Lyndhurst | NSW Environment, Energy and Science

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Lyndhurst

Item details

Name of item: Lyndhurst
Type of item: Complex / Group
Group/Collection: Residential buildings (private)
Category: Villa
Location: Lat: -33.8774264776 Long: 151.1902158390
Primary address: 61 Darghan Street, Glebe, NSW 2037
Parish: Petersham
County: Cumberland
Local govt. area: Sydney
Local Aboriginal Land Council: Metropolitan
Property description
Lot/Volume CodeLot/Volume NumberSection NumberPlan/Folio CodePlan/Folio Number
PART LOT1 DP1067750
All addresses
Street AddressSuburb/townLGAParishCountyType
61 Darghan StreetGlebeSydneyPetershamCumberlandPrimary Address
Darghan LaneGlebeSydneyPetershamCumberlandAlternate Address

Owner/s

Organisation NameOwner CategoryDate Ownership Updated
Historic Houses Trust of NSWGeneral17 Sep 97

Statement of significance:

Lyndhurst possesses aesthetic significance as a work of architect John Verge (1782-1861); as illustrative of the history of design of villas and country houses, their positioning, gardens and estate curtilages, in NSW both in the 1830s and at other times (including its garden which while no longer extant appears to have been the first private gardens designed with professional advice, namely that of Thomas Shepherd);

Lyndhurst possesses representative social historical significance as one of a series of villas and rural residences commissioned by prominent NSW families in the prosperous and optimistic 1830s; and through its commissioning and initial occupancy by James Bowman (1784-1846), a member, through his marriage to Mary Macarthur, of the prominent Macarthur family;

Lyndhurst possesses specific historical associations with Anglican and Roman Catholic education and churchmanship in NSW;

Lyndhurst possesses specific local significance to the Sydney suburb of Glebe;

The fabric of Lyndhurst reflects changing attributes to and policies and methodologies for the conservation of heritage buildings (excerpts from NSW HHT draft CMP, 1994)

Lyndhurst is an important early Sydney mansion designed by a leading architect for an important pioneer family. It is also important for the role it played in education both as a theological college and as a school. It also has importance in the conservation history of Sydney (Historic Houses Trust 1990).

The garden of Lyndhurst is significant because:
- it was a prominent example of colonial estate development;
- it was one of the first private gardens in NSW to have professional design advice;
- the extensive retention of native shurbs and trees marked a change of thought in attitudes to landscaping in the Australian environment;
- of its associations with Dr James Bowman, Principal Colonial Surgeon, and MLC; Mary Macarthur Bowman; Thomas Shepherd, Nurseryman and early Australian landscape designer; architect John Verge; and with early Australian schools (Long, 1986).
Date significance updated: 02 Oct 97
Note: The State Heritage Inventory provides information about heritage items listed by local and State government agencies. The State Heritage Inventory is continually being updated by local and State agencies as new information becomes available. Read the OEH copyright and disclaimer.

Description

Designer/Maker: John Verge
Construction years: 1833-1837
Physical description: Site and setting:
Lyndhurst is located approximately 2.5km south west of the city with a road frontage. It is a level site with city views available from the second floor. Surrounding development consists of older style semi-detached and terrace cottages on small lots and in varing condition. (Valuer Generals Office).

1507m2 of level land (Sotheby's, 2016).

Garden:
Lyndhurst's garden is much reduced on the original Bowman estate, which had an extensive parkland, carriage drives across what is now Wentworth Park and Blackwattle Bay's hinterland and was designed to be seen as a villa garden from the city, with the house sited on a rise, with harbour and city views.

The carriage sweep was enclosed by a post-and-chain fence, described by colonial nurseryman and landscape designer, Thomas Shepherd (Crittenden, 1992, 96).

What remains is a vegetated yard to the house's north and east, wrapping around it on three sides, the southern side being predominanly paved and driveway. Darghan Street cuts very close to the house's western facade.

The garden today owes much to the occupancy of the former Historic Houses Trust of NSW (now Sydney Living Museums) and input of its professional staff such as garden historian James Broadbent.

It retains a number of trees including two tall mature Canary Island date palms (Phoenix canariensis) (one east of the house's garden front, one to its south), angel's trumpets (Datura (now Brugmansia) cv.s)(to the verandah's south), giant bird-of-paradise flower (Strelitzia nicolae (syn.S.alba)) on the verandah's north-eastern corner, Californian desert fan palm (Washingtonia robusta), sago palms (Cycas revoluta) in tubs and more.

