of eucalypts on the lawns of the Lower Garden north of the Macquarie Wall was under planted with a new collection of cycads, many relocated from the original Moore Palm Grove. A Myrtales bed near the Twin ponds in the Lower Garden was added.

1970-80 the new succulent and cacti garden was built on the site of the former aviary/zoo near Mrs Macquarie's Road in the east.

In 1978 the administration of the Botanic Gardens and National Herbarium of NSW were transferred from the Department of Agriculture (where they had been administered since 1908) to the Premier's Department.

In 1980 the Royal Botanic Gardens Trust Act was passed by Parliament, seeking to prevent further erosion of the grounds and excisions of land. (NB: 72.6ha in 1916 had diminished to 63.04 ha in 1980). Also in 1980 Centennial Park, which until then had been administered by staff of the Botanic Gardens since Moore's directorship, became autonomous under its own Trust.

In 1982 the new Herbarium building was built under Director Lawrence Johnson opened (named the Brown building in honour of colonial botanist Robert Brown), linking the former Herbarium (now called the Maiden Theatre and Moore Room) building and the 1870s former Superintendent/Director's residence. The former Herbarium was adapted to a visitors' centre, shop and exhibitions space (now the Moore Room, within the then renamed R.H.Anderson Building), and the former Director's residence, named now the Cunningham building, was adapted for office use by staff. The complex was opened on 6/11/1982 by then Premier Neville Wran, QC MP. The Brown building had three levels housing the herbarium collection in 55,000 specially-designed red plastic boxes, plus scientific staff offices, a laboratory, scanning electron microscope and full drying room and library (Wilson, 2012).

In July 1982 a general meeting established the Friends of the Botanic Gardens and members' events (to raise funds for the Gardens) commenced in December 1982 (Wilson, 2012).

1987-8 under Director Carrick Chambers, two satellite botanic gardens areas were opened, Mt. Annan (now (2012) renamed the Australian) Botanic Garden on Narellan Road near Campbelltown featuring native plants, and Mt. Tomah (now (2012) renamed the Blue Mountains) Botanic Garden on The Bell's Line of Road in the northern Blue Mountains, featuring cool-climate plants. Both were formally opened in 1988 as part of Australia's Bicentennial celebrations.

1988-9 - a new rose garden was built near the Bridge Street gates (since removed). A new curved 'Arc' glasshouse was built adjoining (east of) the Pyramid glasshouse, which was intended for ferns. It has since been adapted for tropical plants. In 2015 the Pyramid was demolished to make way for 'Calyx' the new display and tropical plant centre. The curved 'Arc' glasshouse is being adapted as part of the same works (Stuart Read, pers.comm., 21/7/2015).

1990s - Asian themed plants garden added in Lower Garden below kiosk and east of Twin ponds. A new fernery designed by John Barbeceto was built in the Middle Gardens (on the site of two former shade houses) adjoining the gardens nursery area and palm grove. A new herb garden was built in the western side of the Lower gardens below the Conservatorium. Considerable upgrade works were undertaken in the run up to the 2000 Sydney Olympic Games, including adaptation of existing buildings for new central shop and toilets.
The Cadi Jam Ora - First Fleet Encounters garden was created north of the Palm House in the Middle Garden area. John Lennis (1952-2015) as Aboriginal Education Officer was responsible for the content, 'flavour' and invovement of Aboriginal people in this garden (Robertson, 2015).

1992-3 - The Palm House glasshouse was reconstructed to its 1912 form and adapted to become an exhibition space. About 50% of its original glazing was recycled on the south side, also c1920s patterned glass was reused.

In the mid-1990s a fourth level was added to the Robert Brown building (National Herbarium), providing more work spaces and shelving for 20,000 more red herbarium boxes and a sloping roof to stop leaks (Wilson, 2012).

From 1996-8 the Rare & Endangered Garden, was laid out north of the Herbarium, growing and displaying plants under threat in the wild or out-of-fashion in cultivation. Jeremy Coleby-Williams was instrumental in establishing this. Also in 1997-8 the HSBS Oriental Garden was established west of the lotus pond in the middle garden. Its site has Asian associations dating from 1917. In 1998 the Wollemi pine (Wollemia nobilis) was discovered in a remote gorge in Wollemi National Park by Phillip Noble, triggering an innovative propagation campaign to secure this species in ex-situ cultivation. An early specimen was planted on the site of the main intersection of paths between the middle garden, Cadi Jam Ora - First Encounters and the Rare and Endangerd Gardens. (Stuart Read, pers.comm., 21/7/2015).

In 2000 the toilet block in the Palm Grove was adapted and extended to become the Gardens Shop, renamed the Palm Grove Centre (ibid, 2015).

2000-01 new Police Memorial wall was erected in outer Domain to the south of the Art Gallery of NSW. The Conservatorium of Music was redeveloped with new underground extensions, demolition of trial grass beds and incorporation of new roof garden areas to gardens over the new conservatorium. A new land bridge was built (completed in 2005) over the Cahill Expressway/Eastern Distributor redevelopment, linking the Art Gallery of NSW, Mrs Macquarie's Road, Domain and Gardens, small additional land area and new native plantings to the Domain.

2002 - Boy Charlton Pool redevelopment by Sydney City Council in the outer Domain on Woolloomooloo Bay.
2003 - Fig tree avenue (Cahill Expressway median) was removed - originally it was planted in 1847 in the brief directorship of John Carne Bidwill), the rose garden removed for redevelopment, the Spring Walk plantings (Azaleas etc) removed for fumigation/fallowing of soil).

