Studley Park | NSW Environment, Energy and Science

Culture and heritage

Heritage

Studley Park

Item details

Name of item: Studley Park
Other name/s: Payne's Folly, St. Helen's School, Campbelltown-Camden Grammar School, Camden Co
Type of item: Complex / Group
Group/Collection: Residential buildings (private)
Category: Mansion
Location: Lat: -34.0500262680 Long: 150.7298140680
Primary address: Camden Valley Way, Narellan, NSW 2567
Parish: Narellan
County: Cumberland
Local govt. area: Camden
Local Aboriginal Land Council: Tharawal
Property description
Lot/Volume CodeLot/Volume NumberSection NumberPlan/Folio CodePlan/Folio Number
PART LOT1 DP859872
PART LOT5 DP859872
All addresses
Street AddressSuburb/townLGAParishCountyType
Camden Valley WayNarellanCamdenNarellanCumberlandPrimary Address
Old Hume HighwayNarellanCamdenNarellanCumberlandAlternate Address

Statement of significance:

Studley Park is a place of State significance for its aesthetic and visual qualities associated with a very fine nineteenth-century country house and its setting and for its historic associations with important uses and historic themes of twentieth century development around Sydney. Studley Park House and associated historic lands that now form Camden Golf Club course are an important and comparatively rare cultural landscape that retains an open landscape character and setting for the House, typifying a grand, nineteenth century country estate. This cultural landscape setting includes important views that physically connect Studley Park to other nearby historic 'country estates' such as 'Camelot' and 'Kirkham Stables', and define a broader historic landscape in the areas surrounding Camden.

Studley Park House is an excellent example of Victorian Italianate architecture, enhanced by its prominent location and open landscape setting. It is one of the last 'country estate' dwellings to be built in the Camden/Campbelltown area and is representative of the work of the Sydney firm of architects AL & G McCredie. It has fine internal spaces joinery and finishes.

Subsequent phases of use of Studley Park provide evidence of important themes in Sydney's history, including school education, defense and recreation. Studley Park is associated with the development of school education at the end of the nineteenth century and of private school education in the Camden/Campbelltown area in particular.

Studley Park was one of a number of places around Sydney associated with Australia's preparations for World War II and its activities and its preparedness after the War, including the establishment of the Women's Royal Australian Army Corps.

The period of ownership of Studley Park House by AA (Arthur) Gregory in the 1930s is represented by its remaining 'Hollywood' style internal finishes and is supported by high quality contemporary photographs. Gregory was the representative of the US film company Twentieth Century Fox in Australia. Gregory's use of Studley Park as a private residence, 'golf-country club' and film theatre represent both connections to other uses of the place and some aspects unique to Gregory's ownership. The continued use of the place as a golf course since the 1930s is significant and has helped retain the landscape character of the place associated with its earlier country estate history.

While compromised by modern additions, the former Stables building (current Golf Clubhouse) retains an historic and visual relationship with Studley park House and has the potential to be reconstructed in its original form. The archaeological resource of the site of Studley Park has the potential to contribute to an understanding of some aspects of the construction and maintenance of a substantial late-nineteenth century 'country estate' (Godden Mackay Logan 2000: 115)

The site has natural heritage value in retaining two areas of regenerating remnant (endangered ecological community) Cumberland Plain Woodland including a population of the nationally endanaged shrub species, Pimelea spicata. (Read, S., 2005)
Date significance updated: 24 Mar 00
Note: The State Heritage Inventory provides information about heritage items listed by local and State government agencies. The State Heritage Inventory is continually being updated by local and State agencies as new information becomes available. Read the OEH copyright and disclaimer.

Description

Designer/Maker: AL & G McCredie (house); Eric Apperly (golf course)
Builder/Maker: Henry Ellison (carriage house); Hoyden Bros. (Army Camp)
Construction years: 1888-1889
Physical description: Setting:
The former Hume Highway (the main road south of Sydney once, now Camden Valley Way) was the original access to the site - an early set of gates are still visible on this road) abuts the grounds of the Studley Park / Camden Golf Club, to the west. Lodges Road (the current entry to Camden Golf Club) abuts the grounds to the east.