Wisteria sinensis has been trained up verandah posts on the house's eastern garden front. A number of large terracotta urns are planted with species such as pygmy date palm (Phoenix roebelenii), topiarised box (Buxus microphylla). Shrubs in the garden include frangipani (Plumeria x rubra cv.s), hairy sage (Salvia leucantha), NZ flax (Phormium tenax cv.), taro (Alocasia / Colocasia sp.), Nile or African lily (Agapanthus x praecox), bird-of-paradise flower (Strelitzia reginae), Camellia sasanqua cv.s and more (Stuart Read, pers.comm. viewinghttp://www.mylesbaldwin.com/projects?cid=21&pid=44, 27/8/2014).

House:
It is a large two storey house raised on a semi-basement. It is five bays wide by three bays deep with three main fronts. It has a corrugated iron roof, hardwood floors and fine details. The first floor windows are all finished with architraves and the french doors which open onto a raised terrace all carry entablatures (Lucas 1972).

Central hallway connects a suite of generous entertaining rooms, all of which have French doors opening onto wide verandahs. Features include a grand sweeping staircase, 4m high ceilings, original floors and fireplaces, modernised kitchen and bathrooms and palatially-proportioned bedrooms (Sotheby's, 2016).

It incorporates elements of restrained Green revival detailing which includes symmetrical planning, elevations with breakfronts and inverted pilasters at corners, classical portico, verandas, vaulted plaster ceilings and Greek Revival stone exterior and timber interior architraves. (Historic Houses Trust 1994)
Physical condition and/or
Archaeological potential:
Physical Condition - Good
Date condition updated:27 Aug 14
Modifications and dates: 1852 - extensive Lyndhurst Estate subdivided. St Marys College established and an east west wing added to the eastern services wing.
c1850s estate plans show the servants' wings off the back of the house and the well in its courtyard. There were then extensive grounds down to Blackwattle Bay, stables and other outbuildings. Further outbuildings were constructed after this, and can be seen on later maps. A part of one later outbuilding survives, fronting 15 Lyndhurst Street. It can be seen in the subdivision plan of 1878 (caption, The Glebe Society, exhibition, 'Villas of Glebe and Forest Lodge, c.1870', 7/2019).

c1878 - Verandahs, service wings, stables and college additions demolished after subdivision. Estate around house reduced to a few metres on three sides, ringed by suburban streets.

1890-1905 - House subdivided into three terraces, merged into one and then divided into three terraces again.

1925-1972 - Buildings constructed up against the house by tenants using it as a factory.

1979-1988 - Restoration and reconstruction (Historic Houses Trust 1990 and 1994)

2005+ reconversion back into a residence.
Current use: residence
Former use: Aboriginal land, farm, glebe land, residence, lying-in hospital, industrial (various), school, laundry, offices

History

Historical notes: Leichhardt and Glebe:
The Leichhardt area was originally inhabited by the Wangal clan of Aborigines. After 1788 diseases such as smallpox and the loss of their hunting grounds caused huge reductions in their numbers and they moved further inland. Since European settlement the foreshores of Blackwattle Bay and Rozelle Bay have developed a unique maritime, industrial and residential character - a character which continues to evolve as areas which were originally residential estates, then industrial areas, are redeveloped for residential units and parklands.

The "Eora people" was the name given to the coastal Aborigines around Sydney. Central Sydney is therefore often referred to as "Eora Country". Within the City of Sydney local government area, the traditional owners are the Cadigal and Wangal bands of the Eora. There is no written record of the name of the language spoken and currently there are debates as whether the coastal peoples spoke a separate language "Eora" or whether this was actually a dialect of the Dharug language. Remnant bushland in places like Blackwattle Bay retain elements of traditional plant, bird and animal life, including fish and rock oysters (Anita Heiss, "Aboriginal People and Place", Barani: Indigenous History of Sydney City http://www.cityofsydney.nsw.gov.au/barani).

With the invasion of the Sydney region, the Cadigal and Wangal people were decimated but there are descendants still living in Sydney today. All cities include many immigrants in their population. Aboriginal people from across the state have been attracted to suburbs such as Pyrmont, Balmain, Rozelle, Glebe and Redfern since the 1930s. Changes in government legislation in the 1960s provided freedom of movement enabling more Aboriginal people to choose to live in Sydney (Anita Heiss, "Aboriginal People and Place", Barani: Indigenous History of Sydney City http://www.cityofsydney.nsw.gov.au/barani).