2004: new sound walls were built (and their inside face planted) facing the Cahill Expressway to mitigate increased noise from the Cross City Tunnel & expressway into the Phillip Precinct of the Domain. Also that year in that precinct of the Domain, the tree plantation in the Phillip Precinct of the Domain facing Hospital Rd. was replaced in some public controversy, removing 10 previously-existing trees and planting 30 replacements (hoop pines, white figs and Washingtonia robusta fan palms) in a triple avenue arrangement.

In 2005 the (fourth on site) Rose Garden near the Conservatorium & its adjoining pergolas were altered with additions made to both to allow functions, set up and preparation facilities, and a new amenities block.

From 2006 the Cacti & Succulent Garden was partially revamped by Jamie Durie, celebrity horticulturist. The Central Gardens Depot was also redeveloped, with repair of significant heritage glasshouses, new glasshouses, store and staff areas (ibid, 2015).

From 2011 onwards the relocation of a growing colony of roosting grey-headed flying foxes (bats) in the Palm Grove has resulted in slow renewal of that area. The roosting activities of the bats had caused the death of a number of highly significant trees and previous attempts using noise, sprinklers and lights had proved ineffective in encouraging the animals to move (ibid, 2015).

Autumn 2014: Palm Grove restoration, with over 1300 palm species being donated by Illawarra businessman and conservationist Colin Wilson, after he saw the damage flying foxes (bats) had caused. Efforts to grow this collection will help secure the survival of many very rare species. The Palm Grove was once internationally recognised as one of the best in the world. The goal is to restore it to equal or surpass its past glory and give an opportunity to see a wide range of palms. At their peak some 22,000 grey-headed flying foxes roosted in the Palm Grove and Gardens. The former was their favoured spot. They killed 28 mature trees, 30 palms and many understorey plants. The Royal Botanic Gardens & Domain Trust commenced a successful flying-fox relocation programme in 2012 (Davies, 2014, 13).

7/2015: Minister announces organisational changes to transform the Royal Botanic Gardens and Domain Trust into a more efficient and responsive organisation. He revealed the name of the new Biome project will be 'The Calyx', which will open in 2016. He also announced a 26% increase in agency budget over 2014-15 estimates (OEH media, 14/7/15).

In 2016 the Royal Botanic Garden celebrates its 200 years anniversary with various events to commemorate key educational, horticultural, scientific and cultural experiences of those two centuries. Fireworks displays ushering in the New Year, significant new exhibitions and collaborations with other cultural institutions. The birthday celebration is on 13th June 2016, the actual 200th birthday. The Biome, now called 'The Calyx' glasshouse is due to open in June 2016 and will have two exhibitions (i.e. changing displays) per year. The Florilegium, a 180 page collection of contemporary botanical paintings of key plants demonstrating both the history, key achievements and milestones in the gardens' growing living plant collections, will be released as a book in March 2016. There will be an accompanying exhibition from July-November 2016 at the nearby Museum of Sydney, showcasing the paintings. A native grassland will reinstate the original footprint of the Garden Palace, which burnt down in 1882, destroying many Aboriginal artefacts and artworks. In Australia's south-east, Aboriginal agriculture saw grasslands cultivated and harvested over centuries, supporting diverse cultures and nations. Jonathan Jones's 'The Barrangal dyara' (skin and bones) exhibition responds to this, opening in September 2016. He will run white luminescent structures through the site, inspired by the exposed ribs of the burnt-out palace building, as seen in photographs taken after the fire. These will reveal the huge size of this building. Work is underway with other cultural institutions (State Library, Australian Museum, Art Gallery of NSW, National Maritime Museum, Sydney Conservatorium of Music, Museum of Contemporary Art, City of Sydney and Taronga Zoo) concerning exhibitions (the State Library's exhibition celebrating gardening in Australia, 'Planting Dreams: celebrating Australian Gardens' traces the history of gardening from the 1700s to now, showcasing rare items in the library's collection and some from the Royal Botanic Gardens' collections. This exhibition opens in July 2016. The Australian Museum will host 'Beauty from Nature: Art of the Scott Sisters', the artwork of Harriet and Helena Scott, two of Australia's most prominent 19th century women natural history illustrators (Friends & Foundation of the RBG&Domain, 'The Gardens', Summer 2015-6, 10-11).

The Calyx glass house / exhibition space opened to the public, on the Royal Botanic Garden's 200th anniversary birthday (Stuart Read, pers.comm.)

In 2017-18 The Garden, together with ENE.HUB and Optus, installed ground-breaking smart cell technology inside 40 'smart nodes' across 63 hectares of harbour foreshore making it one of Australia's most extensive and digital-connected spaces. The SMART.NODE (LED lighting) poles provide free high-speed Wi-Fi through the Garden and Domain enhancing 4G mobile connectivity for Optus customers and future proofing for 5G and beyond (RBG&DT, 2018).

In 2018 it was announced that the National Herbarium of NSW would be relocated to the Australian Plant Bank at the Australian Botanic Garden, Mount Annan - in a purpose-built new facility adjacent to the PlantBank (Summerell, 2018, 8). Kim Ellis, executive director of Sydney's Botanic Gardens and Centennial Parklands, says moving NSW National Herbarium to Western Sydney will ensure the massive collection will thrive. It comes after the state government announced that the herbarium's collection of 1.4 million plants will be relocated to the Australian Botanic Garden at Mount Annan. Ellis says the old building at Sydney's Royal Botanic Garden is at capacity and will be remodelled into an education centre (ABC Radio, 5/6/2018).

