Lydham Hall | NSW Environment & Heritage

Culture and heritage

Heritage

Lydham Hall

Item details

Name of item: Lydham Hall
Other name/s: Lydham; Lydham Hill
Type of item: Built
Group/Collection: Residential buildings (private)
Category: House
Location: Lat: -33.9449215702 Long: 151.1300770820
Primary address: 18 Lydham Avenue, Rockdale, NSW 2216
Parish: St George
County: Cumberland
Local govt. area: Rockdale
Local Aboriginal Land Council: Metropolitan
Property description
Lot/Volume CodeLot/Volume NumberSection NumberPlan/Folio CodePlan/Folio Number
LOTA DP387441
All addresses
Street AddressSuburb/townLGAParishCountyType
18 Lydham AvenueRockdaleRockdaleSt GeorgeCumberlandPrimary Address

Owner/s

Organisation NameOwner CategoryDate Ownership Updated
former Rockdale City CouncilLocal Government25 Mar 99

Statement of significance:

Lydham Hall is a free stone family home built in 1860 of materials quarried locally by Swedish stone Mason, Sven Bengston for wealthy master butcher Joseph Davis. It is one of the few substantial domestic buildings erected in Sydney during the period of the gold rushes and represents an excellent example of the transition from the simple Georgian style of architecture to the more elaborate Victorian style.

It stands on the highest point of land between the Cook's and Georges River where it commands extensive views over Botany Bay. The house is an outstanding instance of an early pioneer home, faithfully restored.

At one time it was the residence of David Stead, internationally known fisheries expert and naturalist who gace the suburb of Banksia its name and the childhood home of the distinguished Australian authoress Christina Stead.
Date significance updated: 02 May 14
Note: The State Heritage Inventory provides information about heritage items listed by local and State government agencies. The State Heritage Inventory is continually being updated by local and State agencies as new information becomes available. Read the OEH copyright and disclaimer.

Description

Builder/Maker: Sven Bengtson (Swedish stonemason)
Construction years: 1860-1860
Physical description: The design is a good example of the transition from the simple Georgian colonial style of architecture to the more ornate pattern of the mid-Victorian era. It was basically four large rooms, each 14x20' with a 10' wide centrally placed hall. A narrow staircase at the southern side of the hall reaches two upper rooms, each 18' 6" square lit by near dormer windows. Full length French windows face north, east and south to take advantage of the cool sea breezes whilst those facing west are conventionally smaller to keep the hot westerlies at bay. Two storeys with attic. Constructed from stone quarried locally and stands on the highest point of land between the Cook's and George's Rivers.

A 9' verandah once extended around all four sides of the house and its iron roof is unsupported except for bearers in each corner and open work cast iron columns at 10' intervals. The red and stone colour scheme is original. The hip roof of the house is covered with blue slates and there are a series of small decorated brackets beneath the narrow eaves. The two wide chimneys are of unusual design and each has a drip skirt placed above the flashing.

The kitchen, stables and servants quarters were originally detached and stood to the south-east of the house. The kitchen was demolished in 1958 when the last of the land was subdivided.
Modifications and dates: 1822 original Bexley land grant (1200 acres)

1859 subdivision and acquisition of 67 acres by Davis.
1860 construction of Lydham (house). A 9' verandah once extended around all four sides of the house. The original kitchen, stables and servants quarters were detached and stood to the south-east of the house.

1884 subdivision of all but 18 acres of the estate.
1889 second subdivision creating Stanley, Oswald and Joseph Streets.
1890-1917 tenanted out.

1919 The detached kitchen was demolished and attached to the main house for convenience.


1958 the kitchen and rest of outbuildings demolished and the last of the land was subdivided.

1970 sold to Rockdale Council
Current use: Museum
Former use: Residence

History

Historical notes: The parcel of land on which Lydham Hall stands was originally part of 1200 acres granted to James Chandler in 1822. The estate named Bexley after Chandler's birthplace in England was mortgaged and eventually sold after unsuccessful attempts at farming.

