Culwalla Homestead | NSW Environment & Heritage

Culture and heritage

Heritage

Culwalla Homestead

Item details

Name of item: Culwalla Homestead
Type of item: Built
Group/Collection: Residential buildings (private)
Category: Homestead building
Location: Lat: -34.6586091604 Long: 150.8010532440
Primary address: 541 (2km east of Jamberoo) Jamberoo Road, Jamberoo, NSW 2533
Parish: Kiama
County: Camden
Local govt. area: Kiama
Local Aboriginal Land Council: Illawarra
Property description
Lot/Volume CodeLot/Volume NumberSection NumberPlan/Folio CodePlan/Folio Number
PART LOT173 DP804643
All addresses
Street AddressSuburb/townLGAParishCountyType
541 (2km east of Jamberoo) Jamberoo RoadJamberooKiamaKiamaCamdenPrimary Address

Owner/s

Organisation NameOwner CategoryDate Ownership Updated
 Private 

Statement of significance:

Culwalla is of State significance as a substantial and largely intact Georgian farmhouse which is one of the earliest remaining dwellings in the Kiama area. It is associated with its first owner and early settler James marks and his family and the Spinks family for most of the 20th century period. It is a notable example of traditional vernacular construction techniques displaying fine craftsmanship and the use of local materials such as freestone, native red cedar and hardwood. It occupies a magnificent site above the Jamberoo Valley and is a prominent landmark in the district.
Date significance updated: 29 May 06
Note: The State Heritage Inventory provides information about heritage items listed by local and State government agencies. The State Heritage Inventory is continually being updated by local and State agencies as new information becomes available. Read the OEH copyright and disclaimer.

Description

Builder/Maker: James Marks
Construction years: 1858-1858
Physical description: Property:
The main components of the property are c1858 homestead, the worker's cottage and dairy c1860s, a group of outbuildings and the cultivated landscape (Design 5, 2013, 4).

The 39ha property is 265m wide at the southern boundary, by 1131m long, oriented slightly north-east. It rises from Jamberoo Road above Terragong Swamp up to an elevation of c.100m above sea level, where the homestead and outbuildings are located, 0.5km into the site (ibid, 2013, 9).

Siting and external surrounds:
Culwalla property rises southwards from Jamberoo Road, built by convicts in 1839 to open up the cedar forests and potential farming land around Kiama (ibid, 2013, 10).

Culwalla occupies a magnificent site above Jamberoo Valley and is a prominent landmark in the district (NTA, 1978).
The homestead faces north-east, on the brow of a relatively high spur approximately 100m above sea level, with views across the Terragong Swamp to the Tasman Sea beyond (ibid, 2013, 4). It is surrounded by the Terragong swamp flood plains to the north and hilly agricultural land to east and west. It has distant views of the ocean to the northerast and the hills and escarpment rising to the south (ibid, 2013, 9).

Paddocks lie both north of the homestead group, to its east and south, broken by a large area of remnant indigenous vegetation north of the homestead group, and two large areas of remnant indigenous vegetation in the land's south, with other smaller areas of vegetation between them in groves. Two farm dams are both north-east and south of the homestead group (ibid, 2013, figure 2.3, 20).

Entrance Drive:
A winding curved drive 0.5km long from Jamberoo Road, following the western boundary in a meandering fashion, lined with coral trees (Erythrina sp., likely E. x sykesi), through outlying paddocks, a dam and area of remnant indigenous vegetation (ibid, 2018, 11). The rendered posts and cattle grid marking the entrance occur just past (west of) the cottage built in 1954 for Judith Honey and her husband on 2r of land subdivided from the main Culwalla property and facing Jamberoo Road. The homestead is screened from the driveway approach by a hedge and mature plantings. Access to it and the workers' cottage is from the rear, via a driveway loop (ibid, 2013, 22).

Garden:
Craig Burton cites emergent (rainforest) tree species, small-leaved fig (Ficus obliqua) and Moreton Bay fig (F.macrophylla) at Culwalla, now isolated from their former ecological context, as remnant native trees pre-dating European settlement. He notes a regional tradition of conserving remnant fig trees and (of cultural) plantings of Araucaria pines (ibid, 2013, 79).

