Rothwell Lodge & Factory | NSW Environment, Energy and Science

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Rothwell Lodge & Factory

Item details

Name of item: Rothwell Lodge & Factory
Type of item: Built
Group/Collection: Residential buildings (private)
Category: House
Location: Lat: -33.8765875656 Long: 151.1860607660
Primary address: 24 Ferry Road, Glebe, NSW 2037
Parish: Petersham
County: Cumberland
Local govt. area: Sydney
Local Aboriginal Land Council: Metropolitan
Property description
Lot/Volume CodeLot/Volume NumberSection NumberPlan/Folio CodePlan/Folio Number
LOT1 DP440735
All addresses
Street AddressSuburb/townLGAParishCountyType
24 Ferry RoadGlebeSydneyPetershamCumberlandPrimary Address

Owner/s

Organisation NameOwner CategoryDate Ownership Updated
OCP ArchitectsGeneral20 Oct 05

Statement of significance:

One of earliest surviving houses in Glebe- built c.1840s. Architectural significance as representative of early Victorian Georgian Style. Townscape importance. Developer: George Allen for Rev. Boyce (LEP)
Date significance updated: 01 Dec 04
Note: The State Heritage Inventory provides information about heritage items listed by local and State government agencies. The State Heritage Inventory is continually being updated by local and State agencies as new information becomes available. Read the OEH copyright and disclaimer.

Description

Construction years: 1840-1850
Physical description: Setting:
Its original setting can still be appreciated (HHA website).
Rothwell sits centrally on its lot and adjoins the Earnest Pedersen Reserve, which fronts both Ferry Road and Avon Street to its north.

Garden/site:
The subject site is located at 24 Ferry Road, Glebe on the south eastern side of Ferry Rd, a quiet residential street characterised by one and two storey Victorian terrace houses. The site is immediately adjacent Ernest Pederson Reserve, previously the site of Rothwell Lodge's front garden.

House:
Rothwell Lodge is a three storey 1840s Georgian Regency villa.
It is similar to the standard plans in builders' books available at the time. The verandahs added a colonial touch with wooden treillage. Now rarely seen, the Regency latticework survives in part (Collingwood et al, 2019).

It is set back from Ferry Road and orientated east towards Ernest Pederson Reserve. The villa maintains a visual connection to the adjacent Reserve, separated via hedging only.

Two storeys above basement, rendered masonry iron roof with dormer window, verandah north and east sides - new addition to south.

Attics. Simple Georgian Regency (Revival) plan (HHA website). The house has attics and has a simple Georgian Regency plan (HHA, 11/2018).

Factory addition to rear:
The factory addition is physically connected to the southern wall of Rothwell Lodge and forms the southern boundary walls of the allotment. The factory is a three story Victorian period warehouse building, however most of its fabric has been substantially altered and is no longer significant. However, its overall form and location is considered significant.

The factory addition is visible from Lombard Street to the rear, which contains medium density townhouse development known as Lombard Estate
Modifications and dates: A c1856 plan of the house and site show the main living floor, stairs down to servant's quarters and kitchen, front garden (now Ernie Pedersen Park) and side path way to the stables, where stesps down to William Cartlon Gardens are now located. The back section of the Rothwell gardens, now known as 22A, 22B and 22C Ferry Road were sold to George Wigram Allen in the 1850s. George was son-in-law of the Revered W. Boyce, the owner of Rothwell Lodge (caption, The Glebe Society, exhibition 'Villas of Glebe and Forest Lodge, c.1870', 7/2019 exhibition).

1990s: restored as home and office to Otto Cserhalmi in early 1990s. Currently being restored dormer windows recently added.

2016: Rothwell Lodge contains the primary residence and a residential apartment (Unit 1), whilst the factory addition contains one residential apartment (Unit 2) and an office (Unit 3)(2016).

Like many of Sydney's early houses it was slated for demolition in the 1980s but saved and restored (HHA, 11/2018).
Current use: residential apartments, house
Former use: Aboriginal land, farm, residence, boarding house, factory (part)

History

Historical notes: Leichhardt and Glebe:
The Leichhardt area was originally inhabited by the Wangal clan of Aborigines. After 1788 diseases such as smallpox and the loss of their hunting grounds caused huge reductions in their numbers and they moved further inland. Since European settlement the foreshores of Blackwattle Bay and Rozelle Bay have developed a unique maritime, industrial and residential character - a character which continues to evolve as areas which were originally residential estates, then industrial areas, are redeveloped for residential units and parklands.

