Wooden Terraces | NSW Environment & Heritage

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Heritage

Wooden Terraces

Item details

Name of item: Wooden Terraces
Other name/s: Now Commercial Buildings
Type of item: Built
Group/Collection: Residential buildings (private)
Category: Terrace
Location: Lat: -34.6686522599 Long: 150.8537263960
Primary address: 42-44 Collins Street, Kiama, NSW 2533
Parish: Kiama
County: Camden
Local govt. area: Kiama
Local Aboriginal Land Council: Illawarra
Property description
Lot/Volume CodeLot/Volume NumberSection NumberPlan/Folio CodePlan/Folio Number
LOT100 DP845518
All addresses
Street AddressSuburb/townLGAParishCountyType
42-44 Collins StreetKiamaKiamaKiamaCamdenPrimary Address

Owner/s

Organisation NameOwner CategoryDate Ownership Updated
 Private30 Mar 99

Description

Construction years: 1870-
Physical description: The buidling is part of a group of former quarry workers' cottages which are an important reminder of the former townscape character of Kiama and its history as a quarrying town. See also precinct card (NTA (NSW), 1984).

Built in the late 1870s to house quarry workers. It is a simple single storey building of similar character to the terrace 24-40 Collins Street, of weatherboard with a gabled iron roof. The brick wall at the south end was introduced late 1970s for fire safety reasons. Windows are small paned and there is a simple verandah continuous with the main roof on timber posts with simple timber brackets. Now has sympathetic commercial uses similar to 24-40 Collins Street. Building Material: Weatherboard, gabled iron roof, small paned windows, timber posts and timber brackets (ibid, 1984).
Current use: residences
Former use: residences

History

Historical notes: District history:
The first recorded reference to the district was by George Bass who anchored his 28ft whale boat in the sheltered bay (now known as Kiama Harbour) in December 1797. Cedar getters were the first to the area, among those was David Smith, who became the first permanent white settler when he built a residence in Kiama in 1832 (Graham, 2016, 6).

District history:
The first recorded reference to the district was by George Bass who anchored his 28ft whale boat in the sheltered bay (now known as Kiama Harbour) in December 1797. Cedar getters were the first to the area, among those was David Smith, who became the first permanent white settler when he built a residence in Kiama in 1832 (Graham, 2016, 6).

District history:
The first recorded reference to the district was by George Bass who anchored his 28ft whaleboat in the sheltered bay (now known as Kiama Harbour) in December 1797.

In the years following 1797 Black Beach provided the main landing place for the first cedar-cutters and settlers. Sailing boats would anchor in the relatively well-protected cove while colonists and supplies would be rowed ashore by open boats. In the ensuing decades Kiama's thriving timber and dairy industries put great strain on the limited cargo and mooring facilities in the cove (Dillon, 1991).

The growth and development of Kiama began with cedar-cutting and was linked to the growth and development of the Colony as a whole. Sea transport became of major importance to the district as vessels under sail and later steam, crowded into the Robertson Basin to load timber, later wheat and dairy produce and eventually basalt for shipment to the Sydney markets (HCNSW, 1986, 8).

The site of Kiama Township was reserved by the Government in 1826 and proclaimed in 1836. The township was first surveyed by Robert Hoddle in 1830 and again by Jacques in 1831, and its streets largely laid out around the c.1825 grant to the first settler and cedar getter, David Smith. Initially the town grew up around the road from the harbour to Jamberoo which travelled up the present-day Manning Street and Bong Bong Street but later a lower track through Pikes Hill (now Terralong Street) was cut. The cutting later became the site of a basalt quarry for which Kiama later became better-known (Graham, 2016, 6).

Cedar getters were the first (settlers) to the area, among those was David Smith, who became the first permanent white settler when he built a residence in Kiama in 1832.

The sheltered cove at Kiama became the principal shipping port for the cut cedar. From the 1820s, six or more coastal trading ships would anchor at any one time awaiting their precious cargoes. The early port was described as a 'tolerable good boat harbour from which nine-tenths of the cedar brought to Sydney is shipped' (Dillon, 1991).