The original Studley Park estate (1880s) was in the order of 200 acres (81 ha). The total remaining area today is 142.412 ha, including golf course, land for flood mitigation works, house lot etc.

Surrounding Studley Park House is Camden Golf Course (www.walkabout.com.au/locations/NSWCamden.shtml Things to see).

Behind the outbuildings are a range of Army era buildings (from WW2), the club house (adapted from and extending the coach/carriage house) of the Camden Golf Course, parking and landscaped areas of golf course. Two areas of woodland abut the Army era buildings east of the main house, and in the golf course's north-east corner towards Camden Valley Way.

Including house, and former stables and carriage house block (Club House), located in the grounds of Camden Golf Course, Camden Valley Way and Lodges Road, Narellan (AHC, 1978).

Mansion's siting and composition:
The Studley Park House is situated near the highest point of the ridge at the eastern section of allotment DP556856, Narellan. It could have been set further east, on the highest point, but to do so would have made it less visible from Camden Valley Way, formerly the Hume Highway, and from the neighbouring mansions Camelot and Kirkam, on the Cobbity Hills opposite. In order to impress those and other neighbours, it was set upon a mound at least 3m. high above ground level, was given an attenuated form, and topped with a tower with a peaked roof. The prominence and degree of visibility it achieved, which must have satisfied those who built it (Mayne-Wilson, 1999).

At the golf course's centre is the house - a large towered mansion on the property built for W.C. Payne in 1889 at the height of a housing boom. Due to its size, grandiosity and the cost incurred, it came to be known as Payne's Folly. There is a wealth of iron lacework. The interior is as extravagant as the exterior with decorative joinery, elaborate ceilings and stained glass. At the back is a large block containing the stables and coach house (www.walkabout.com.au/locations/NSWCamden.shtml Things to see).

At the time of construction of Studley Park House, Camden Valley Way was the only road linking Camden to the city of Sydney, so that the access to the House had to be obtained via a carriage drive leading from it. The entry to the carriage drive was marked by a handsome gateway with white painted, decorated timber posts capped with finials and rails from which wire mesh was hung - see Figs.1 & 2. The gateway was set in from the road, to allow adequate space for turning or to make way or stand by if another carriage was seeking to exit the property.

The carriage drive, in the best 18th century practice, did not follow a straight line to the house but curved gently towards it, following the contours (Fig.3). As early photographs show, it was not originally planted with its present avenue of Cypress trees; these do not appear until some decades later - they appear in the historic photographs of 1935 as being about 10 years old. That photograph also shows an attempt at infill planting at regular intervals, with protective posts and wire around young plants within, no doubt to keep them from being eaten by stock. The driveway curved gently at the gateway to the House yard (fig.4), after which it curved again to the left of the House (Figs 5 & 7), before curving sharply to the right, giving visitors a close up view of the towering front (Fig. 5 & 8). It then curved sharply again to the left, splitting to form a teardrop-shaped carriage loop in front of an elegant staircase (Figs. 9-12). After depositing its passengers, the carriage could then proceed to the coachhouse at the back of the House (Fig.18), or return via the loop.

Just after the entry gates to the House and before the Bunya Pine, a smaller road ran off the carriagedrive towards the north - see historic photo no. . This would have led not only to the Engine House and shed, but also to Richardson Road behind St Thomas' cemetery, as mentioned in p. 24 of the Conservation Plan (CP)(Mayne-Wilson, ibid).