In 1859 wealthy master butcher, Joseph Davis bought 67 of the original 1200 acres and used the land for resting and fattening his cattle before slaughter. Around 1860 Davis engaged Swedish stone mason, Sven Bengston to construct a house on part of the estate that had sweeping views of Botany Bay. The site chosen was one of the highest points between the Cooks and Georges Rivers.

Davis was born in the village of Brede in Sussex in 1827 and came to New South Wales in 1847 and set up business in Newtown first as a publican and then as a butcher. On 28 October 1850 he married 17 years old Ellen Turner at Scots Church, Sydney.

His butchering business flourished and Davis was buying, fattening and slaughtering his own stock. Davis was also a prominent man in the district and a generous benefactor to St George's Church Hurstville and Christ Church Bexley.

The rural character of the area remained largely unchanged until the coming of the Illawarra Railway in 1884. The land boom which followed in the wake of the railway influenced Davis to subdivide all but 8 acres surrounding his home. The streets formed because of the subdivision were named after Davis's sons, Frederick and Herbert and his eldest grandson, Clarence.

Shortly after Davis' death in 1889, Mrs Davis sold Lydham Hall to Frederick Gibbins who lived nearby at Dappeto (now known as Macquarie Lodge) and was a successful oyster merchant and trawling magnate.

Gibbins leased out Lydham Hall to various well-to-do tenants from 1890 to 1907, one of which was H.E. Hoggan, Manager of the Australian Gas light Company.

In 1907 David George Stead moved into the Lydham Hall after his marriage to his second wife Ada. Ada was a daughter of Frederick Gibbins, who made Lydham Hall available to the couple rent-free.

David Stead was a world renowned naturalist. Born on 6 March 1877 he left school at the age of 12 and began working as an apprentice to a rubber stamp maker. His scientific career began with a zoology course at Sydney Technical College. At the age of 21 he joined the Linnean Society of New South Wales and by 1900 he had written several short articles that were published by the Society. Stead's special field was in marine life and this was recognised in when he was offered employment in 1902 as a scientific assistant under the Director of Fisheries for the Commonwealth. Stead was also an outspoken conservationist and in 1909 he cofounded the Wildlife Preservation Society of Australia,

David Stead had previously been married to Ellen Butter and on 17 July 1902 had a daughter, Christina Stead. Tragically Ellen's life was cut short on 9 December 1904 when she died from a peforated appendix.

Christina Stead was one of Australia's greatest and most esteemed writers. She was born on 17 July 1902 in a cottage in Kimpton Street, Rockdale (now known as Banksia). She spent ten of her most impressionable years at Lydham Hall and it is claimed that she used expereinces of this time as the background for possibly her most important wor, "The man Who Loved Children". Although Christina did not begin her schooling until she was seven years old she was regarded as an excellent student during her years at Bexley Public School. After a year at Kogarah Intermediate, she transferred to St George Girls High School when it opened in 1916. A great storyteller, she would entertain her brothers and sisters with tales and poems. Many of Christina's novels were based on this period of her life.

Christina also moved into Lydham Hall with her father and his second wife Ada. During their time at Lydham Hall the Stead family grew rapidly with Ada giving birth to six children. The security of life for the Stead family at Lydham Hall very much depended on the benevolence of Ada's father, Frederick Gibbins.

However in 1917 Frederick Gibbins died and the exposure to his financial indebtedness wasa severe disruption to the Stead family. Following the forced sale of Lydham Hall the Stead family moved to Watsons Bay (Lydham Hall brochure).

Lydham Hall was purchased by Rockdale Council in 1960 and is managed by the St.George Historical Society. It houses many items on loan from the National Trust of Australia (NSW). The collection includes 19th century furniture and an extensive array of willow patterned china (St.George & Sutherland Shire Leader, 9/2/16).