The fist formal grant in the Glebe area was a 400 acre grant to Rev.Richard Johnson, the colony's first chaplain, in 1789. The Glebe (land allocated for the maintenance of a church minister) comprised rolling shale hills covering sandstone, with several sandstone cliff faces. The ridges were drained by several creeks including Blackwattle Creek, Orphan School Creek and Johnston Creek. Extensive swampland surrounded the creeks. On the shale ridges, heavily timbered woodlands contained several varieties of eucalypts while the swamplands and tidal mudflats had mangroves, swamp oaks (Casuarina glauca) and blackwattles (Callicoma serratifolia) after which the bay is named. Blackwattle Swamp was first mentioned by surveyors in the 1790s and Blackwattle Swamp Bay in 1807. By 1840 it was called Blackwattle Bay. Boat parties collected wattles and reeds for the building of huts, and kangaroos and emus were hunted by the early settlers who called the area the Kangaroo Ground. Rozelle Bay is thought to have been named after a schooner which once moored in its waters.

Johnson's land remained largely undeveloped until 1828, when the Church and School Corporation subdivided it into 28 lots, 3 of which they retained for church use (City Plan Heritage, 2005, quoting Max Solling & Peter Reynolds 'Leichhardt: On the Margins of the City', 1997, 14).

The Church of England sold 27 allotments in 1828 - north on the point and south around Broadway. The Church kept the middle section where the Glebe Estate is now. Up until the 1970s the Glebe Estate was in the possession of the Church.

On the point the sea breezes attracted the wealthy who built villas. The Broadway end attracted slaughterhouses and boiling down works that used the creek draining to Blackwattle Swamp. Smaller working-class houses were built around these industries. Abbattoirs were built there from the 1860s.

When Glebe was made a municipality in 1859 there were pro and anti-municipal clashes in the streets. From 1850 Glebe was dominated by wealthier interests.

Reclaiming the swamp, Wentworth Park opened in 1882 as a cricket ground and lawn bowls club. Rugby Union was played there in the late 19th century. The dog racing started in 1932. In the early 20th century modest villas were broken up into boarding houses as they were elsewhere in the inner city areas. The wealthier moved into the suburbs which were opening up through the railways. Up until the 1950s Sydney was the location for working class employment - it was a port and industrial city. By the 1960s central Sydney was becoming a corporate city with service-based industries - capital intensive not labour intensive. A shift in demographics occurred, with younger professionals and technical and administrative people servicing the corporate city wanting to live close by. Housing was coming under threat and the heritage conservation movement was starting. The Fish Markets moved in in the 1970s. A influx of students came to Glebe in the 1960s and 1970s. (Dr Lisa Murray, in Central Sydney, 5/8/2009).

Lyndhurst:
Lyndhurst is built on part of a grant in 1796 of 400 acres to Reverend Richard Johnson on Church of England property known as the Glebe. Trustees of the Clergy and School Lands Corporation subdivided the Glebe in 1828 and Lot 5 was sold to Charles Cowper (Historic Houses Trust, 1994) in the original 1828 auctions (Collingwood et al, 2019).

The 36 acres (Collingwood et al, 2019) of land for Lyndhurst was purchased from Cowper in 1833 by Dr James Bowman for 1500 pounds. In April NSW's foremost Greek Revival style architect John Verge selected the site and prepared designs for the residence. In May and June the plans were prepared (Historic Houses Trust 1994).

Lyndhurst was built between 1834 and 1837 as a 'suburban villa' with view to Blackwattle Bay.Bowman was the principal colonial surgeon (and inspector of colonial hospitals: Collingwood et al, 2019) and his wife Mary (ibid, 1994) who was a daughter of graziers John and Elizabeth Macarthur. Her dowry included 2000 merino sheep and more than 200 cattle. With water frontage to Blackwattle Bay, the mansion was similar to Verge's Camden Park but had larger service wings and differed in room arrangement (ibid, 2019). No expense was spared on its building or fitting out. The surviving papers and accounts would make Lyndhurst the best documented domestic dwelling of the period (HHT, 1984, 2-3).

In the grounds were the large service yard and balancing wings and stables designed by Verge, elaborately laid out pleasure grounds, shrubbery and the kitchen garden. (ibid, 1984: 2-3). A sketch of Lyndhurst in the distance, from Ultimo House window, 1837 by Emily Manning shows it surrounded by bush on its ridgeline, one of several wooded headlands protruding into Blackwattle Bay (Manning, 1837).