RBG Sydney won a gold award as NSW Tourism attraction, a bronze award in Major Tourist Attractions category of 2017 Qantas national Australian Tourism Awards, and drew a record 5.2m visitors in 2016 (Ellis, 2018, 7)

Historic themes

Australian theme (abbrev)New South Wales themeLocal theme
1. Environment-Tracing the evolution of a continent's special environments Environment - naturally evolved-Activities associated with the physical surroundings that support human life and influence or shape human cultures. Gardens-
1. Environment-Tracing the evolution of a continent's special environments Environment - naturally evolved-Activities associated with the physical surroundings that support human life and influence or shape human cultures. Other open space-
1. Environment-Tracing the evolution of a continent's special environments Environment - naturally evolved-Activities associated with the physical surroundings that support human life and influence or shape human cultures. River flats-
1. Environment-Tracing the evolution of a continent's special environments Environment - naturally evolved-Activities associated with the physical surroundings that support human life and influence or shape human cultures. Changing the environment-
1. Environment-Tracing the evolution of a continent's special environments Environment - naturally evolved-Activities associated with the physical surroundings that support human life and influence or shape human cultures. Cultural - Coasts and coastal features supporting human activities-
1. Environment-Tracing the evolution of a continent's special environments Environment - naturally evolved-Activities associated with the physical surroundings that support human life and influence or shape human cultures. Using natural features for human security-
2. Peopling-Peopling the continent Aboriginal cultures and interactions with other cultures-Activities associated with maintaining, developing, experiencing and remembering Aboriginal cultural identities and practices, past and present. Eora Nation - sites evidencing occupation-
2. Peopling-Peopling the continent Aboriginal cultures and interactions with other cultures-Activities associated with maintaining, developing, experiencing and remembering Aboriginal cultural identities and practices, past and present. Eora nation - places of contact with the colonisers-
2. Peopling-Peopling the continent Aboriginal cultures and interactions with other cultures-Activities associated with maintaining, developing, experiencing and remembering Aboriginal cultural identities and practices, past and present. Bundjalung - understanding pre-contact Aboriginal communities-
2. Peopling-Peopling the continent Aboriginal cultures and interactions with other cultures-Activities associated with maintaining, developing, experiencing and remembering Aboriginal cultural identities and practices, past and present. All nations - sites evidencing occupation-
2. Peopling-Peopling the continent Convict-Activities relating to incarceration, transport, reform, accommodation and working during the convict period in NSW (1788-1850) - does not include activities associated with the conviction of persons in NSW that are unrelated to the imperial 'convict system': use the theme of Law & Order for such activities Working for the Crown-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Agriculture-Activities relating to the cultivation and rearing of plant and animal species, usually for commercial purposes, can include aquaculture (none)-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Agriculture-Activities relating to the cultivation and rearing of plant and animal species, usually for commercial purposes, can include aquaculture Farming wheat and other grains-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Agriculture-Activities relating to the cultivation and rearing of plant and animal species, usually for commercial purposes, can include aquaculture Clearing land for farming-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Agriculture-Activities relating to the cultivation and rearing of plant and animal species, usually for commercial purposes, can include aquaculture Growing vines and maintaining vineyards-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Agriculture-Activities relating to the cultivation and rearing of plant and animal species, usually for commercial purposes, can include aquaculture Experimenting with new crops and methods-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Agriculture-Activities relating to the cultivation and rearing of plant and animal species, usually for commercial purposes, can include aquaculture Arboretums - collections of trees for ornament or forestry-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Agriculture-Activities relating to the cultivation and rearing of plant and animal species, usually for commercial purposes, can include aquaculture Farming by detainees and prisoners-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Commerce-Activities relating to buying, selling and exchanging goods and services Trading amongst the Australian colonies-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Commerce-Activities relating to buying, selling and exchanging goods and services Trading between NSW and New Zealand-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Commerce-Activities relating to buying, selling and exchanging goods and services Baking and pastrycooking-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Environment - cultural landscape-Activities associated with the interactions between humans, human societies and the shaping of their physical surroundings (none)-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Environment - cultural landscape-Activities associated with the interactions between humans, human societies and the shaping of their physical surroundings Landscapes of passive recreation-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Environment - cultural landscape-Activities associated with the interactions between humans, human societies and the shaping of their physical surroundings Landscapes of food production-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Environment - cultural landscape-Activities associated with the interactions between humans, human societies and the shaping of their physical surroundings Landscapes of remembrance-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Environment - cultural landscape-Activities associated with the interactions between humans, human societies and the shaping of their physical surroundings Landscapes of urban amenity-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Environment - cultural landscape-Activities associated with the interactions between humans, human societies and the shaping of their physical surroundings Places important in developing conservation processes-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Environment - cultural landscape-Activities associated with the interactions between humans, human societies and the shaping of their physical surroundings Landscapes of urban and rural interaction-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Environment - cultural landscape-Activities associated with the interactions between humans, human societies and the shaping of their physical surroundings Gardens demonstrating the travels and sojurns of a gardener-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Environment - cultural landscape-Activities associated with the interactions between humans, human societies and the shaping of their physical surroundings Landscapes demonstrating styles in landscape design-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Environment - cultural landscape-Activities associated with the interactions between humans, human societies and the shaping of their physical surroundings Gardens and landscapes reminiscent of an 'old country'-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Accommodation-Activities associated with the provision of accommodation, and particular types of accommodation – does not include architectural styles – use the theme of Creative Endeavour for such activities. Housing public servants and officials-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Land tenure-Activities and processes for identifying forms of ownership and occupancy of land and water, both Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Administering and alienating Crown lands-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Land tenure-Activities and processes for identifying forms of ownership and occupancy of land and water, both Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Fencing boundaries - retaining walls and embankments-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Land tenure-Activities and processes for identifying forms of ownership and occupancy of land and water, both Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Resuming private lands for public purposes-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Land tenure-Activities and processes for identifying forms of ownership and occupancy of land and water, both Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Granting Crown lands for private farming-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Towns, suburbs and villages-Activities associated with creating, planning and managing urban functions, landscapes and lifestyles in towns, suburbs and villages Developing civic infrastructure and amenity-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Towns, suburbs and villages-Activities associated with creating, planning and managing urban functions, landscapes and lifestyles in towns, suburbs and villages Beautifying towns and villages-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Towns, suburbs and villages-Activities associated with creating, planning and managing urban functions, landscapes and lifestyles in towns, suburbs and villages Creating landmark structures and places in urban settings-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Towns, suburbs and villages-Activities associated with creating, planning and managing urban functions, landscapes and lifestyles in towns, suburbs and villages Urban landscapes inspiring creative responses-