Storms in January 2015 led to rain damage and the closure of Lydham Hall for repair works. The house was reopened to the public in February 2016 after repairs (St.George & Sutherland Shire Leader, 9/2/16).

Historic themes

Australian theme (abbrev)New South Wales themeLocal theme
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Accommodation-Activities associated with the provision of accommodation, and particular types of accommodation – does not include architectural styles – use the theme of Creative Endeavour for such activities. Housing the prosperous - mansions in town and country-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Land tenure-Activities and processes for identifying forms of ownership and occupancy of land and water, both Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Granting Crown lands for private farming-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Land tenure-Activities and processes for identifying forms of ownership and occupancy of land and water, both Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Sub-division of large estates-
9. Phases of Life-Marking the phases of life Persons-Activities of, and associations with, identifiable individuals, families and communal groups Associations with Joseph Davis, wealthy master butcher-
9. Phases of Life-Marking the phases of life Persons-Activities of, and associations with, identifiable individuals, families and communal groups Associations with Christina Stead, writer-
9. Phases of Life-Marking the phases of life Persons-Activities of, and associations with, identifiable individuals, families and communal groups Associations with H.E.Hoggan, Manager of the Australian Gas Light Company-
9. Phases of Life-Marking the phases of life Persons-Activities of, and associations with, identifiable individuals, families and communal groups Associations with David Stead, naturalist, author, world expert on fisheries, marine biology, oceanography, Superintende-

Procedures /Exemptions

Section of actDescriptionTitleCommentsAction date
57(2)Exemption to allow workHeritage Act Building & garden maintenance


Order Under Section 57(2) to exempt the following activities from Section 57(1):
(1) The maintenance of any building or item on the site where maintenance means the continuous protective care of existing material; and
(2) All horticultural management including the repair and maintenance of existing fences, gates and garden walls.
(3) Change of use.
Aug 29 1986
57(2)Exemption to allow workStandard Exemptions SCHEDULE OF STANDARD EXEMPTIONS
HERITAGE ACT 1977
Notice of Order Under Section 57 (2) of the Heritage Act 1977

I, the Minister for Planning, pursuant to subsection 57(2) of the Heritage Act 1977, on the recommendation of the Heritage Council of New South Wales, do by this Order:

1. revoke the Schedule of Exemptions to subsection 57(1) of the Heritage Act made under subsection 57(2) and published in the Government Gazette on 22 February 2008; and

2. grant standard exemptions from subsection 57(1) of the Heritage Act 1977, described in the Schedule attached.

FRANK SARTOR
Minister for Planning
Sydney, 11 July 2008

To view the schedule click on the Standard Exemptions for Works Requiring Heritage Council Approval link below.
Sep 5 2008

PDF Standard exemptions for works requiring Heritage Council approval

Listings

Heritage ListingListing TitleListing NumberGazette DateGazette NumberGazette Page
Heritage Act - State Heritage Register 0047702 Apr 99 271546
Heritage Act - Permanent Conservation Order - former 0047729 Aug 86 1364237
Local Environmental Plan 0004402 Sep 88 1404651
Local Environmental Plan  04 Jun 93   

References, internet links & images

TypeAuthorYearTitleInternet Links
Tourism 2007Lydham Hall House Museum View detail
Written 2005Lydham hall [brochure]
Written(unstated: assumed to be Rockdale Council) Historic Lydham Hall - built 1860 - 18 Lydham Avenue, Rockdale - childhood home of the authoress Christina Stead
TourismAttraction Homepage2007Lydham Hall House Museum View detail

Note: internet links may be to web pages, documents or images.

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Data source

The information for this entry comes from the following source:
Name: Heritage Office
Database number: 5045427
File number: S90/03451 & HC 33396


Every effort has been made to ensure that information contained in the State Heritage Inventory is correct. If you find any errors or omissions please send your comments to the Database Manager.

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