Culwalla and its prominent marker trees (two tall Norfolk Island pines (Araucaria heterophylla) and two large Moreton Bay figs (Ficus macrophylla), among others (Stuart Read, pers.comm., 28/9/2018) planted in (perhaps, more correctly, surviving from before) the 19th century can be seen from far and wide. From the north, it can be glimpsed along Swamp Road, Jerrara Road and Jamberoo Road. From the west, it can be glimpsed from Minnamurra homestead north of Jamberoo, but the hills rising to Saddleback Mountain's range cut off views along the Jamberoo Road. The landscape that Culwalla surveys is essentially unchanged from the pattern of farming lands established in the late 19th century (ibid, 2018, 10).

To the north of the homestead are the remains of an extensive garden now confined to some mature trees and shrubs. To the south, west and east there are grassed areas with a detached timber garage and laundry at some distance to the south, a thicket of shrubs forming a screen to the east and the remains of rainwater tanks and their supports close to the ground at the corners of the main building.

Extant plantings from the Federation period (1890-1919) are the evergreen magnolia or bull bay (M.grandiflora) to the north and centrally located relative to the homestead's facade, and mature Camellia japonica cv. shrubs (ibid, 2013, 80).

Extant plantings from the Modern period (1940-62) are Cape honeysuckle (Tecomaria capensis) and a remnant olive tree (Olea europaea) which once formed a row plantation between homestead and the former drive. ALong the drive to the main road coral trees (Erythrina x sykesii) were planted post-1949. PHotographs suggest these were planted in the early 1960s when Culwalla was run as a dairy farm. Also from this period are a row of camphor laurels (Cinnamommum camphora), which describe the western edge of a paddock adjacent to the Old Dairy building (ibid, 2013, 80).

A garden area was defined by a painted timber picket fence running at an angle from the north-eastern corner of the homestead verandah to the north-east to contain the existing evergreen magnolia tree and other shrubs - this is evident in photographs from the 1980s. Tree planting along the eastern fenced boundary of the homestead garden was also removed at the end of this period (ibid, 2013, 80).

A small orchard planting of citrus trees is on the driveway loop west of the worker's cottage (ibid, 2013, 22).

Extension of the Cape honeysuckle hedges in the homestead garden may date to the de la Vega period (pre-1991). Much of the existing plantings, garden beds and work to buildings in their current configuration date to the Glens' ownership from May 1991 onwards. The greatest spatial and visual change was inclusion of western hedgeing of hybrid Leyland cypress (x Cuprocyparis leylandii 'Leighton's Green') and the row planting of Casuarina sp. trees and eucalypts along paddock fence boundaries. The greatest density of new tree and shrub planting has occurred west of the homestead and in the space defined within hedges to the west and south. The range of species is consistent with fashionable plants used throughout Australia in the last two decades of the 20th century. In the padddock to the east a plantation of NSW Christmas bushes (Ceratopetalum gummiferum) has been made with its southern edge planted with a hedge of hybrid Leyland cypresses to provide wind protection. The immediate garden setting of the homestead appears to be of an arbitrary source and not based on historical reconstruction (ibid, 2013, 80).

Building complex:
This comprises:
- the c1858 homestead; and, to its south, respectively further away:
- a laundry c1920s/30s and adjoining garage, c1920s/30s;
- a worker's /manager's cottage / mens' quarters, c.1860s;
- a dairy c1860s and office, c1890s;
- a smaller shed, c1980s?;
- a larger shed (c2000s) with site to its west of a demolished dairy (late 1850s/60s); and
- a detached W.C., c1980s east of the house (ibid, 2013, figure 1.5, p.6).

Homestead (c1858):
Walls of basalt rubble stuccoed on the outside and plastered within. Joinery of polished (red) cedar. Single storied house, symmetrical in design with front and rear timber verandahs and attached kitchen wing at one side (Latona Masterman, 1987, 53).

A fine late Georgian house, relatively intact (NTA, 1978). The building is of vernacular colonial Georgian design, the detailing suggesting the middle Victorian period. Walls are of local freestock basalt rubble construction, stuccoed externally and marked out to represent ashlar work and plastered and set internally. Most joinery is of a fine quality and of polished native cedar while the hipped roof retains its original split shingling under later corrugated iron sheeting. A detailed schedule of finishes is included in the appendices. There are some minor brick additions to the old kitchen wing while all chimneys are of sandstock brickwork.