5. Working-Working Labour-Activities associated with work practises and organised and unorganised labour Working on public infrastructure projects-
6. Educating-Educating Education-Activities associated with teaching and learning by children and adults, formally and informally. Maintaining libraries and museums for educational purposes-
6. Educating-Educating Education-Activities associated with teaching and learning by children and adults, formally and informally. Providing public lectures, demonstrations for educational purposes-
7. Governing-Governing Defence-Activities associated with defending places from hostile takeover and occupation Building Peace time healing and understanding between cultures-
7. Governing-Governing Defence-Activities associated with defending places from hostile takeover and occupation Involvement with the Second World War-
7. Governing-Governing Defence-Activities associated with defending places from hostile takeover and occupation Defending the homeland-
7. Governing-Governing Government and Administration-Activities associated with the governance of local areas, regions, the State and the nation, and the administration of public programs - includes both principled and corrupt activities. Direct vice-regal governance (pre 1856)-
7. Governing-Governing Government and Administration-Activities associated with the governance of local areas, regions, the State and the nation, and the administration of public programs - includes both principled and corrupt activities. Developing roles for government - facilitating agriculture-
7. Governing-Governing Government and Administration-Activities associated with the governance of local areas, regions, the State and the nation, and the administration of public programs - includes both principled and corrupt activities. Developing roles for government - public land administration-
7. Governing-Governing Government and Administration-Activities associated with the governance of local areas, regions, the State and the nation, and the administration of public programs - includes both principled and corrupt activities. Developing roles for government - parks and open spaces-
7. Governing-Governing Government and Administration-Activities associated with the governance of local areas, regions, the State and the nation, and the administration of public programs - includes both principled and corrupt activities. Developing roles for government - conserving cultural and natural heritage-
7. Governing-Governing Government and Administration-Activities associated with the governance of local areas, regions, the State and the nation, and the administration of public programs - includes both principled and corrupt activities. Developing roles for government - facilitating horticulture-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Creative endeavour-Activities associated with the production and performance of literary, artistic, architectural and other imaginative, interpretive or inventive works; and/or associated with the production and expression of cultural phenomena; and/or environments that have inspired such creative activities. Landscaping - Victorian period-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Creative endeavour-Activities associated with the production and performance of literary, artistic, architectural and other imaginative, interpretive or inventive works; and/or associated with the production and expression of cultural phenomena; and/or environments that have inspired such creative activities. Landscaping - colonial period-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Creative endeavour-Activities associated with the production and performance of literary, artistic, architectural and other imaginative, interpretive or inventive works; and/or associated with the production and expression of cultural phenomena; and/or environments that have inspired such creative activities. Landscaping - 20th century interwar-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Creative endeavour-Activities associated with the production and performance of literary, artistic, architectural and other imaginative, interpretive or inventive works; and/or associated with the production and expression of cultural phenomena; and/or environments that have inspired such creative activities. Landscaping - 20th century post WW2-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Creative endeavour-Activities associated with the production and performance of literary, artistic, architectural and other imaginative, interpretive or inventive works; and/or associated with the production and expression of cultural phenomena; and/or environments that have inspired such creative activities. Architectural styles and periods - late 20th century postmodern-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Creative endeavour-Activities associated with the production and performance of literary, artistic, architectural and other imaginative, interpretive or inventive works; and/or associated with the production and expression of cultural phenomena; and/or environments that have inspired such creative activities. Landscaping - public parks movement-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Creative endeavour-Activities associated with the production and performance of literary, artistic, architectural and other imaginative, interpretive or inventive works; and/or associated with the production and expression of cultural phenomena; and/or environments that have inspired such creative activities. Architectural styles and periods - Interwar Art Deco-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Creative endeavour-Activities associated with the production and performance of literary, artistic, architectural and other imaginative, interpretive or inventive works; and/or associated with the production and expression of cultural phenomena; and/or environments that have inspired such creative activities. Landscaping - Victorian gardenesque style-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Creative endeavour-Activities associated with the production and performance of literary, artistic, architectural and other imaginative, interpretive or inventive works; and/or associated with the production and expression of cultural phenomena; and/or environments that have inspired such creative activities. Architectural styles and periods - Federation Arts and Crafts-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Creative endeavour-Activities associated with the production and performance of literary, artistic, architectural and other imaginative, interpretive or inventive works; and/or associated with the production and expression of cultural phenomena; and/or environments that have inspired such creative activities. Landscaping - Federation period-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Creative endeavour-Activities associated with the production and performance of literary, artistic, architectural and other imaginative, interpretive or inventive works; and/or associated with the production and expression of cultural phenomena; and/or environments that have inspired such creative activities. Adaptation of overseas design for local use-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Creative endeavour-Activities associated with the production and performance of literary, artistic, architectural and other imaginative, interpretive or inventive works; and/or associated with the production and expression of cultural phenomena; and/or environments that have inspired such creative activities. Building in response to climate - ocean pools and baths-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Creative endeavour-Activities associated with the production and performance of literary, artistic, architectural and other imaginative, interpretive or inventive works; and/or associated with the production and expression of cultural phenomena; and/or environments that have inspired such creative activities. Architectural styles and periods - Victorian Italianate-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Creative endeavour-Activities associated with the production and performance of literary, artistic, architectural and other imaginative, interpretive or inventive works; and/or associated with the production and expression of cultural phenomena; and/or environments that have inspired such creative activities. Landscape of Remembrance-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Creative endeavour-Activities associated with the production and performance of literary, artistic, architectural and other imaginative, interpretive or inventive works; and/or associated with the production and expression of cultural phenomena; and/or environments that have inspired such creative activities. Designing