Garden Layout
Early photographs show very little planting in the House yard: just a few small trees plus a row of Pines to the south of it. The mature Bunya Pine at the front gateway may have been present in 1915 - the photograph is not easy to read - but most of the plantings were ornamentals from Britain. In the 1935 photograph (no. ) there were several of these about 5m. tall scattered randomly near the House, but it is not easy to determine the species. They appear to have comprised plants such as Cypresses, Laurels, Liquidambar and Citrus. Another of the mid 1930s photographs confirms this - see photo no. . The ground to the south of the House was largely clear, covered with a lawn, as it is today (Figs 13 & 14). The slopes of the mound on which the House sits appears to have been planted with sprawling shrubs such as Honeysuckle and Briar Roses, much as it is today (Figs 10 & 12).
By 1933 the ground along the carriage drive within the homestead yard was planted with a a deep border or shrubs, as shown in historical photo no. . This pattern has been simplified today, but the essentials of the scheme have been retained (Fig.5). The 1935 photograph shows a couple of small trees along the 'instep' of the carriageway curve, but it is doubtful that they were the same Crepe Myrtles present there today. One notable feature is that a side path led off the left of the carriageway towards the Engine House and Swimming Pool, while a curved bed and path linked the tennis court to the point where the carriageway came closest to the House - see historical photo no. .

The principal adornment to the House's garden during the 1930s, following its acquisition by Mr A. A. Gregory in 1933, was an elaborate pergola and lattice construction on a low earth platform in the southern sector of the garden, adjacent to the kitchen block and former dining room. The lattice screen walls were at least 3 metres high - see historical photos no. - and a doorway and a few steps gave access between the interior 'garden room' and the lawn outside. We are fortunate to have a clear photograph of the interior of this garden room, which was itself divided into two linear spaces, one being defined by the pergola roof and lattice screen walls and intended for sitting within, and the other by screens in front of the kitchen block. The whole composition of lattice frames was held together by high, horizontal beams with a fringe of lattice below, a technique also used on the back garden - see historical photos no. and . The ground was grassed, not paved, although a few large paving stones appear to be present in the centre of the seating area below the pergola. Some creepers grew up the screens, while most of the other planting were either in pots or herbaceous perennials of shade-tolerant species. Stag or elkhorn ferns were suspended from the screen walls at various places. An ornate Italianate fountain was located at the centre of a circular mound, which appears to been sited directly over, or close to, the original well (from which it no doubt drew its water). The inspiration appears to have been American, in keeping with the redecoration of the interior of the House in a 'Hollywood' style.

A somewhat similar, but lighter, pergola and screen structure was added to the front of the coachhouse and stables building, with a fringe of herbaceous plants around the bottom. A white post and rail fence also ran along the outside of the driveway in front of the pergola screen. Only remnant eucalypts were present in this part of the grounds.

Few details exist of the garden to the north of the House, other than the post and lattice framework that defined what appears to have been a shrubbery (the plants are too substantial to be vegetables). A wide flight of steps leads up the mound or platform of the house into this area, which is defined on its outer boundary by a white post and rail fence. Another flight of steps leads from the front verandah down into that shrubbery (see p. 17 of the CP). A small tree, without leaves, appears in the roughly the location of the large Jacaranda present today, but it seems more like a dead eucalypt than a young Jacaranda. It is understood that a kitchen garden lay behind this shrubbery, and that an orchard once existed in the area now occupied by the Army buildings (p. 16 of the CP). However, according to the CP, this had been cleared by Dr Oliver between 1902-1919, possibly for use as a football field (see pp. 21-22).

Contrary to the usual 19th century practice, the vegetation on the ridge to the north of the House was not cleared, and is visible in the 1915 and 1935 photographs. Those trees along the western boundary of the golf course had been thinned out and some appear to be regrowths after 19th century clearing. The land beyond the House grounds to the west and south was mostly covered with grass for grazing, with few trees left standing When that ceased, it was rough cut, being used as fairways for the golf course. The early dams were converted into water hazards for the golfers.

Fencing
As historical photographs show, the early fencing was post and rail, painted white, with wire mesh panels between. The tennis court fencing, although higher, was also treated in the same way, as shown in historical photo. no . A white painted timber post and rail fence also ran along the outer edge of the carriageway, to ensure that vehicles did not stray over the fairly steep battered slope of the House's mound or platform - see historical photo no. .