Following the cedar cutting came dairying, which quickly flourished into the staple industry of the region. So successful was this rural activity that a new breed of dairy cow, the Illawarra shorthorn, was developed on these productive pastures (ibid, 1991),

By 1848 the town had two inns, a post office, 2 stores, a church and 18 permanent houses. In 1849 a train linking hte quarry and harbour was built down along Terralong Street and a new jetty relocated to here (ibid, 2016, 6).

Kiama was proclaimed a Municipality in 1859.

Local petitions requesting a general upgrading of harbour facilities were presented to the Colonial Government as early as 1864. Thirteen years later the constructed basin and dockside were completed and named Robertson Basin in honour of the then Colonial Secretary. The upgrading of the harbour was timely as in subsequent years, with the export of newly-quarried basalt, there was a massive increase in coastal shipping. Horse-drawn drays were initially used to transport the stone from the quarry to the loading hoppers at the wharfside (ibid, 1991).

In the 1870s the dairying industry was supplemented by basalt (blue metal) quarrying, now one of the district's major income earners alongside tourism. The state's ever-expanding tram, road and rail network needed vast amounts of basalt, both crushed and in natural cube form (ibid, 1991).

Shortly after 1880 a new road running out of Bombo up over the hill was created to link the town centre and Terralong Street to the relocated jetty, main quarry site and the soon-to-be-opened railway station at Bombo. This road was to become known as Collins Street and became one of the town's main roads and its northern approach. The train came to Bombo in 1887 and in 1888 an extension to Kiama was started (ibid, 2016, 6).

Kiama became a tourist attraction very early in the course of its development and throughout the Victorian era served as a premier seaside holiday resort. The town's popularity was considerably enhanced when, in 1888, with the opening of the railway, it became more readily accessible from Sydney (HCNSW, 1986, 8)..

Kiama Railway station opened in 1893 as part of the first completed stage of the Kiama to Jervis Bay Railway which terminated at Bomaderry (Nowra).

By 1914 the horse-drawn drays (transporting stone to the wharfside) system had been replaced by a steam locomotive tramway running along Terralong Street (Dillon, 1991).

Precinct history:
Much of this land was bought by William Geoghagen. In 1867 when he bought his first parcel his occupation was given as wharfinger. He later built the terraces facing Collins Street and sold land to the Temperance Hall, now the Masonic Lodge. It is probable that he built No.5 Collins Lane in the 1880s as his home.

The oldest building of the group is the Masonic Temple (1870s).

42-44 Collins Street:
Built in the late 1870s to house quarry workers. It is a simple single storey building of similar character to the terrace 24-40 Collins Street, of weatherboard with a gabled iron roof. The brick wall at the south end was introduced late 1970s for fire safety reasons. Windows are small paned and there is a simple verandah continuous with the main roof on timber posts with simple timber brackets. Now has sympathetic commercial uses similar to 24-40 Collins Street. Building Material: Weatherboard, gabled iron roof, small paned windows, timber posts and timber brackets (NTA (NSW), 1984).

The terrace No.s 24-40 Collins Street was built in stages during the 1880s. No. 24 was originally an inn, with 26 the inn-keeper's residence; No.s 28-38 housed quarry workers, and No. 40 was originally a post office.

The stone crushing industry began in Kiama in 1871 and by 1880 the Bombo quarry (north of Kiama) was operating.

The Depression and World War II caused the decline and closure of most of the quarries (NTA (NSW) Precinct Classification card, 1984).

By the 1960s the timber terrace group was neglected and in disrepair. Proposals to clear the site were considered. Fortunately a local company restored the row, successfully converting it to shops (Dillon, 1991).

The terrace was classified by the National Trust of Australia (NSW) in 1984 and listed on the Illawarra Regional Environmental Plan in 1986.