landscapes in an exemplary style-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Creative endeavour-Activities associated with the production and performance of literary, artistic, architectural and other imaginative, interpretive or inventive works; and/or associated with the production and expression of cultural phenomena; and/or environments that have inspired such creative activities. Inspirational environments and events-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Leisure-Activities associated with recreation and relaxation (none)-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Leisure-Activities associated with recreation and relaxation Visiting lookouts and places of natural beauty-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Leisure-Activities associated with recreation and relaxation Gathering at landmark places to socialise-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Leisure-Activities associated with recreation and relaxation Enjoying public parks and gardens-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Leisure-Activities associated with recreation and relaxation Visiting places of romantic inspiration-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Leisure-Activities associated with recreation and relaxation Going to the zoo-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Social institutions-Activities and organisational arrangements for the provision of social activities Places of informal community gatherings-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Sport-Activities associated with organised recreational and health promotional activities competitive swimming-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Sport-Activities associated with organised recreational and health promotional activities providing sports facilities for city workers and residents-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Sport-Activities associated with organised recreational and health promotional activities cricket-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Sport-Activities associated with organised recreational and health promotional activities providing public gymnasia-
9. Phases of Life-Marking the phases of life Birth and Death-Activities associated with the initial stages of human life and the bearing of children, and with the final stages of human life and disposal of the dead. Isolated graves / Remnant headstones-
9. Phases of Life-Marking the phases of life Birth and Death-Activities associated with the initial stages of human life and the bearing of children, and with the final stages of human life and disposal of the dead. Burying and remembering notable persons-
9. Phases of Life-Marking the phases of life Persons-Activities of, and associations with, identifiable individuals, families and communal groups Associations with Edmund Blacket, Government Architect-
9. Phases of Life-Marking the phases of life Persons-Activities of, and associations with, identifiable individuals, families and communal groups Associations with Governor (later Adm.) Arthur Phillip, 1788-1792,-
9. Phases of Life-Marking the phases of life Persons-Activities of, and associations with, identifiable individuals, families and communal groups Associations with Governor (Rt.Hon.) Somerset Lowry-Corry, Earl of Belmore, GCMG, 1868-1872-
9. Phases of Life-Marking the phases of life Persons-Activities of, and associations with, identifiable individuals, families and communal groups Associations with Sir Joseph Banks - naturalist/botanist-
9. Phases of Life-Marking the phases of life Persons-Activities of, and associations with, identifiable individuals, families and communal groups Associations with Daniel Solander, naturalist, botanist,assistant at the British Museum-
9. Phases of Life-Marking the phases of life Persons-Activities of, and associations with, identifiable individuals, families and communal groups Associations with Queen Elizabeth II, Queen of Australia 1952+-
9. Phases of Life-Marking the phases of life Persons-Activities of, and associations with, identifiable individuals, families and communal groups Associations with Aaron Muron Bolot, architect-
9. Phases of Life-Marking the phases of life Persons-Activities of, and associations with, identifiable individuals, families and communal groups Associations with Governor (Rebel government, 1809) Lt-Col. William Paterson, soldier and naturalist-
9. Phases of Life-Marking the phases of life Persons-Activities of, and associations with, identifiable individuals, families and communal groups Associations with Governor (Captn., later Vice-Adm.) William Bligh RN, 1806-1810-
9. Phases of Life-Marking the phases of life Persons-Activities of, and associations with, identifiable individuals, families and communal groups Associations with James Busby, pioneer viticulturist-
9. Phases of Life-Marking the phases of life Persons-Activities of, and associations with, identifiable individuals, families and communal groups Associations with Eugene Goossens, orchestra conductor-
9. Phases of Life-Marking the phases of life Persons-Activities of, and associations with, identifiable individuals, families and communal groups Associations with Governor (Mjr-Gen., later Gnl., Sir) Ralph Darling and Eliza Darling, 1826-1830-
9. Phases of Life-Marking the phases of life Persons-Activities of, and associations with, identifiable individuals, families and communal groups Associations with Bennelong, Eora Nation Aboriginal-
9. Phases of Life-Marking the phases of life Persons-Activities of, and associations with, identifiable individuals, families and communal groups Associations with Francis Greenway, emancipist architect-
9. Phases of Life-Marking the phases of life Persons-Activities of, and associations with, identifiable individuals, families and communal groups Associations with Anne Carr Boyd, Professor of Music-
9. Phases of Life-Marking the phases of life Persons-Activities of, and associations with, identifiable individuals, families and communal groups Associations with Sir William Macarthur, pastoralist, horticulturist, gentry-
9. Phases of Life-Marking the phases of life Persons-Activities of, and associations with, identifiable individuals, families and communal groups Associations with Allan Cunningham, colonial and Kings botanist, explorer-
9. Phases of Life-Marking the phases of life Persons-Activities of, and associations with, identifiable individuals, families and communal groups Associations with Richard Cunningham, Colonial botanist-
9. Phases of Life-Marking the phases of life Persons-Activities of, and associations with, identifiable individuals, families and communal groups Associations with George Caley, botanical collector for Sir Joseph Banks-
9. Phases of Life-Marking the phases of life Persons-Activities of, and associations with, identifiable individuals, families and communal groups Associations with John Carne Bidwill, merchant, colonial botanist, explorer, administrator-
9. Phases of Life-Marking the phases of life Persons-Activities of, and associations with, identifiable individuals, families and communal groups Associations with Charles Moore, Director Botanic Gardens and garden maker, 1848-96-
9. Phases of Life-Marking the phases of life Persons-Activities of, and associations with, identifiable individuals, families and communal groups Associations with Joseph Henry Maiden, Director Botanic Gardens 1896-1924, botanist, museum curator-
9. Phases of Life-Marking the phases of life Persons-Activities of, and associations with, identifiable individuals, families and communal groups Associations with Ludwig Leichhardt, colonial explorer and botanical collector-
9. Phases of Life-Marking the phases of life Persons-Activities of, and associations with, identifiable individuals, families and communal groups Associations with James Paterson, colonial explorer and plant collector-
9. Phases of Life-Marking the phases of life Persons-Activities of, and associations with, identifiable individuals, families and communal groups Associations with John Richardson, colonial explorer and plant collector-
9. Phases of Life-Marking the phases of life Persons-Activities of, and associations with, identifiable individuals, families and communal groups Associations with Dr G.P. Darnell-Smith, distinguished 20th C scientist, Director Botanic Gardens, 1924-36-
9. Phases of Life-Marking the phases of life Persons-Activities of, and associations with, identifiable individuals, families and communal groups Associations with Knowles Mair, distinguished 20th C scientist, Director Botanic Gardens, 1968-70-
9. Phases of Life-Marking the phases of life Persons-Activities of, and associations with, identifiable individuals, families and communal groups Associations with Robert Anderson, distinguished 20th C scientist, Director Botanic Gardens, 1936-68-
9. Phases of Life-Marking the phases of life Persons-Activities of, and associations with, identifiable individuals, families and communal groups Associations with Dr Lawrence Johnson, distinguished 20th C botanist, Director Botanic Gardens 1972-85-
9. Phases of Life-Marking the phases of life Persons-Activities of, and associations with, identifiable individuals, families and communal groups Associations with Robert Brown, colonial botanist and explorer-
9. Phases of Life-Marking the phases of life Persons-Activities of, and associations with, identifiable individuals, families and communal groups Associations with Alexander Grant, Scottish-trained gardener-