The single storey house is symmetrical with front and rear timber verandahs and an attached kitchen wing at one side. The broken hipped roof retains its timber shingles under corrugated iron while flooring is of wide pine boards, the ceiling painted boarding with plaster cornice (ibid, 1978).

Internally the house is in excellent condition while externally it is generally good apart from some verandah flooring and a corner damaged by earth temors. Bought late in the 19th century by the Spinks family, its name was given to Culwalla Chambers, Sydney's first `skyscraper' built in 1912. Architectural Style: Late Georgian. Building Material: Rubble (ibid, 1978).

A symmetrical layout of the main wing provides for three rooms either side of a central corridor, a front timber verandah to three sides and a rear concrete floored verandah terminated at teach end by box rooms, one being larger than the other. To the rear on the West side is the attached Kitchen wing having its own hipped roof and verandah now enclosed into a room and corridor, presumably being a later Pantry annex. The building is of one storey only.

The timber verandah has tapered posts, simple classical inspired capitals and scalloped timber valances. The front verandah is reached by a flight of rendered masonry steps having the remains of cast iron bootscrapers on either side. The front and return facades appear to retain their original colour schemes of ochre coloured walls and Venetian red joinery.

The main front rooms have french windows at the sides surmounted by cedar ogee pattern panels above. All reveals of doorways are panelled to correspond with the panelling of the doors. The front door, D1, is 5 panelled, the upper panels now glazed. It appears to be an Edwardian period replacement. Internal doors are 4 panelled with panels at matching levels in the reveals. The doors to the rear verandah are 6 panelled flush beaded type.

Windows are generally 12 pane double hung type but panelled inside to the floor. There are french doors to the side verandahs which have wide architraves reaching to the picture rail line the space below to the head being infilled by a cedar board of ogee pattern. All windows have cedar splayed reveals and most are of the colonial twelve paned pattern. Windows to the two front rooms have cedar panels extending twelve paned pattern. Windows to the two front rooms have cedar panels extending from the sill to the floor.

All chimney pieces are cedar fluted with roundels except one which is white marble. Three chimney pieces have roundels at the corners and fluting with wide simple mantle shelf. The largest front room has a white marble chimney piece with classical console brackets. All fireplaces have elegant cast iron inserts and grates.

All cedar to the main rooms is polished including skirtings and architraves.

Outbuildings:
A complex of outbuildings lie east and mostly south-east and south of the homesetad. This comprises, respectively further away:
1. a laundry c1920s/30s and adjoining garage, c1920s/30s;

2. a worker's /manager's cottage / mens' quarters, c.1860s - T-shaped,, with corrugated iron gabled roof, front verandah and rear lean-to enclosure. Walls clad in corrugated iron with evidence of early iron brands on facades, indicating construction c.1860s shortly after the homestead (ibid, 2013, 33);

3. a dairy c1860s and office, c1890s.
The dairy c.1860 is a simple linear structure with corrugated iron cladding on both gabled roof and walls. It consists of a milking shed at the west end with bails and a series of rooms at the eastern end, serving during the Spinks occupancy as motor room, containing the motor to drive the milking machines, as well as a milk vat area (now disused except for the dairy / office, built on higher ground, with concrete strip footings, at at 90 degree angle to the main dairy, which appears to have been built later (c1890s), roofed with corrugated steel of a recent variety (ibid, 2013, 33).

4. a smaller shed, c1980s?;
5. a larger shed (c2000s) with site to its west of a demolished dairy / feedstall (late 1850s/60s); and
6. a detached W.C., c1980s east of the house (ibid, 2013, figure 1.5, p.6).
Modifications and dates: These appear confined to the receiling of the rear rooms, verandahs and part enclosure of verandahs. The south east box room has been converted into a bathroom dating from about c1960. There is evidence to suggest that the box rooms, kitchen wing and verandah at the rear have been partly or completely rebuilt at a time about c1900 or later.
Current use: Country residence
Former use: Aboriginal land, farm, dairy farm

History

Historical notes: Culwalla farm and Jamberoo lie in the territory of the Dharawal Aboriginal people. The indigenous environment is of volcanic basaltic (lava) flows over undulating topography of hills, valley floors, creeks and wetlands supporting the southern extremity (i.e. of distribution range) of Subtropical Rainforests and the northern extent (of range) of Southern Warm Temperate Rainforests (Design 5, 2013, 79).