Francis Newman was the gardener at Lyndhurst. He was later appointed Superintendent of the Royal Society of Tasmania's garden in Hobart, which later would be renamed the Royal Tasmanian Botanic Gardens, a post he held form 1845 until his death in 1859 (Sheridan, 2011).

Bowman and Mary had apparently placed the planning of their grounds in (Landscape Gardener and Nurseryman, Thomas) Shepherd's hands, but he died in the same year as his 'Lectures on Landscape Gardening in Australia' were published, and his vision for a fine gentleman's estate on Blackwattle Bay was never fully realised at Lyndhurst (Bligh, 1973, 55-56).

The garden was described by Shepherd in his book on 'Landscape Gardening in Australia' and Bowman was another who attended Shepherd's (untimely, 1838) funeral. William Macarthur was a provider of seeds and cuttings to Thomas (Shepherd). Bowman purchased land near Wentworth Park, not so very far from (Shepherd's) Darling Nursery (in today's Chippendale). Shepherd's description of Lyndhurst's garden says "There is another first-rate edifice, the grounds of which have been laid off with great attention to the principles of Landscape Gardening, Lyndhurst, the seat of Dr. Bowman, to which I shall direct your attention, with a view to enlighten the proprietors of land, on the capabilities of their estates. This residence is situated on the south side of a branch of the river off Port Jackson; the ground contains fifty acres of land, and is bounded by Church land, a new road, and the estate of John Betts, Esq. This estate will have an imposing effect, both internally and externally. The house has three fronts open to a mowed-grass lawn of considerable extent. The site is placed upon a flat piece of land about 200 yards from the river; the situation is commanding. The offices are enclosed within a high wall at the back of the house; and are well arranged. A tank of large dimensions has been sunk in the back yard, supplied by pipes from the roof of the house; and is built with brick and covered with cement, with a drain at the bottom. The coach house and stables are built out of sight of the house, park and pleasure grounds. A road will lead from them with a bold sweep through part of the park to the house, and also from them to a small wharf. The kitchen garden is in a valley behind the stables; it is composed of rich loam, and has been laid out in straight walks, and planted with fruit trees. The approach of the mansion enters at the south-east corner; it is seen for several hundred yards, and then takes a bold turn towards the coach sweep in front of the house without any reverse turn, which adds to its beauty. The coach sweep will form an exact oval, the whole width of the front of the house, convex in the centre, and covered with mowed grass. No clumps will be placed in the centre of the lawn, as that would lessen its bredth, but the lawn will be surrounded by a shrubbery which borders the terrace at the bottom of the paddock, will be enclosed by a post and chain fence. The shrubbery walks will branch off from the approach in front of the house, into shrubberies extending to the right and left. These will be considered part of the Landscape Garden, and will darken the glow of light which is produced by the expansion of the water. The opposite shore has a fine effect from this residence, being richly furnished with beautiful trees disposed with much natural taste among picturesque rocks. At a distance the landsacpe is heightened by gentle elevations conveying the idea of broken ground divided by water. This estate commands about a mile of frontage to the bay. It is beautifully wooded, and has a considerable extent of glade or lawn within thriving forest scenery. The house is the principal feature of the landscape. Thick masses of wood branch off from the back part of the house. This estate will present a splendid instance of what may be effected by knowledge, taste, and wealth, upon ground to all appearance unfit for improvements. It will be a model for a genteel marine residence. The indigenous trees have been preserved, and are as pleasing as if a new assortment of trees had been platned, and had grown up in their place' (Crittenden, 1992, 97-99).

The Bowmans' occupation did not last long. Dr Bowman had become involved with Macarthur brothers-in-law over the Australian Agricultural (A.A.) Company and in 1842 was experiencing financial difficulty. The Macarthurs took possession of the property and leased it to the short-lived St James'Theological College. Mary's brothers, James and William Macarthur also became indebted and the Bank of Australia took possession of it (Historic Houses Trust, 1990).

Bowman died in 1846, leaving a widow and five children. The property was bought by James and William Macarthur, who sold it to the Church of England (ibid, 2019).