Tennis Courts
A tennis court existed in the front yard/paddock to the south-west of the house from early on, although it is not clear whether this was built by the original owner, Mr. Payne, his successor Mr Buckle, or by Dr Oliver when the property was re-developed as a school after 1902. (The CP indicates it was in existence by 1902 - see page 17, but it does not appear on its plan "The Original House, 1888-1902". This court (Figs. 19 & 21), with its high fencing topped by white painted rails, would have been quite visible to visitors arriving along the carriage drive - see historical photos no. and . However, being set sufficiently to one side of the House, on a distinctly lower level, and largely transparent, it did not actually detract from the presentation of the House itself. Subsequently, a second tennis court (Figs.19-20) was constructed behind this, closer to the House and on a platform about 2m. higher than the first court (Fig. 21). It is not clear from the CP when this was built, and by whom, but it does not appear in the photographs of 1935. However, the CP does refer to another tennis court, said to have been built opposite the coachhouse building and shown on the site plan "Private School 1902-1933". It is assumed that this would have been built during Dr. Oliver's tenure, but it also does not appear in photographs of this area in 1935. (One presumes that Mr Gregory was not much interested in tennis.)

The Golf Course
Insufficient evidence is available on the development of the golf course to say with certainty when it began. It would appear from early photographs, c. 1915, that some golf was being played on the land to south and south-west of the House, and it seems likely that its evolution as a formal course was incremental. On page 37 of the CP, it states that a Mr K.C. Whyte acquired a grazing licence over 140 acres of the site and planned to reconstruct the golf course (which confirms that it previously existed, although probably in an amateurish form). The CP then states that from 1948 "all but 18 acres of the property were leased to the Camden Golf Club who, taking Whyte's idea, proposed to re-establish a golf course on the site". Renovations for the Golf Club began during 1949, but it was not until 1950, when Whyte's lease expired, that the Golf Club was granted a 10 year lease from the Army, with an option to renew for a further 10 years.

According to the CP, p.38, "the lease of a large portion of the estate to the Camden Golf Club precipitated the destruction or alteration of large areas of the former landscaping". It is assumed that many of the plantings, especially of Jacarandas, Camphor Laurels and Eucalypts, as well as the shrubs along the carriage drive, were planted during this early period of 'alteration'. Perhaps taking its cue from the CP, p.54, the same Club removed those Jacarandas between 1997 and 1999, in order to restore the visual prominence of the House and protect its foundations. However, while the Club also made some 'dramatic alterations" (CP, p.54) to the landforms when redesigning the golf course, the continued existence of the extensive fairways has preserved the important vistas between the House and the main roads, in a broad arc from the south-west to the north-west - see figs. 39-44.

Statement of Significance
The siting of the House on a platform on a prominent knoll towards the rear of the estate has a combination of historical, aesthetic and social significance, reflecting the practice of Victorian landowners of the Boom period to display their wealth to all, to participate in a social rivalry with other major landowners in the district, and to enjoy the impressive visual catchments out to the south and around to the north-west.

The carriagedrive and its entry gateways has a high degree of both historical and aesthetic significance, being the original access way to the House from 1889 and retaining its gently curving form and characteristic plantings throughout the last century (although some of the plantings are replacements from later periods). The curving form reflects 18th century landscape design, retained for use in providing different visual sequences to, and a final impressive display of, the grand House in the process of arrival. It also has a degree of social significance, being valued by the present community.

The carriage loop has a moderate to high degree of historical and aesthetic significance, having essentially the same configuration as that of the original, although without the accompanying post and rail fence and associated plantings of Pine Trees.

The grounds have a moderate degree of historical significance, generally retaining their original layout but having lost all the original plantings, pathways, and clearly defined functional areas (such as orchard, kitchen garden, and shrubbery). They have a minor degree of aesthetic significance in that they demonstrate the landscaping concepts of the early owners, even though the fabric and integrity has largely been lost.