Assessment of significance

SHR Criteria a)
[Historical significance]
The second oldest Botanic gardens in the southern hemisphere, the only older one being Rio de Janeiro. It contains many important structures and memorials from early Colonial times when it formed part of the Governor's Domain. (Westcott and Broadbent 1976)
SHR Criteria c)
[Aesthetic significance]
Within the Gardens there is a beautiful and varied collection of statuary, fountains, munuments, and structures representative of Victorian cultural attainments and garden embellishments. Magnificent gardens on the site of Australi'a first farm, now providing beauty and peace in contrast to the city skyline. (Westcott and Broadbent 1976)
SHR Criteria e)
[Research potential]
It contains an important botanical collection vital for education and research. (Westcott and Broadbent 1976)
Assessment criteria: Items are assessed against the PDF State Heritage Register (SHR) Criteria to determine the level of significance. Refer to the Listings below for the level of statutory protection.

Recommended management:

The entire area of the Domain and Gardens should be retained and conserved on the basis of the Burra Charter (Australia ICOMOS) as well as the three guideline documents supporting the Charter. There should be no further subdivision of the place or excisions from or alienation of the place. Management of the Domain should remain under the control of the RBG & Domain Trust. As part of the RBG's accountability under the RBG & Domain (Trust) Act provide for a greater level of professional landscape conservation management capability. Manage the Domain on the basis of maintaining three distinct landscape character zones: along Macquarie Street; south of the main Botanic Gardens depot boundary; along the eastern promontary (see sections 8.3-8.9) Continue the currently active role of advocacy in relation to seeking appropriate outcomes for proposed development on sites immediately adjacent to the Domain and Gardens. The archaeological resources of the Domain and Gardens should be conserved. In view of the difficulties in accurately determining the potential for the survival of archaeological items in many areas of the Domain, allow the carrying out of specific archaeological assessments as required. Ensure the Gardens' archival resource and that relating to the Domain is conserved. Continue to provide for the ongoing security of the place especially in preparation for and during major events both near and within the Domain. Maintain an ongoing documentation system for recording any changes to plantings, layout or materials within the Domain and Gardens as part of their management. Review this policy (section 8) every 10 years or as substantial new information arises. (Britton, Morris & Annable, 2000, modified).