The Glebe:
The first formal grant in the Glebe area was a 400 acre grant to Rev. Richard Johnson, the colony's first chaplain, in 1789. The Glebe (land allocated for the maintenance of a church minister) comprised rolling shale hills covering sandstone, with several sandstone cliff faces. The ridges were drained by several creeks including Blackwattle Creek, Orphan School Creek and Johnston Creek. Extensive swampland surrounded the creeks. On the shale ridges, heavily timbered woodlands contained several varieties of eucalypts while the swamplands and tidal mudflats had mangroves, swamp oaks (Casuarina glauca) and blackwattles (Callicoma serratifolia) after which the bay is named. Blackwattle Swamp was first mentioned by surveyors in the 1790s and Blackwattle Swamp Bay in 1807. By 1840 it was called Blackwattle Bay. Boat parties collected wattles and reeds for the building of huts, and kangaroos and emus were hunted by the early settlers who called the area the Kangaroo Ground. Rozelle Bay is thought to have been named after a schooner which once moored in its waters.

Johnson's land remained largely undeveloped until 1828, when the Church and School Corporation subdivided it into 28 lots, 3 of which they retained for church use (City Plan Heritage, 2005, quoting Max Solling & Peter Reynolds 'Leichhardt: On the Margins of the City', 1997, 14).

The Church sold 27 allotments in 1828 - north on the point and south around Broadway. The Church kept the middle section where the Glebe Estate is now. On the point the sea breezes attracted the wealthy who built villas. The Broadway end attracted slaughterhouses and boiling down works that used the creek draining to Blackwattle Swamp. Up until the 1970s the Glebe Estate was in the possession of the Church.

Glebe Point:
On the point the sea breezes attracted the wealthy who built villas. The Broadway end attracted slaughterhouses and boiling down works that used the creek draining to Blackwattle Swamp. Smaller working-class houses were built around these industries. Abbattoirs were built there from the 1860s.

When Glebe was made a municipality in 1859 there were pro and anti-municipal clashes in the streets. From 1850 Glebe was dominated by wealthier interests.

Wentworth Park:
Reclaiming the swamp, Wentworth Park opened in 1882 as a cricket ground and lawn bowls club. Rugby Union was played there in the late 19th century. The dog racing started in 1932.

In the early 20th century modest villas were broken up into boarding houses as they were elsewhere in the inner city areas. The wealthier moved into the suburbs which were opening up through the railways. Up until the 1950s Sydney was the location for working class employment - it was a port and industrial city. By the 1960s central Sydney was becoming a corporate city with service-based industries - capital intensive not labour intensive. A shift in demographics occurred, with younger professionals and technical and administrative people servicing the corporate city wanting to live close by. Housing was coming under threat and the heritage conservation movement was starting. The Fish Markets moved in in the 1970s. A influx of students came to Glebe in the 1960s and 1970s. (Dr Lisa Murray, in Central Sydney, 5/8/2009).

Villas of Darlinghurst and villas of Glebe:
Similar to the villas of Darlinghurst that once graced the Potts Point escarpment, a few villas from the first half of the 19th century remain in Glebe Point. One such villa is Rothwell Lodge in Ferry Road. Over 90 acres of Glebe Point were developed in the 1830s by George Allen into the Toxteth Estate, with John Verge engaged to design a fine house for him. The remaining land on the point was owned by other speculators such as William Dumaresq and A. B. Spark (HHA, 2018).

The streets and houses in this (Rothwell Lodge's) area were built in the 1880s. Ferry Road followed the ridge line down to the shore of Blackwattle Bay but the other streets followed a grid pattern which did not take account of Glebe's rocky cliffs, and some came to abrupt dead ends at the cliff face (Sydney City Council, n.d.).

Rothwell Lodge:
In 1846 the subject site, originally part of the Bossier Estate Land, was purchased by Methodist, the Rev. William Binnington Boyce (1803-1889). Boyce built Rothwell Lodge, which he named after a town in Yorkshire known as Rothwell.