In 1852 the bank sold the property to the Roman Catholic Church for the establishment of St Mary's College, the most important Roman Catholic School in Sydney. St James was Australia's first theological college and produced several distinguished native born clerics. The success of it's classical department gave Bishop Broughton, Australia's first Anglican Bishop, hope that it would play a part in the emerging university movement. However, its churchmanship was considered too high and this involved a major crisis which let to it's demise. St Mary's shared a similar fate. It taught secular pupils while the English Benedictine community which provided the teaching staff formed a regular order. It had a reputation for its elaborate classical curriculum and high scholarly standards. The school began to decline in the late 1860s when competition from the country catholic schools, the irish dislike of English Benedictinism and criticism for its high fees weakened its popularity. (Historic Houses Trust 1984: 4).

c1850s estate plans show the servants' wings off the back of the house and the well in its courtyard. There were then extensive grounds down to Blackwattle Bay, stables and other outbuildings. Further outbuildings were constructed after this, and can be seen on later maps. A part of one later outbuilding survives, fronting 15 Lyndhurst Street. It can be seen in the subdivision plan of 1878 (caption, The Glebe Society, exhibition, 'Villas of Glebe and Forest Lodge, c.1870', 7/2019).

St Mary's Benedictine College closed in 1877 (Richards, 1982, 45). In 1878 and 1885 the estate was sold, subdivided and terraced houses went up. The service wings behind the house came off, the stables demolished and the grounds built upon. Morris Asher, M.P., a businessman, bought the house in 1878. For some time after this the building was run as a lying-in (maternity) hospital.

In 1890 Morris had the verandahs and porch demolished, the main staircase taked down and the interior divided into a series of small rooms and passages. Stairs were provided for each house. The houses were not successful and the interior was returned to that of one house, adding to the already confused state of the altered interior. (Historic Houses Trust 1990)

During the period 1890-1905 one of the terraces became Lyndhurst Private School run by Miss Agnes Watt. (Historic Houses Trust 1994)

Lyndhurst was purchased in 1925 by Aubrey Bartlett who owned it until its resumption for the freeway in 1972. By this time the building had long ceased to be a residence and had been given over to factory use. Buildings had been constructed against its walls and it served as a broom factory, soap factory, ice cream shop and joinery factory among others (Historic Houses Trust, 1990) and pickle factory and warehouse for leather goods.

In 1972 Lyndhurst was purchased by the NSW Department of Main Roads for demolition, to make way for a freeway (Richards, 1982, 45). (Richards, 1982, 45). Public support prompted by the Save Lyndhurst Committee for the rescue of a Verge masterpiece and a change of government led to the abandonment of the proposal and the subsequent restoration of the house by Clive Lucas, Stapleton and partners between 1979 and 1988 (Historic Houses Trust: 1994).

Following a long public campaign by bodies (including the Glebe Society and the Builders and Labourers' Federation) and a change of state government, the proposal was abandoned (ibid, 2019). The state government reversed its decision and began restoration of the architecturally and historically important house (Richards, 1982, 45).

The first brief came from the Heritage Council in 1979 to see if the wreck could be saved. The Heritage Council Restoration Steering Committee inspected Lyndhurst on 26/10/1981 and the consultant project architect, Clive Lucas was asked to prepare estimates on the cost of replacement of the stairs, porch base, chimney pieces, exterior terraces and provision of a modern kitchen and toilet facilities. It was decidced to approach the Department of Main Roads regarding possible acquisition of adjoining properties to ensure an adequate curtilage for Lyndhurst. Housing and exhibition at Lyndhurst of architectural records, particularly drawings, was considered as well as transfer of the John Verge-designed building to the Historic Houses Trust of NSW as its main office and a resource centre on historic interiors (HC, 1982).

Finance was allocated for necessary structural repairs, a temporary roof and caretakers accomodation. This halted decay and allowed for proper assessment. Initial recommendations, including restoration of the hall, dining, drawing room and library, were achieved by 1981, allowing the public to appreciate the house.

In 1983 the building was transferred to the Historic Houses Trust of NSW to complete the project to provide them with a headquarters. Attention was first paid to the interiors. The last phase of the restoration was the reconstruction of the garden. This work was finished in May 1988 (Historic Houses Trust 1990).

The weekend of 29-30 October 1988 marked the official opening of Lyndhurst as headquarters of the Historic HOuses Trust of NSW and the Conservation Resources Centre. Members of the public were invited to visit (Australian Garden Journal, 8(1), 10-11/1986, 36).

In 1990 Clive Lucas Stapleton & Partners were awarded the Greenway award by the Royal Australian Institute of Architectsfor Excellence in building restoration. (Historic Houses Trust 1990).