Procedures /Exemptions

Section of actDescriptionTitleCommentsAction date
21(1)(b)Conservation Plan submitted for endorsementConservation Plan Endorsed CMP is for sea wall only Apr 8 1999
57(2)Exemption to allow workHeritage Act - Site Specific Exemptions HERITAGE ACT 1977

ORDER UNDER SECTION 57(2)

I, the Minister for Urban Affairs and Planning, on the recommendation of the Heritage Council of New South Wales, in pursuance of section 57(2) of the Heritage Act, 1977, do, by this my order, grant an exemption from section 57(1) of the said Act in respect of the engaging in or carrying out of any activities described in Schedule C by or on behalf of the Royal Botanic Gardens and Domain Trust on the item described in Schedule A situated on the land described in Schedule B.

Andrew Refshauge, MP
Minister for Urban Affairs and Planning

Sydney, 2000

SCHEDULE A

The item known as the Royal Botanic Gardens and Domain, Sydney, situated on the land described in Schedule B.

SCHEDULE B

All those pieces or parcels of land known as Lot 25, DP39586; Lots 26, 27, 30, 32, 33, 34 and 35, DP 39586; Lot 6, DP 775888; Lot 51, DP 47732; Lot 101, DP 854472; and Lot 1824, DP 841390.

SCHEDULE C

1. Curation of living collections and displays:
(i)Routine horticultural maintenance and management
(ii)Garden bed/lawn management, including amendment, addition and/or deletion of garden beds, lawns and hard landscaping to implement the Trust's (RBGDT) Strategic Plan, Master Plan and living collections programs
(iii)Plant curation
(iv) Tree management and arboricultural programs consistent with the Trust's (RGBDT) thematic and collections policy
(v) Installation, alteration and maintenance of interpretative signage and labels

2. Visitor services programs:
(I)Installation of temporary facilities for various events for a maximum period of three calendar months. Temporary facilities include fencing, temporary buildings, ancillary structures, exhibitions, artworks and sculptures, and signage
(ii) Provision of facilities for access for people with disabilities consistent with the obligations of public authorities under the Disability Discrimination Act

3. Traffic management:
(i)Implementation of the Royal Botanic Gardens Traffic Management Plan
(ii)Maintenance, repair and/or resurfacing of existing roads and pathways with similar materials without altering their location, dimensions or historic character

4. Protection of public safety & risk management:
(i)Removal or pruning of trees which are a danger to the public or staff
(ii)Path and fence maintenance
(iii)Prevention of catastrophic failure of geological formations and control of erosion
(iv) Waste removal
(v) Installation, alteration and maintenance of directional signage

5. Services/utilities upgrading:
Upgrading of services and public utilities including communications, gas, electricity, water supply, waste removal, sewerage, irrigation and drainage, provided that the activity does not materially affect the heritage significance of the area in which it is located
Nov 17 2000
21(1)(b)Conservation Plan submitted for endorsementCentral Depot CMP (conservation management plan) endorsed by DEH Cultural Heritage Division under delegated authority from the Heritage Council Conservation Management Plan 2005 by Clive Lucas Stapleton & Partners endorsed by DEH Cultural Heritage Division under Heritage Council delegation. Nov 29 2005
57(2)Exemption to allow workStandard Exemptions SCHEDULE OF STANDARD EXEMPTIONS
HERITAGE ACT 1977
Notice of Order Under Section 57 (2) of the Heritage Act 1977

I, the Minister for Planning, pursuant to subsection 57(2) of the Heritage Act 1977, on the recommendation of the Heritage Council of New South Wales, do by this Order:

1. revoke the Schedule of Exemptions to subsection 57(1) of the Heritage Act made under subsection 57(2) and published in the Government Gazette on 22 February 2008; and

2. grant standard exemptions from subsection 57(1) of the Heritage Act 1977, described in the Schedule attached.

FRANK SARTOR
Minister for Planning
Sydney, 11 July 2008

To view the schedule click on the Standard Exemptions for Works Requiring Heritage Council Approval link below.
Sep 5 2008
57(2)Exemption to allow workHeritage Act - Site Specific Exemptions SCHEDULE C

1. Two development applications for works adjacent to the Tarpeian Way at the Sydney Opera House:
a) MP 09_0122 - Bennelong Stormwater Drain Diversion
b) MP 09_0200 - Vehicle & Pedestrian Safety Project

2. All underground works to the Bennelong car park, provided there is no material impact upon the Tarpeian Way or the Royal Botanic Gardens.

3. All underground works to the Sydney Harbour Tunnel, provided there is no material impact upon the Tarpeian Way or the Royal Botanic Gardens.
Nov 18 2011
21(1)(b)Conservation Plan submitted for endorsementpre-lodgement enquiry: Geoff Reinhard, BG & CPTrust - process and lodgement requirements? Sep 27 2016
21(1)(b)Conservation Plan submitted for commentCMP (9/2014) for RBG Sydney & The Domain May 19 2017
21(1)(b)Conservation Plan submitted for endorsementCMP submitted seeking HC endorsement Mar 19 2018

PDF Standard exemptions for works requiring Heritage Council approval

Listings

Heritage ListingListing TitleListing NumberGazette DateGazette NumberGazette Page
Heritage Act - State Heritage Register 0107002 Apr 99 1116689
Heritage Act - s.170 NSW State agency heritage register     
Local Environmental PlanLEP 3 & 4802103 Apr 92 0422484
National Trust of Australia register  6489   
Register of the National Estate 186321 Mar 78   

Study details

TitleYearNumberAuthorInspected byGuidelines used
Royal Botanic Gardens Section 170 Register1990 Royal Botanic Gardens  No