The pergola and lattice structures of the mid 1930s, though interesting and innovative, were not typical of either the overall landscaping concept of the House or of landscape design in New South Wales in that period. Although they reflected the taste and ideas of the American owner who redecorated the interior of the house in an art deco style, they were not a clear expression of that style with regard to landscape design. Rather, they gave the impression of an improvised Hollywood set.

The post and rail fencing has mostly disappeared, but had historical and aesthetic significance as a clear example of a style favoured by wealthy Victorian and Edwardian landowners at the turn of the century, and as such, carried some social significance as well. They warrant reinstatement.

The tennis courts (or at least their sites) have a moderate degree of historical and social significance, demonstrating a form of recreation favoured by landowners and schools for gentlefolk for the first three to four decades of the 20th century. They carry the potential to be restored to their former use.

The trees on the site have varying degrees of significance, depending on their age and with which phase of ownership they were associated. Those of greater historical and aesthetic significance are the senescent Pine, old Camphor Laurel and a few old Pepper Trees originally planted (c. 1890-1900) just beyond the south-west sector of the drive, and the mature Bunya Pine at the entrance to the House grounds. Some of the Cypresses along the carriagedrive also have a moderate degree of significance. The Jacaranda and the Liquidambar to the north and west of the House have a low degree of significance, being plantings by the Golf Club after 1950, as have the shrubs along the carriagedrive within the House grounds.

The part regenerated, part remnant Eucalypt woodland to the north of the House has a moderate degree of historical, technical and aesthetic significance, demonstrating the original landcover of the property and its unusual retention despite its successive periods of quite different ownerships and land uses. Its existence as a rich textural backdrop and setting to the House gives it some aesthetic value, as does the screening it provides for the otherwise visually intrusive Army barracks.

The golf course has historical and social significance as a valued recreation facility that has existed on the site in varying formats since the 1920s, and has high aesthetic value for continuing the role of the former grazing fields in providing a 'forecourt' and setting to Studley Park House (Mayne-Wilson, ibid).

House:
A fine example of a Boom style high Victorian mansion, set in a prominent location, with its outbuildings representing an important period in a series of large nineteenth century houses in this region. Internally the house is important for its exuberant detailing, its central hall and staircase, and its stained glass window. Large towered Boom style mansion. External walls of heavily moulded cement render, encrusted with a profusion of debased architectural detail of vaguely Italianate character. Slate roof, imported Italian marble entrance stair. Large stained glass window in a tower with a moulded monogram. Victorian iron lace. Internally exuberant style of exterior is maintained, grand staircase with open first floor gallery, stained glass, fine woodwork (AHC, 1978).

Due to its elevation the house has clear views of (and its tower in particular can be viewed from) other colonial landmarks in the district such as the spire of St. John's Church, Camden, Camelot (formerly Kirkham), Harrington Park and Orielton estates. (Read, S., pers.comm., 12/5/08).

Studley Park House:
Large high Victorian mansion in "Boom" style. Has external walls of moulded cement render with a profusion of architectural detail, iron lace, an imported Italian marble entrance stair and a slate roof. There is a moulded monogram and a stained glass window in the tower displaying Payne's crest. Internally the house maintains the exurberant style with some fine craftsmanship.There are elaborate stained glass highlight, sidelight and glass panels in the front entrance door.

The building was constructed with two storeys with a high basement level and a three-storey tower. The walling material was stucco over brickwork, groved to imitate ashlar and richly modelled with classical motifs, including pilasters, label moulds and cornice lines. Each of the three main elevations were punctuated with a projecting bay featuring grouped openings. The openings on the ground floor featured round or stilted arches springing from pilasters, while the openings of the upper level were generally square-headed.

On the north and west corners, the two-storey filigree verandahs were adorned with cast iron columns, brackets, balustrades and friezes. The slate roof had a hip and gable form and was penetrated by three double chimneys with corbelled tops (Godden Mackay Logan 1999: 31).