British colonialisation of Eastern Australia is marked by the search for natural resources, such as arable soils, high rainfall and valuable native timber, such as the red cedar (Toona ciliata). The cedar cutters penetrated the rainforests from the coast and pathways were cut and formed to initiate access roads and the clearing of the forests. Clearing enabled grazing and settlement in the 1820s particularly within the Jamberoo Valley. Jamberoo is thought to mean 'track' or 'meeting place'. The early track from Kiama to Jamberoo traversed the lower slopes of the then-larger Culwalla property and may have been built upon the site (route) of an earlier Aboriginal trail. In this period, conflict with the colonisers, environmental change and land grants resulted in the displacement of Aboriginal communities (ibid, 2013, 79)

Malcolm Campbell made selection of 500 acres in 1831 and began cultivation, but sold half of his land to James Marks (ibid, 2013, 79).

Campbell made a selection of 500 acres in the County of Camden in 1831 (here), received a promise of a grant from Governor Darling, went to Kiama, and began cultivation of 20 acres. He returned after 6 months, sold half of his land to James Marks in exchange for provisions. Campbell conveyed 250 acres of his Illawarra land to James Marks in August 1831 (ibid, 2013, 46-7). Campbell had built a brick cottage and placed a Mr. Black in charge and went to live in Sydney where he died in 1837 (NTA, 1976). Before he died he offered to sell the remainder of his Illawarra land to James Marks, who offered Campbell a position as overseer and a life interest in 20 acres he had begun to cultivate in 1831. When Campbell died in 1832, Marks paid his funeral expenses. By July 1833 Marks was owner of two allotments at Millers Point, including a windmill (ibid, 2013, 47). There were two claimants for Campbell's estate, James Marks and Ewen Campbell, and finally the 500 acres were divided between the two (Terragong House - history - NTA, 1976). Terragong House stands on land granted to Malcolm Campbell, an overseer of convicts at Coolangatta (Illawarra) in 1830 (NTA, 1976).

James Marks migrated from Ireland with his wife and son, John in 1828 to Sydney via Hobart and Cape Town. He was a baker on George Street, Sdyney from 1828-31. James and Elizabeth had six children born in NSW (Design 5, 2013, 46). The land on which the homestead of Culwalla stands was held by the family of James Marks from 1831 (ibid, 2013, 3).

The relationship between Culwalla and adjoining property to its east, Terragong, is an important one historically and physically. Both were built within a year of each other by the Marks family and both were occupied initially by sons of James Marks (John, and James Jr.). Both are easily viewed from each other, and at certain points along Swamp Road, Jamberoo Road and Jerrara Road, both line up visually as prominent built elements in the pastoral landscape (ibid, 2013, 19).

The homestead at Culwalla was constructed in 1858 (tenders for it were called for it in 1858)(Terragong House - history - NTA, 1976)) by James Marks, whose brother built nearby Terragong House at the same time. One of the earliest remaining buildings in the Kiama district. James and his brother were sons of an early settler of the district, James Marks, who built Kiama's second inn, the Steam Packet in 1842. Both were sons of James Marks who had licence for the Steam Packet in 1842. Both married daughters of William Moffitt, a Pitt Street bookseller and stationer (NTA, 1978).

James Marks of Sydney in June 1835 purchased 50 acres of land, allotment no.1 at Kiama, at auction for 30 pounds (advertised in December 1834 as Lot 5. The area was immediately east of land purchased from Campbell and bounded to the north by a large swamp (ibid, 2013, 47).

In 1835 local farmers complained about losses from Aboriginal inhabitants stealing corn and pigs. In 1836 Robert Fox, overseer to James Marks at Kiama, was murdered. There was a reference then to a residence and store at Marks' farm (Sydney Gazette, 17/5/1836, 3, quoted in ibid, 2013, 48).

c1838 James Marks and his family moved to Kiama. Daughter Ann Marks was born in 1839 at Kiama. An 1839 survey of the line of road south of the Minumurra Rivulet to Kiama harbour showed cultivation and buildings close to the edge of the swamp on two lots then owned by James Marks (west of Jerrara Creek). A large fig tree stood there in those days, which formed a camping ground for (cattle) teamsters. This was called by the Aborigines 'Culwalla' (ibid, 2013, 48).