The property was sold before auction in 2005 to Tim Eustace and partner Salvatore Panui for $3.3m who asked Clive Lucas back to do more restoration work, adding a new kitchen and opening the property to the public occasionally. The property is back on the market in 2016 following Eustace and Panui's purchase of (also NSW State Heritaeg Register-listed) Iona, in Darlinghurst from film makers Baz Luhrmann and Catherine Martin (Macken, 2-3/4/16).

Historic themes

Australian theme (abbrev)New South Wales themeLocal theme
1. Environment-Tracing the evolution of a continent's special environments Environment - naturally evolved-Activities associated with the physical surroundings that support human life and influence or shape human cultures. Parramatta River-
1. Environment-Tracing the evolution of a continent's special environments Environment - naturally evolved-Activities associated with the physical surroundings that support human life and influence or shape human cultures. Topography: How did the environment, topography and the River influence early settlement? Is there a strong relationship-Peopling the Continent Contact
1. Environment-Tracing the evolution of a continent's special environments Environment - naturally evolved-Activities associated with the physical surroundings that support human life and influence or shape human cultures. Changing the environment-
1. Environment-Tracing the evolution of a continent's special environments Environment - naturally evolved-Activities associated with the physical surroundings that support human life and influence or shape human cultures. Cultural - Coasts and coastal features supporting human activities-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Environment - cultural landscape-Activities associated with the interactions between humans, human societies and the shaping of their physical surroundings Landscapes and gardens of domestic accommodation-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Environment - cultural landscape-Activities associated with the interactions between humans, human societies and the shaping of their physical surroundings Landscapes demonstrating styles in landscape design-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Health-Activities associated with preparing and providing medical assistance and/or promoting or maintaining the well being of humans (none)-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Industry-Activities associated with the manufacture, production and distribution of goods (none)-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Accommodation-Activities associated with the provision of accommodation, and particular types of accommodation – does not include architectural styles – use the theme of Creative Endeavour for such activities. (none)-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Accommodation-Activities associated with the provision of accommodation, and particular types of accommodation – does not include architectural styles – use the theme of Creative Endeavour for such activities. Gentlemens Mansions-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Accommodation-Activities associated with the provision of accommodation, and particular types of accommodation – does not include architectural styles – use the theme of Creative Endeavour for such activities. Housing ordinary families-
6. Educating-Educating Education-Activities associated with teaching and learning by children and adults, formally and informally. Private education-
6. Educating-Educating Education-Activities associated with teaching and learning by children and adults, formally and informally. apdated villa/ cottage for a school-
6. Educating-Educating Education-Activities associated with teaching and learning by children and adults, formally and informally. Theological college-
6. Educating-Educating Education-Activities associated with teaching and learning by children and adults, formally and informally. Private (religious) schooling-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Creative endeavour-Activities associated with the production and performance of literary, artistic, architectural and other imaginative, interpretive or inventive works; and/or associated with the production and expression of cultural phenomena; and/or environments that have inspired such creative activities. Architectural styles and periods - colonial Georgian-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Domestic life-Activities associated with creating, maintaining, living in and working around houses and institutions. Living in, adapting and renovating homes for changing conditions-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Religion-Activities associated with particular systems of faith and worship Practising Anglicanism-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Religion-Activities associated with particular systems of faith and worship Practising Catholicism-
9. Phases of Life-Marking the phases of life Persons-Activities of, and associations with, identifiable individuals, families and communal groups Associations with John Verge, architect-
9. Phases of Life-Marking the phases of life Persons-Activities of, and associations with, identifiable individuals, families and communal groups Associations with Dr James Bowman, principal colonial surgeon-
9. Phases of Life-Marking the phases of life Persons-Activities of, and associations with, identifiable individuals, families and communal groups Associations with the National Trust of Australia (NSW)-
9. Phases of Life-Marking the phases of life Persons-Activities of, and associations with, identifiable individuals, families and communal groups Associations with Thomas Shepherd, colonial nurseryman and landscape gardener,-
9. Phases of Life-Marking the phases of life Persons-Activities of, and associations with, identifiable individuals, families and communal groups Associations with Francis Newman, gardener and Superintendent of Hobart Botanic Gardens.-

Assessment of significance

SHR Criteria a)
[Historical significance]
Lyndhurst possesses specific historical association with Anglican and Roman Catholic education and churchmanship in NSW. It housed St James, Australia's first Anglican Theollogical College (1847-49). The closure of St Mary's College coincided with the death of John Bede Polding, the first Roman Archbishop of Sydney. The operation of this college reflected the first phase in the history of the Roman Catholic church in Sydney, in which the English Benedictines were pre-eminent.