The Stables:
A handsome building, utilitarian structure of face brickwork. The only applied decoration was a series of boldly rendered string courses. (Godden Mackay Logan 1999: 57) Later additions now surround the stable building.
Stables:

Carriage House block:

War era Barrack buildings:
Modifications and dates: 1888-9 construction of house, stables and granary/engine house
1890 racecourse built - used until c.1899

1901+ changes to support school use - house modified into dormitory accommodation, and dwelling for headmaster. Single storey weatherboard room added to its rear for a dining room; 3 smaller rooms added for toilet and storage facilities. Stable modified to use as classrooms and a number of sports facilities added: tennis court, swimming pool...

1927 serious fire caused extensive damage to roof level promenade. Saved by bucket chain from well in courtyard.
Roof promenade completely reconstructed (and was later dismantled and replaced with modern iron roofing).

1933+ A.A.Gregory changes to house - for use as entertaining and a country retreat for friends and a commercial venture offering accommodation and recreational pursuits. Substantial interior house changes - Art Deco decoration (most original ceilings, cornices and wall finishes in principal rooms replaced by Art Deco plaster finishes). Gregory retained the original finishes in the dining room and main ground floor hall.
Dining Hall and Kitchen facilities added to main house in school era were converted into a theatrette.
Golf course established on the property.

1939+ army use changes - e.g. 1940-41: construction of a camp to accommodate personnel - a no. of changes to house and stables. Morning room and boudoir of house became sleeping accommodation while dining room served as lecture hall.
1942-43: all buildings had repairs and alterations.
1945-46: a series of asbestos-cement roofed weatherboard buildings progressively built east of house. A meat house built in area east of house with a timber cool room installed in the southern end. A small rifle range built north of the house in the area of an old quarry.
1946+: main house used for Officer Married Quarters for 3 couples.
Lease of 140 acres as grazing license to CK Whyte who planned to build the golf course. He failed to do so.

1949: 18 acres leased to Camden Golf Club for use as a golf club.
1950 ten year lease to club granted. Stables converted as club house.
1958: major extensions to club house/stables.

1973: further work to club house/stables.
Recent years (1990s): " "
1982: a fire in the maintenance shed and some time later fire destroyed the former Engine House

1996: House and lot 1 purchased by Golf Club.
Current use: golf course and club house
Former use: private residence, grammar school, defence establishment

History

Historical notes: The area is home to the Tharawal and Gundungurra people (Robinson, 2008).

Camden & the Cow Pastures:
The area is associated with the early history of the colony of New South Wales. Governor Hunter named it The Cowpastures after cattle which had strayed from the Farm Cove settlement were discovered there in 1795. Due to the early European settlers, namely the Macarthurs, who established flourishing wool, wine and wheat industries here, the area is said to be 'the birthplace of the nation's wealth' (ibid, 2008).

In the early 1840s, Camden farmers turned their attention to wheat growing. Many sowed large areas to cash in on the high prices paid for the local flour which had a good reputation in the Sydney market. Unfortunately rust appeared in the crops in 1861 and 1863 and the industry was ruined along with many farmers (ibid, 2008).

In the 1880s dairy farming became the main industry in the area. GA Porter was the first farmer to send milk to Sydney, from his property Corstorphine, on 6 March 1883. Farms have started to disappear however, due to the pressures of high production costs, milk quotas and competition with dairy companies, and also attractive offers from land developers (ibid, 2008).

Land grant(s):
Two early grants comprise the land today forming Camden Golf Course / Studley Park estate (what remains of it). These were made in 1810 and 1812. Prior to this John Macarthur received a grant on the southern side of the Nepean River of 5000 acres and this became known as Camden Park Estate. Macquarie granted two of Macarthur's employees, John Condron and William Parrott (both convicts who subsequently obtained freedom) each 100 acres in 1810 and 1812 respectively. These two grants, when later combined, made up the original enclosure of Studley Park. They were used for farming, the 1814 muster showing that Parrott (his land became known as 'Parrott's Farm') was a landowner with two convicts under his control whilst the 1822 muster records that Condron had cleared 26 of his 100 acres and owned three houses, twenty five cattle and ten pigs (GML, 2000, 7).