Thomas Walker in November 1839 sold 50 acres at Illawarra to James Marks for 250 pounds. This was immediately east of Marks' earlier purchase of 1835. In 1840 Marks bought allotment 4 section 16 at Kiama. In March 1841 Marks was householder (in the census) at Fig Tree, Jamberoo, Illawarra. His dwelling house was recorded as being of wood, with ten persons in it - with occupations: one landed proprietor, 2 mechanics/artificers, 2 engaged in agriculture (ibid, 2013, 48-9).

In July 1841 the parish road through 'the long brush' (rainforest) from Jamberoo to Kiama was opened. This road was funded by private subscription and work to create it was by convict labor. From 1842-7 James Marks was the licensee of the (first inn in Kiama) Steam Boat Hotel (later the Steam Packet). In November 1842 Malcolm Campbell's 500 acres near Kiama was proposed for subdivision - one moiety of which was granted to James Marks. A note on the surveyor-general's letter 39/581 recorded that the area for Marks was 257 acres. The Surveyor-General agreed on calling it 250 acres to avoid a dispute. A grant of 250 acres in County Camden to Marks was made on 28/3/1843. In October 1843 Marks morgaged 2r of allotment 4 section 16 at Kiama to Henry Fisher for 228 pounds 5 shillings including a brick public house, the 'Steam Packet', a granary and a store (ibid, 2013, 54).

By 1844 after claims from Campbell's (Scottish) descendents, land previously to be granted to Malcolm Campbell was now owned by James Marks, and known by the name of 'Fig Tree Farm' (ibid, 2013, 54).

James Marks won prizes at the February 1851 Kiama Agricultural Show for the best two cabbages and best two bottles of mead. In August that year a letter from son John Marks of Terragong to John Waugh regretted he could not give trial to cultivating cotton, the gold mania having taken away all his servants (ibid, 2018, 55).

In April 1855 John Marks, farmer purchased 41.5 acres of land south of his 50 acres (Walker's grant, purchased by James Marks Sr. in 1839) from Micharl Carbury for 40 pounds. The land was boudned on the east by Jerrara Creek and west by the other 50 acres now owned by John (also formerly his father's land). There is a possibility that Culwalla homestead was built before 1858 (i.e. 1853-8) to provide a home for James and Elizabeth, Samuel and James Marks Jr. In 1858 the building of Culwalla homestead was said by the Marks family to have been 'within a year of building Terragong', which was in 1858 (ibid, 2013, 55-6).

By mid 1862 after various landowners with properties around Terragong Swamp had applied to select land adjacent to their farms, under the 1861 Crown Land Alienation Act (including John Marks), James Marks (the elder), gentleman of Kiama, conveyed 250 acres to James Marks Jr., aged 27, farmer, subject to payment of annuity of 150 pounds payable half-yearly, to James Sr. and wife Elizabeth, for their lifetimes. Elizabeth died in October 1863. That year James Sr. returned to live at Culwalla with his son James and family (3 children). James Sr. died in November 1870 at Culwalla (ibid, 2013, 57).

James Jr. and John Marks left Culwalla to live in Sydney in 1876. The occupants of Culwalla from 1876-c1905 are not known. The property was possibly worked by Samuel Marks in conjunction with adjoining Terragong. It was later leased to Samuel Marks' son Ernest, farmer (he is listed as 'farmer, Jamberoo' in Sands directories of 1881-2; 1884-5 and in 1885 was the only member of the family listed in the NSW Dpt. of Mines (Stock & Brands Branch) report for the year 1884 with a holding at Jamberoo (143 acres, 10 horses, 100 cattle, 80 pigs. Culwalla is not listed). The NSW electoral rolls of 1889-90 record Samuel and Ernest Marks as leasholders at Jamberoo and living at Jamberoo; Robert Marks freeholder at Kiama and living at Jamberoo. By 1897 Ernest was shown as lessee of Culwalla (250 acres) and Terragong (100 acres) (ibid, 2013, 58).