Boyce and family occupied Rothwell Lodge in 1847 (Collingwood et al, 2019). The house is set back from Ferry Road and oriented east towards the city and towards what is now the Ernest Pedersen Park. That park was previously Rothwell Lodge's formal front garden. In the 1850s Ferry Road was just an access road (The Glebe Society, website).

The Boyces, through intermarriage were connected to the Allens of (nearby) Toxteth Park Estate. Their eldest daughter Marian married George Wigram Allen and their first house Lynwood was located next door. Toxteth Park Estate (in Glebe's west) had a Wesleyan chapel on it. Boyce had close connections with other notable Wesleyans in Glebe (ibid, 2019). Boyce was a foundation member of the Senate, University of Sydney (The Glebe Society, 'Villas of Glebe & Forest Lodge, c.1870' exhibition, 7/2019).

In 1854 Boyce sold the property to Captain William Bell, minus a small section of land to provide an entrance from Ferry Road. It is believed that Captain Bell and his wife added the word "Lodge" to the name of the house.

A c1856 plan of the house and site show the main living floor, stairs down to servant's quarters and kitchen, the formally-laid out front garden (now Ernest Pedersen Park) and side path way to the stables, where stesps down to William Cartlon Gardens are now located. The back section of the Rothwell gardens, now known as 22A, 22B and 22C Ferry Road were sold to George Wigram Allen in the 1850s. George was son-in-law of the Revered W. Boyce, the owner of Rothwell Lodge (caption, The Glebe Society, exhibition 'Villas of Glebe and Forest Lodge, c.1870', 7/2019 exhibition).

The Sands Directory lists Rev. W.B.Boyce at 'Rothwell Lodge' in 1861.

Like any community, the network of family and friends saw Rothwell Lodge remain in Boyce family hands until the 1880s. Similar to other villas in Glebe, Rothwell Lodge gradually changed in use. The progression of industrial activity encroaching on the area from the 1880s altered the landscape (ibid, 2019).

In 1883 the Auckland Timber Company opened a timber yard on the shoreline below (Rothwell Lodge), which was later Hudson Brothers timber and is now the Sydney Secondary College's Blackwattle Bay campus (SCC, ibid).

In 1892 a factory addition was added behind Rothwell Lodge for Walter junior and Henry Long to expand their drapery business. The house itself was turned into rooming lets (ibid, 2019).

In the 1920s it was leased to Mrs Milly Little. The house operated as a boarding house during the Depression.

Ernest Pedersen Steps and Reserve:
Ernest Pedersen Steps link Avon and Burton Streets, Glebe. They were built to link Avon and Burton Streets in around 1885 and were initially known as Burton Lane, and later Quarry Lane. They were renamed after local ALP identity, Ernest Pedersen (1910-1974), an alderman from 1950 to 1953. He also served as a trustee of Wentworth Park and a director of Sydney Hospital (SCC, ibid).

Ownership of the property was transferred in 1944 to Stanley Ernest Elliot. Five years later he transferred a portion of the land to the north-east, the front lawn area, to the City of Sydney. Another section of land was donated to the City in 1954 by Alice Eliot who had become owner of some of the land to Avon Street (Sydney LEP).

In 1949 a portion of the land to the north east (which operated as the front garden for Rothwell) was transferred to the City of Sydney Council. The land eventually became the Ernest Pedersen Reserve (named after Ernest Pedersen, an alderman on Glebe Municipal Council).

In 1951 most of the front garden of Rothwell Lodge became a public park, the Ernest Pedersen Reserve, named for an Alderman who sat on both Glebe and Sydney City Councils (ibid, 2019).

In 1955 the land was further subdivided by the City of Sydney Council and transferred to Ivy O'Brien.

By 1964 Rothwell's address had changed from 22-24 to 24 Ferry Road.

By the 1970s, the house had long been a boarding house for many years and then a squat. The adjoining 189s warehouse was without a roof, c1970. Each end of the house verandah had a bathroom built into it. The slate chimney pots were almost all gone and the regency style timber balustrading covered up with cement board. (photo captions, The Glebe Society, exhibition 'Villas of Glebe & Forest Lodge, c.1870', 7/2019).