Subdivisions of the Lyndhurst Estate in 1852, 1878 and 1885 allowed suburban development of this area of Glebe. The 1880 subdivision of the house into three terrace houses, and subsequent uses, including dwellings, girls school, maternity hospital and industrial uses represent the demographic changes in Glebe from middle class to working class housing.

Lyndhurst possesses specific social history significance through its commissioning, and initial occupancy by James Bowman, a member of the Macarthur family through his marriage to Mary Macarthur. The family connection provides links between Lyndhurst and other work by Verge for the Macarthurs - Camden Park; Elizabeth Farm; The Vineyard, Parramatta and Ravensworth, Hunter Valley.

The conservation and restoration of Lyndhurst 1979-1988 coincides with a period of gentrification of the suburb of Glebe.
(Historic Houses Trust 1994)
SHR Criteria c)
[Aesthetic significance]
Lyndhurst, built 1834-37, incorporates elements of a repertoire or restrained Greek Revival detailling which Verge acquired working in London before emigrating to Australia. The quality of this detailing places Lyndhurst in the early period of Verge's work, lacking the latter refinements of Elizabeth Bay House.

Lyndhurst is positioned at the western end of a ridge overlooking Blackwattle Bay (now Wentworth Park) and Johnstone's Bay, leading to references to it as a 'marine villa'.(Historic Houses Trust 1994)
SHR Criteria d)
[Social significance]
The 1979-1988 fabric of Lyndhurst reflects changing community attitudes to, and policies and methodologies for, the conservation of heritage buildings.

The public support for the save Lyndhurst Committee probably reflected concern over the future quality of Glebe.
(Historic Houses Trust 1994)
SHR Criteria g)
[Representativeness]
Lyndhurst is representative of a series of villas and rural residences commissioned by prominent NSW families in the prosperous, optimistic 1830s, their positioning, gardens and estate curtilages. It is also representative of the fate of many of these hou
Assessment criteria: Items are assessed against the PDF State Heritage Register (SHR) Criteria to determine the level of significance. Refer to the Listings below for the level of statutory protection.

Recommended management:

Work undertaken should aim to preserve key examples, if not all 1979-88 restoration work, all intervention to be recorded, minimal & reversible, a visual curtilage policy maintained & use MUST fit with residential area. (Historic Houses Trust 1994)

Recommendations

Management CategoryDescriptionDate Updated
Recommended ManagementReview a Conservation Management Plan (CMP) 
Recommended ManagementPrepare a maintenance schedule or guidelines 
Recommended ManagementCarry out interpretation, promotion and/or education 

Procedures /Exemptions

Section of actDescriptionTitleCommentsAction date
57(2)Exemption to allow workHeritage Act Record converted from HIS events Feb 27 1998
21(1)(b)Conservation Plan submitted for commentLyndhurst - Information about its Conservation Maintenance, prepared by HHT for HHT dated January 2005 HHT has prepared a document titled 'Lyndhurst - Information about its Conservation Maintenance', with assistant from Heritage Office, for prospective buyers, 28 February 2005. Feb 25 2005
57(2)Exemption to allow workHeritage Act HERITAGE ACT 1977

ORDER UNDER SECTION 57(2)

I, the Minister for Planning, on the recommendation of the Heritage Council of New South Wales, in pursuance of section 57(2) of the Heritage Act, 1977, do, by this my order:
(1)revoke the existing exemptions made to the Historic Houses Trust under section 57(2) of the Heritage Act; and
(2)under section 57(2) of the Heritage Act grant an exemption from all section 57(1) activities to properties owned or managed by the Historic Houses Trust and listed on the State Heritage Register as outlined in Schedule A with the following conditions:
(a) that the Historic Houses Trust provide an annual report to the Heritage Council on future works proposed for its properties;
(b) that the Historic Houses Trust advise the Heritage Office archaeologists of any proposed works requiring major excavation at its properties to allow due consideration of the need for additional archaeological work;
(c) that the Director of the Historic Houses Trust must lodge all archaeological monitoring or excavation reports prepared with the Heritage Office library on completion after review by Heritage Office archaeologists;
(d) that the Historic Houses Trust employ as required a consultant historical archaeologist with appropriate archaeological qualifications, knowledge, skills and experience and the Director of the HHT must obtain the advice of that person about the heritage significance of the archaeological resource and/or the impact of the development proposal on the heritage significance of the archaeological resource, and take that advice into account;
(e) that the Director of the Historic Houses Trust must take into account as far as practicable the cumulative effect of approvals on the heritage significance of the item and on the heritage resource of its area;
(f) that the Director of the Historic Houses Trust must ensure that approvals are in accordance with any requirements, guidelines, regulations and general conditions issued by the Heritage Council. The Director of the Historic Houses Trust may impose additional conditions which do not conflict with any Heritage Council conditions.