An October 1901 Hardie & Gorman sale notice (SMH, 28/9/1901, p.17) of 'highly improved dairy farm property' of James Marks Esq. known as Culwalla, 244 acres of land fronting the main south-coast road, cleared and under grasses, enclosed by hardwood fences and subdivided into paddocks. Stone-built residence..., large dining and drawing room, 6 bedrooms, kitchen, patnry etc, mens' quarters, barn, stables, hayshed, milking bails etc. Also beneficial interest in c46 acres at Terragong Common, Lots 33, 34, and 36 and the Government subdivision valuable for the production of maize and other crops (ibid, 2013, 59).

In 1902 the first concrete dam int he district for stock watering was completed on James Marks' Culwalla, Jamberoo. James Marks died on 12/1/1907. Culwalla was not mentioned in his will (ibid, 2013, 59).

The Marks family held Culwalla until 1910 when it was sold by the trustees of James Marks Jr's will for 3800 pounds to the Spinks family, who occupied the place until 1986 (ibid, 2013, 3, 60). Henry Spinks was recorded on the NSW electoral rolls of 1908 as of 'Jerrara', as was his son, Arthur Spinks, farmer, and wife, Annie Spinks, Culwalla, Kiama (ibid, 2013, 60).

Henry Spinks died in August 1932, leaving all property to his widow Ann for life and then farm property 'Culwalla' together with all furniture, cattle, plant and other effects to their son Arthur. The residue was left to their daughter Mavis (ibid, 2013, 60-61).

In 1954 a subdivision of 2r off Culwalla's land was made on the Main South Coast Road. From 1954 James Honey and his mother-in-law, Mrs Heather Spinks ran the dairy farm at Culwalla. In 1954 2r. on the Main South Coast Road were sold to James Honey. A house was built for Judith Spinks and James Honey on their marriage. Arthur Spinks died in 1957, leaving his widow (m. 1933), sister Mavis and daughter Judith (b.1934)(ibid, 2013, 63).

In 1968 mains water was laid on to Culwalla farm (ibid, 2013, 63).

In 1985 the owners who were in the process of subdividing and selling Cullwalla nominated it for a Permanent Conservation Order to facilitate restoration and maintenance of the house, which was completed during the late 1980s. A conservation study of the property was made by David Sheedy architects, at the request of owner Mr E Greenwood. In April 1986 the property was subdivided - the homestead on a small curtilage with right-of-way from the main road. On 3 September 1986 this small homestead lot was sold by HEather Spinks and James Honey to Edward Greenwood and his wife Melissa, for $100k. The Greenwoods sold it that same day to Jose de la Vega for $130k (ibid, 2013, 63-4).

In 1986 Culwalla was included in Illawarra Regional Environmental Plan no.1. From 1986-7 substantial repair and restoration works were carried out by David Sheedy architect for Mr de la Vega, with builder Col Dodd. On 3/9/1988 Culwalla farm was marketed for sale, and bought on 18/8/1989 by Delmo P/L (195 acres, 2roods and 5 purchase, excluding the homestead; 1 acre 13 purchase Honey property (cottage at the front); and 2 roods (Frederick's property). The same date James Honey sold his 2r Lot 1 to Sarraman P/L; and Heather Spinks and James Honey sold 49 acres 2 roods 8 purchases to Lemina Ltd. In 1989 a new dwelling was built on Lot 174. In May 1990 land south of the main road was subdivided into lots 172, 173 and 194. Lot 1273, the eastern half of the property, includes the homestead area (Lot 171 of the 1986 subdivision) with existing covenant and right-of-way to the homestead)(ibid, 2018, 64).

In 1990 Lot 174 was sold separately and is no longer part of Culwalla. In 1991 part of former lot 1 was transferred from Delmo P/L and part former lot 171 was transferred from Mr de la Vega to Dr Donald and Colleen Glen of Bellevue Hill. In 1991 changes to the laundry and other works were undertaken by David Sheedy architect for the Glens.

In 1996 Culwalla was included as a heritage item in Kiama LEP. A heritage assessment of it was undertaken by Cowman Stoddart P/L of Nowra for the Glens. In 1995-6 works were undertaken on its outbuildings (ibid, 2013, 65).

On 2 April 1999 Culwalla was transferred to the State Heritage Register.

The current owner purchased the property in 2009 at auction (ibid, 2013, 3, 65).