Historic themes

Australian theme (abbrev)New South Wales themeLocal theme
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Environment - cultural landscape-Activities associated with the interactions between humans, human societies and the shaping of their physical surroundings Developing local, regional and national economies-National Theme 3
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Accommodation-Activities associated with the provision of accommodation, and particular types of accommodation – does not include architectural styles – use the theme of Creative Endeavour for such activities. Residential-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Accommodation-Activities associated with the provision of accommodation, and particular types of accommodation – does not include architectural styles – use the theme of Creative Endeavour for such activities. Building settlements, towns and cities-National Theme 4
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Land tenure-Activities and processes for identifying forms of ownership and occupancy of land and water, both Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Changing land uses - from rural to tourist-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Land tenure-Activities and processes for identifying forms of ownership and occupancy of land and water, both Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Housing-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Towns, suburbs and villages-Activities associated with creating, planning and managing urban functions, landscapes and lifestyles in towns, suburbs and villages Terrace housing development-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Towns, suburbs and villages-Activities associated with creating, planning and managing urban functions, landscapes and lifestyles in towns, suburbs and villages Terrace housing development-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Towns, suburbs and villages-Activities associated with creating, planning and managing urban functions, landscapes and lifestyles in towns, suburbs and villages 19th century suburban developments-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Domestic life-Activities associated with creating, maintaining, living in and working around houses and institutions. Ways of life 1850-1900-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Domestic life-Activities associated with creating, maintaining, living in and working around houses and institutions. Ways of life 1900-1950-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Domestic life-Activities associated with creating, maintaining, living in and working around houses and institutions. Ways of life 1950-2000-
9. Phases of Life-Marking the phases of life Persons-Activities of, and associations with, identifiable individuals, families and communal groups Associations with William Geoghagen, wharfinger, entrepreneur-

Assessment of significance

SHR Criteria f)
[Rarity]
This terrace is described as the only one of its kind in NSW (Dillon, 1991)
Assessment criteria: Items are assessed against the PDF State Heritage Register (SHR) Criteria to determine the level of significance. Refer to the Listings below for the level of statutory protection.

Recommended management:

Recommendations

Management CategoryDescriptionDate Updated
Recommended ManagementProduce a Conservation Management Plan (CMP) 
Recommended ManagementPrepare a maintenance schedule or guidelines 
Recommended ManagementCarry out interpretation, promotion and/or education 

Procedures /Exemptions

Section of actDescriptionTitleCommentsAction date
57(2)Exemption to allow workHeritage Act

Order Under Section 57(2) to exempt the following activities from Section 57(1):
(1) The maintenance of any building or item on the site where maintenance means the continuous protective care of existing material; and
(2) Garden maintenance including cultivation, weed control, the repair and maintenance of existing fences, gates and garden walls and pruning and tree surgery but not including extensive lopping; and
(3) Change of use
Aug 29 1986
57(2)Exemption to allow workStandard Exemptions SCHEDULE OF STANDARD EXEMPTIONS
HERITAGE ACT 1977
Notice of Order Under Section 57 (2) of the Heritage Act 1977

I, the Minister for Planning, pursuant to subsection 57(2) of the Heritage Act 1977, on the recommendation of the Heritage Council of New South Wales, do by this Order:

1. revoke the Schedule of Exemptions to subsection 57(1) of the Heritage Act made under subsection 57(2) and published in the Government Gazette on 22 February 2008; and

2. grant standard exemptions from subsection 57(1) of the Heritage Act 1977, described in the Schedule attached.

FRANK SARTOR
Minister for Planning
Sydney, 11 July 2008

To view the schedule click on the Standard Exemptions for Works Requiring Heritage Council Approval link below.
Sep 5 2008

PDF Standard exemptions for works requiring Heritage Council approval

Listings

Heritage ListingListing TitleListing NumberGazette DateGazette NumberGazette Page
Heritage Act - State Heritage Register 0047302 Apr 99 271546
Heritage Act - Permanent Conservation Order - former 0047329 Aug 86 1364238
Regional Environmental PlanIllawarra REP no. 1 11 Apr 86   
National Trust of Australia register NTA (NSW) Country Register326505 Nov 84   

References, internet links & images

TypeAuthorYearTitleInternet Links
WrittenDillon, Steve1991Kiama Walk (brochure)

Note: internet links may be to web pages, documents or images.

rez
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Data source

The information for this entry comes from the following source:
Name: Heritage Office
Database number: 5045333
File number: EF14/4793; HC33091, 9870


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