Like many of Sydney's early houses Rothwell Lodge was slated for demolition in the 1980s for a block of units but was saved, restored and State Heritage listed. Its grand original setting can still be appreciated (HHA, 11/2018). In 1983 it was classified by the National Trust of Australia (NSW).

In 1988 Rothwell Lodge was saved from demolition through the efforts of the Glebe Society and its new owner, conservation architect, Otto Cserhalmi, who carried out major repairs over several years from 1988 (ibid, 2019). It was state-heritage listed (ibid, 2019).

From 1987 Rothwell Lodge underwent conservation and repair over many years under new owner, Otto Cserhalmi. The internal fabric and roof structure of the factory addition had been entirely removed prior to this. In 1990 the factory addition was substantially altered for conversion into an office and a residential unit on its ground floor. Rothwell Lodge (the main house) was restored and conserved, also being converted into two residential apartments

In 1999 Rothwell Lodge and Factory were gazetted on the State Heritage Register.

Rothwell's custodians throw open its doors for a very special open house. You will also have the opportunity to explore a photographic and artistic history of Glebe, being compiled for a forthcoming exhibition on the area (HHA, 11/2018).

In 2015 approval was given for minor modifications to extend the primary residence into the factory addition and a change of use of the rear factory building from office to residential use as a residential apartment.

Historic themes

Australian theme (abbrev)New South Wales themeLocal theme
1. Environment-Tracing the evolution of a continent's special environments Environment - naturally evolved-Activities associated with the physical surroundings that support human life and influence or shape human cultures. Gardens-
1. Environment-Tracing the evolution of a continent's special environments Environment - naturally evolved-Activities associated with the physical surroundings that support human life and influence or shape human cultures. Other open space-
1. Environment-Tracing the evolution of a continent's special environments Environment - naturally evolved-Activities associated with the physical surroundings that support human life and influence or shape human cultures. Changing the environment-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Commerce-Activities relating to buying, selling and exchanging goods and services Developing Commercial Enterprise-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Environment - cultural landscape-Activities associated with the interactions between humans, human societies and the shaping of their physical surroundings Developing local, regional and national economies-National Theme 3
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Environment - cultural landscape-Activities associated with the interactions between humans, human societies and the shaping of their physical surroundings Landscapes and gardens of domestic accommodation-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Environment - cultural landscape-Activities associated with the interactions between humans, human societies and the shaping of their physical surroundings Landscapes demonstrating styles in landscape design-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Industry-Activities associated with the manufacture, production and distribution of goods Factories-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Accommodation-Activities associated with the provision of accommodation, and particular types of accommodation – does not include architectural styles – use the theme of Creative Endeavour for such activities. Boarding Houses-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Accommodation-Activities associated with the provision of accommodation, and particular types of accommodation – does not include architectural styles – use the theme of Creative Endeavour for such activities. Adapted heritage building or structure-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Accommodation-Activities associated with the provision of accommodation, and particular types of accommodation – does not include architectural styles – use the theme of Creative Endeavour for such activities. A Picturesque Residential Suburb-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Accommodation-Activities associated with the provision of accommodation, and particular types of accommodation – does not include architectural styles – use the theme of Creative Endeavour for such activities. housing (suburbs)-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Accommodation-Activities associated with the provision of accommodation, and particular types of accommodation – does not include architectural styles – use the theme of Creative Endeavour for such activities. Gentlemens Villas-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Accommodation-Activities associated with the provision of accommodation, and particular types of accommodation – does not include architectural styles – use the theme of Creative Endeavour for such activities. Gentlemens Mansions-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Accommodation-Activities associated with the provision of accommodation, and particular types of accommodation – does not include architectural styles – use the theme of Creative Endeavour for such activities. Housing the clergy and religious-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Towns, suburbs and villages-Activities associated with creating, planning and managing urban functions, landscapes and lifestyles in towns, suburbs and villages 19th century suburban developments-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Towns, suburbs and villages-Activities associated with creating, planning and managing urban functions, landscapes and lifestyles in towns, suburbs and villages 20th century Suburban Developments-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Towns, suburbs and villages-Activities associated with creating, planning and managing urban functions, landscapes and lifestyles in towns, suburbs and villages 20th Century infrastructure-
5. Working-Working Labour-Activities associated with work practises and organised and unorganised labour Working in factories-
7. Governing-Governing Government and Administration-Activities associated with the governance of local areas, regions, the State and the nation, and the administration of public programs - includes both principled and corrupt activities. Local government-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Creative endeavour-Activities associated with the production and performance of literary, artistic, architectural and other imaginative, interpretive or inventive works; and/or associated with the production and expression of cultural phenomena; and/or environments that have inspired such creative activities. Adaptation of overseas design for local use-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Creative endeavour-Activities associated with the production and performance of literary, artistic, architectural and other imaginative, interpretive or inventive works; and/or associated with the production and expression of cultural phenomena; and/or environments that have inspired such creative activities. Architectural styles and periods - Georgian revival-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Creative endeavour-Activities associated with the production and performance of literary, artistic, architectural and other imaginative, interpretive or inventive works; and/or associated with the production and expression of cultural phenomena; and/or environments that have inspired such creative activities. Architectural styles and periods - Victorian Regency Revival-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Domestic life-Activities associated with creating, maintaining, living in and working around houses and institutions. Ways of life 1850-1900-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Domestic life-Activities associated with creating, maintaining, living in and working around houses and institutions. Living near factories and industrial complexes-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Domestic life-Activities associated with creating, maintaining, living in and working around houses and institutions. Ways of life 1900-1950-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Domestic life-Activities associated with creating, maintaining, living in and working around houses and institutions. Ways of life 1950-2000-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Domestic life-Activities associated with creating, maintaining, living in and working around houses and institutions. Living and working at home-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Religion-Activities associated with particular systems of faith and worship Practising Methodism-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Religion-Activities associated with particular systems of faith and worship Gentlemen's Villas-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Religion-Activities associated with particular systems of faith and worship rectory-
9. Phases of Life-Marking the phases of life Persons-Activities of, and associations with, identifiable individuals, families and communal groups Associations with Rev. William Binnington Boyce, Anglican priest-