Historic themes

Australian theme (abbrev)New South Wales themeLocal theme
1. Environment-Tracing the evolution of a continent's special environments Environment - naturally evolved-Activities associated with the physical surroundings that support human life and influence or shape human cultures. Cultural - Coasts and coastal features supporting human activities-
1. Environment-Tracing the evolution of a continent's special environments Environment - naturally evolved-Activities associated with the physical surroundings that support human life and influence or shape human cultures. Changing the environment-
2. Peopling-Peopling the continent Aboriginal cultures and interactions with other cultures-Activities associated with maintaining, developing, experiencing and remembering Aboriginal cultural identities and practices, past and present. Aboriginal Culture-
2. Peopling-Peopling the continent Aboriginal cultures and interactions with other cultures-Activities associated with maintaining, developing, experiencing and remembering Aboriginal cultural identities and practices, past and present. Dharawal Nation - contact sites-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Agriculture-Activities relating to the cultivation and rearing of plant and animal species, usually for commercial purposes, can include aquaculture Private farming-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Agriculture-Activities relating to the cultivation and rearing of plant and animal species, usually for commercial purposes, can include aquaculture Agroforesty-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Agriculture-Activities relating to the cultivation and rearing of plant and animal species, usually for commercial purposes, can include aquaculture Clearing land for farming-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Commerce-Activities relating to buying, selling and exchanging goods and services Innkeeping-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Environment - cultural landscape-Activities associated with the interactions between humans, human societies and the shaping of their physical surroundings Landscapes and gardens of domestic accommodation-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Environment - cultural landscape-Activities associated with the interactions between humans, human societies and the shaping of their physical surroundings Landscapes and countryside of rural charm-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Environment - cultural landscape-Activities associated with the interactions between humans, human societies and the shaping of their physical surroundings Landscapes and parklands of distinctive styles-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Environment - cultural landscape-Activities associated with the interactions between humans, human societies and the shaping of their physical surroundings Creating environments evocative of the 'old country'-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Forestry-Activities associated with identifying and managing land covered in trees for commercial purposes. Timber getting-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Pastoralism-Activities associated with the breeding, raising, processing and distribution of livestock for human use Dairying-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Pastoralism-Activities associated with the breeding, raising, processing and distribution of livestock for human use Agisting and fattening stock for slaughter-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Pastoralism-Activities associated with the breeding, raising, processing and distribution of livestock for human use Modifying landscapes to increase productivity-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Accommodation-Activities associated with the provision of accommodation, and particular types of accommodation – does not include architectural styles – use the theme of Creative Endeavour for such activities. Building settlements, towns and cities-National Theme 4
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Accommodation-Activities associated with the provision of accommodation, and particular types of accommodation – does not include architectural styles – use the theme of Creative Endeavour for such activities. Country Homes-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Accommodation-Activities associated with the provision of accommodation, and particular types of accommodation – does not include architectural styles – use the theme of Creative Endeavour for such activities. Farm homestead-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Land tenure-Activities and processes for identifying forms of ownership and occupancy of land and water, both Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal 1820s-1850s land grants-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Land tenure-Activities and processes for identifying forms of ownership and occupancy of land and water, both Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal 1820s-1850s land grants-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Land tenure-Activities and processes for identifying forms of ownership and occupancy of land and water, both Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Early land grants-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Land tenure-Activities and processes for identifying forms of ownership and occupancy of land and water, both Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Early farming (Cattle grazing)-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Land tenure-Activities and processes for identifying forms of ownership and occupancy of land and water, both Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Closer Settlement-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Land tenure-Activities and processes for identifying forms of ownership and occupancy of land and water, both Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Changing land uses - from rural to tourist-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Land tenure-Activities and processes for identifying forms of ownership and occupancy of land and water, both Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Changing land uses - from rural to tourist-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Land tenure-Activities and processes for identifying forms of ownership and occupancy of land and water, both Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Selecting land for pastoral or agricultural purposes-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Land tenure-Activities and processes for identifying forms of ownership and occupancy of land and water, both Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Selecting land for pastoral or agricultural purposes-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Land tenure-Activities and processes for identifying forms of ownership and occupancy of land and water, both Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Granting Crown lands for private farming-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Land tenure-Activities and processes for identifying forms of ownership and occupancy of land and water, both Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Granting Crown lands for private farming-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Towns, suburbs and villages-Activities associated with creating, planning and managing urban functions, landscapes and lifestyles in towns, suburbs and villages Creating landmark structures and places in regional settings-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Creative endeavour-Activities associated with the production and performance of literary, artistic, architectural and other imaginative, interpretive or inventive works; and/or associated with the production and expression of cultural phenomena; and/or environments that have inspired such creative activities. Landscaping - colonial period-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Creative endeavour-Activities associated with the production and performance of literary, artistic, architectural and other imaginative, interpretive or inventive works; and/or associated with the production and expression of cultural phenomena; and/or environments that have inspired such creative activities. Architectural styles and periods - colonial homestead-
9. Phases of Life-Marking the phases of life Persons-Activities of, and associations with, identifiable individuals, families and communal groups Associations with James Marks-