References, internet links & images

TypeAuthorYearTitleInternet Links
Written(unattrib: likely Tim North)1990The Sydney Tropical Centre
WrittenAnna Patty2013'Government to launch inquiry into Gardens 'irregularities'
WrittenAnnable, R., Morris, C., et al2004Domain Master Plan (draft)
WrittenAnne Bickford1999Fig Tree Baths Site, Woolloomooloo Bay, Archaeological Assessment
TourismAttraction Homepage2007Royal Botanic Gardens and Domain View detail
WrittenAustin, Keith2017'A Sustainable Future'
WrittenBritton, Geoffrey, Morris, Colleen & Annable, Rosemary2000Conservation Study - Domain Master Plan (including Cultural Landscape Assessment)
WrittenCasey & Lowe2005Central Depot: Draft Non Indigenous Archaeological Assessment and Excavation Permit Application, Royal Botanic Gardens
WrittenCasey & Lowe Archaeology & Heritage2007Central Depot Redevelopment, RBG Sydney - Section 60 Excavation Permit application
WrittenChurches, David1990The cultural significance of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Sydney
WrittenCity of Sydney Council Heritage LEP schedule 3 - Database Inventory Report - inventory item 8013 View detail
WrittenCity Plan Heritage2008Domain car park Upgrade (Phase 2), Sir John Young Crescent Woolloomooloo : heritage impact statement
WrittenClive Lucas, Stapleton & Partners2005Central Depot, Royal Botanic Gardens, Sydney - conservation management plan
WrittenConybeare Morrison International2005Conservation Management Plan, Royal Botanic Gardens & Domain (draft)
WrittenDavies, Karla2014'The restoration of the palm collection at the Royal Botanic Garden, Sydney'
WrittenDepartment of Public Works & Services: Heritage Design Group2000Central Depot, Royal Botanic Gardens: Conservation Management Plan
WrittenDesign 5 Architects1995Andrew (Boy) Charlton Pool, The Domain, Conservation Analysis & Policy, Sydney
WrittenGML Heritage2014Royal Botanic Garden and the Domain, Sydney - Conservation Management Plan
WrittenGodden Mackay Logan2004Conservation Management Plan for the Phillip Precinct / Hospital Road figs
WrittenGodden Mackay Logan2003Oil Tanks - Royal Botanic Gardens - preliminary heritage advice
WrittenGodden Mackay Logan2001Andrew 'Boy' Charlton Pool, Research Design
WrittenGodden Mackay Logan2001Mrs Macquaries Road: Archaeological Assessment & Research Design
WrittenGodden Mackay Logan1999Domain Lodge Precinct: Archaeological Assessment & Research Design
WrittenGodden Mackay Logan1999NSW Police Wall of Remembrance - draft Heritage Impact Statement
WrittenGodden Mackay Logan1999Royal Botanic Gardens and Outer Domain: Archaeological Assessment and Research Design:
WrittenGorman, James2013'Gallery's big vision for $10.8m', in Sydney Central Magazine, 26/6/13
WrittenGrant, ?.1997The Gardener of Swifts
WrittenHaglund & Associates2007Royal Botanic gardens - Central Depot redevelopment : Report on test excavations completed in compliance with S87 Permit #2364
WrittenHaglund & Associates2005Central Depot redevelopment - Draft Assessment of potential impacts on Aboriginal Heritage Values
WrittenHassell P/L (a)2009Section 96 (1) Application Seeking to Modify Consent D/2008/1118, February 2009
WrittenHassell P/L (b)2009Section 96 (2) Application seeking to modify consent D1118/2008, February 2009
WrittenHenty, Carol1988For the Peoples Pleasure - Australia's Botanic Gardens
WrittenHeritage Design Services, Department of Public Works & Services2000Victoria Lodge, Royal Botanic Gardens - Conservation Management Plan
WrittenHeritage Design Services, NSW Department of Public Works & Services1999Police Memorial Wall, Domain, Archaeological Monitoring Report
WrittenHeritage Group, NSW Department of Public Works & Services1998Brick Arched Culvert, Mrs Macquarie’s Rd., CMP
WrittenHeritage Group, NSW Department of Public Works & Services1998Heritage Status Report – Middle Garden Toilets, Victoria Lodge, Main Depot, Cottage 4
WrittenJohn Oultram Heritage & Design2004Rose Garden, Royal Botanic Garden, Sydney: proposed alterations & addditions
WrittenJohn Oultram Heritage & Design2000Cottage No. 4 (Superintendent's Quarters), Conservation Management Plan, Royal Botanic Gardens, Sydney, NSW
WrittenKelly, Matthew2004Phillip Precinct Section 60 Application
WrittenMather & Associates Landscape Architects (MALA)2000The Domain - Master Plan Outline (draft)
WrittenMorris, Colleen2016'Florilegium: Sydney's painted garden'
WrittenNational Trust of Australia (NSW)1981Survey of Gardens in New South Wales
WrittenOtto Cserhalmi & Partners1998Sea Wall, Royal Botanic Gardens, CMP
WrittenRobertson, Toni2015John Lennis (1952-2015) Baron of Bush Tucker and Botanics (obituary)
WrittenSummerell, Dr. Brett2018'The value of our Herbarium'
TourismTourism NSW2007Royal Botanic Gardens View detail
WrittenWeir + Phillips2005Heritage Impact Statement - the Vista Pavilion, Royal Botanic Gardens, Sydney View detail
WrittenWilson, Karen2012'Another Significant Anniversary' in "The Gardens", Summer 2012-2013

Note: internet links may be to web pages, documents or images.

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(Click on thumbnail for full size image and image details)

Data source

The information for this entry comes from the following source:
Name: Heritage Office
Database number: 5045297
File number: EF14/5538; 09/2165; S90/6509


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