The Hon Frank Sartor MP
Minister for Planning
Minister for Redfern Waterloo
Minister for the Arts

11 April 2008

SCHEDULE A

Item State Heritage Register Listing Number

1. Elizabeth Farm 00001
2. Rouse Hill House 00002
3. Elizabeth Bay House 00006
4. Glenfield Farm, Casula 00025
5. Hyde Park Barracks and The Mint 00190
6. Exeter Farm (Meurant's Cottage) 00205
7. The Rose Seidler House 00261
8. Wentworth Mausoleum 00622
9. Justice and Police Museum 00673
10. Meroogal, Nowra 00953
11. Vaucluse House 00955
12. Government House, Sydney 01070
13. First Government House Site (Museum of Sydney) 01309
14. Susannah Place 01310
Apr 24 2008
57(2)Exemption to allow workStandard Exemptions SCHEDULE OF STANDARD EXEMPTIONS
HERITAGE ACT 1977
Notice of Order Under Section 57 (2) of the Heritage Act 1977

I, the Minister for Planning, pursuant to subsection 57(2) of the Heritage Act 1977, on the recommendation of the Heritage Council of New South Wales, do by this Order:

1. revoke the Schedule of Exemptions to subsection 57(1) of the Heritage Act made under subsection 57(2) and published in the Government Gazette on 22 February 2008; and

2. grant standard exemptions from subsection 57(1) of the Heritage Act 1977, described in the Schedule attached.

FRANK SARTOR
Minister for Planning
Sydney, 11 July 2008

To view the schedule click on the Standard Exemptions for Works Requiring Heritage Council Approval link below.
Sep 5 2008

PDF Standard exemptions for works requiring Heritage Council approval

Listings

Heritage ListingListing TitleListing NumberGazette DateGazette NumberGazette Page
Heritage Act - State Heritage Register 0015802 Apr 99 271546
Heritage Act - Permanent Conservation Order - former 0015826 Mar 82 461335
Heritage Act - s.170 NSW State agency heritage register     
Local Environmental Plan  15 Jun 84   
National Trust of Australia register      
Register of the National Estate  21 Mar 78   

References, internet links & images

TypeAuthorYearTitleInternet Links
TourismAttraction Homepage2007Preservation Heritage Walk View detail
WrittenAustralian Garden Journal (Tim & Keva North)1986'Official Opening of "Lyndhurst" ' in Australian Garden Journal 8(1), 10-11/1986
WrittenClive Lucas, Stapleton & Partners Pty. Ltd.1991Lyndhurst, Glebe : record of restoration works in two volumes View detail
WrittenCollingwood, Lyn; Crawshaw, Peter; and Hannan, Robert2019Villas - Glebe and Forest Lodge - pre-1870
TourismCrittenden, Victor1992A Shrub in the Landscape of Time - Thomas Shepherd, Australian Landscape Gardener and Nurseryman View detail
WrittenHeritage Council of NSW1982Annual Report 1982
WrittenLong, Elisha1986Lyndhurst, Glebe : landscape survey and report View detail
WrittenMacken, Lucy2016'Just what the Doctor ordered', in Title Deeds, in Domain
WrittenReymond, Michel1981Lyndhurst, 59-63 Darghan Street View detail
WrittenRichards, Bill1982The National Trust in New South Wales
WrittenSheridan, Gwenda2011Insights into Tasmania's cultural landscape: the conifer connection
WrittenTemple, Helen and Newell, Lisa, in association with Young, Greg1984Lyndhurst, Glebe : an archaeological investigation View detail
WrittenYoung, Gregory1988Lyndhurst: historical report, recommendations for interpretation, recommendations for action View detail

Note: internet links may be to web pages, documents or images.

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(Click on thumbnail for full size image and image details)

Data source

The information for this entry comes from the following source:
Name: Heritage Office
Database number: 5045300
File number: S90/05958/4


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