Recommended management:

Recommendations

Management CategoryDescriptionDate Updated
Recommended ManagementProduce a Conservation Management Plan (CMP) 
Recommended ManagementPrepare a maintenance schedule or guidelines 
Recommended ManagementCarry out interpretation, promotion and/or education 

Procedures /Exemptions

Section of actDescriptionTitleCommentsAction date
57(2)Exemption to allow workStandard Exemptions SCHEDULE OF STANDARD EXEMPTIONS
HERITAGE ACT 1977
Notice of Order Under Section 57 (2) of the Heritage Act 1977

I, the Minister for Planning, pursuant to subsection 57(2) of the Heritage Act 1977, on the recommendation of the Heritage Council of New South Wales, do by this Order:

1. revoke the Schedule of Exemptions to subsection 57(1) of the Heritage Act made under subsection 57(2) and published in the Government Gazette on 22 February 2008; and

2. grant standard exemptions from subsection 57(1) of the Heritage Act 1977, described in the Schedule attached.

FRANK SARTOR
Minister for Planning
Sydney, 11 July 2008

To view the schedule click on the Standard Exemptions for Works Requiring Heritage Council Approval link below.
Sep 5 2008

PDF Standard exemptions for works requiring Heritage Council approval

Listings

Heritage ListingListing TitleListing NumberGazette DateGazette NumberGazette Page
Heritage Act - State Heritage Register 0059102 Apr 99 271546
Heritage Act - Permanent Conservation Order - former 0059109 Feb 90 211162
Heritage Act - s.130 Order - Lapsed  06 Mar 87   
Heritage Act - s.130 Order - Lapsed  09 Feb 90 44 
Local Environmental Plan  15 Jun 84   

References, internet links & images

TypeAuthorYearTitleInternet Links
WrittenCollingwood, Lyn; Crawshaw, Peter; and Hannan, Robert2019'Rothwell Lodge' View detail
WrittenHistoric Houses Association of Australia 'Rothwell Lodge', in 'Our Properties' View detail
WrittenSydney City Council (Dr Anne-Maree Whitaker, for) "History of Ernest Pedersen Steps" (Glebe) View detail

Note: internet links may be to web pages, documents or images.

rez
(Click on thumbnail for full size image and image details)

Data source

The information for this entry comes from the following source:
Name: Heritage Office
Database number: 5045298
File number: EF14/5536; 86/2252


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