Recommended management:

Recommendations

Management CategoryDescriptionDate Updated
Recommended ManagementReview a Conservation Management Plan (CMP) 
Recommended ManagementPrepare a maintenance schedule or guidelines 
Recommended ManagementCarry out interpretation, promotion and/or education 

Procedures /Exemptions

Section of actDescriptionTitleCommentsAction date
57(2)Exemption to allow workHeritage Act management , erad of nox animals & plant


Order Under Section 57(2) to exempt the following activities from Section 57(1):
(1) horticultural and agricultural management (other than lopping or chopping of any trees, pruning or clearing of hedges).
(2) eradication of noxious animals and plants;
(3) pasture improvement and stock grazing;
(4) maintenance and repair of existing farm fences;
within those areas of part portion 17 (proposed lot 122) included in the curtilage of the permanent conservation order.
Aug 22 1986
57(2)Exemption to allow workStandard Exemptions SCHEDULE OF STANDARD EXEMPTIONS
HERITAGE ACT 1977
Notice of Order Under Section 57 (2) of the Heritage Act 1977

I, the Minister for Planning, pursuant to subsection 57(2) of the Heritage Act 1977, on the recommendation of the Heritage Council of New South Wales, do by this Order:

1. revoke the Schedule of Exemptions to subsection 57(1) of the Heritage Act made under subsection 57(2) and published in the Government Gazette on 22 February 2008; and

2. grant standard exemptions from subsection 57(1) of the Heritage Act 1977, described in the Schedule attached.

FRANK SARTOR
Minister for Planning
Sydney, 11 July 2008

To view the schedule click on the Standard Exemptions for Works Requiring Heritage Council Approval link below.
Sep 5 2008

PDF Standard exemptions for works requiring Heritage Council approval

Listings

Heritage ListingListing TitleListing NumberGazette DateGazette NumberGazette Page
Heritage Act - State Heritage Register 0044702 Apr 99 271546
Heritage Act - Permanent Conservation Order - former 0044722 Aug 86 1344126
Regional Environmental PlanIllawarra REP No.1 11 Apr 86   
Local Environmental PlanKiama LEP 1996I6219 Jul 96   
National Trust of Australia register NTA (NSW) Country Register314627 Feb 78   

Study details

TitleYearNumberAuthorInspected byGuidelines used
National Trust Country Register 3146National Trust of Austalia (NSW)David Sheedy No
Illawarra Regional Heritage Study Review1993 Perumal Murphy Wu  No
Kiama Heritage Study1987 Latona Masterman  Yes

References, internet links & images

TypeAuthorYearTitleInternet Links
Written 1985Branch Manager's Report No. 429/85 of 25 November 1986
WrittenCowman Stoddart P/L1996Heritage Assessment 'Culwalla' homestead
WrittenDavid Sheedy1985Conservation Study of Culwalla Homestead
WrittenDesign 5 Architects2013Conservation Management Plan - Final Draft

Note: internet links may be to web pages, documents or images.

rez rez rez rez rez
(Click on thumbnail for full size image and image details)

Data source

The information for this entry comes from the following source:
Name: Heritage Office
Database number: 5045317
File number: S90/03299 & HC 33482


Every effort has been made to ensure that information contained in the State Heritage Inventory is correct. If you find any errors or omissions please send your comments to the Database Manager.

All information and pictures on this page are the copyright of the Heritage Division or respective copyright owners.