William Parrot received the first grant on 1 January 1810. He arrived in the colony as a convict in 1791 and by 1807 was working as a shoemaker at Camden Park. The second grant was to John Condron on 25 August 1812. He was transported from Ireland arriving in 1800 and by 1806 was employed at Camden Park as a herdsman (Campbelltown City Council, undated).

Both blocks changed hands a number of times in the 19th century. The only mention of any structures erected on either property (cited by Ray Herbert) is a carriage house that reportedly was erected on Condron's grant by Henry Ellison. The documents cited don't mention where this was situated and nothing remains of it today. The 1987 Conservation Plan (CP) includes this carriage house in a detailed chronology of the site, stating it was built c.1870 and destroyed in a 1980s fire. It would appear that this is a confusion between the carriage house and the engine house/granary which burned down in 1982 (GML ibid, 7-8).

The 1987 Conservation Plan goes on to state that the transfer of Condron's grant in 1878 from Henry Ellison to William Henry Thompson shows that there was a building on the original Condron grant. However it is unclear if this was the carriage house or not.

The plan from 1840 shows that by this date Parrott's grant was mortgaged to a Mr Cooper and that three structures had been built on it. Two appear to be a cottage and outbuilding (possibly a stable belonging to a Mr Fitzpatrick and a single structure, most likely a cottage, belonging to a Dr Swayne), had been built on the grant facing the main road. A series of roads had been drawn on the block immediately to the east which represent the laying out of the town of Narellan. The closes one to Parrott's original grant appears to be the road later named Richardson Road. Also of interest is the church indicated east of Parrott's original grant which appears to be in the same position as the church which exists there currently.

Ellison owned the Condron grant until 1878 when it was transferred to William Henry Thompson. In 1884 Thompson purchased the adjacent 100 acres originally granted to Parrott, thereby combining the two properties and establishing the original boundary of (what became known as) Studley Park (GML ibid, 8).

1888-1902 Payne era - Studley Park:
On 2 October 1888 businessman William Charles Payne bought the combined property of 200 acres from Thompson for 1400 pounds. He authorised A.L. & G. McCredie of Sydney to construct the house, stables and a granary/engine house. The engine house reportedly contained a steam traction engine and a dynamo which provided electricity to the house. A lengthy article in the "Australasian Building and Contractors News" 20/7/1889 described the project. It called the house a 'picturesque looking villa-residence, in a light Italian style'. A rendered drawing view of the house from the west incorporated the two floor plans produce by the McCredies at the time of construction. The original drawings are in the Mitchell Library as part of a collection of architectural drawings belonging originally to a William Keen. He was a Sydney architect born in England and trained at the Royal Academy School, London, before migrating to Australia in 1886. It has not been able to be ascertained if Keen was employed by A.L. & G. McCcredie.

Payne named the property 'Studley Park'. Ray Herbert writes that Payne named it after a property near where his father-in-law lived at Ripon in England. He also writes that at the time of construction four workers' cottages were built near the main road. These were visible on an aerial photograph taken in 1947, three side by side fronting Camden Valley Way with the fourth a little further away to the west, in the north-eastern corner of the original Studley Park landholding. It seems unlikely that these were constructed for workers on Studley Park as the project seems too small to warrant separate workers' accommodation. The area where the cottages were was further subdivided during the 1970s, resulting in formation of Wilton Crescent and the surrounding modern residential development (GML ibid, 8-9).

There is no evidence Payne intended Studley Park to be a self-supporting farm. What is more likely is that it was established as a country retreat. Many such estates were established around the outskirts of Sydney during the latter half of the 19th century. Prosperity in the colony since the 1850s gold rushes had helped establish a class of wealthy merchants and business people who established such estates, thus imitating the behaviour of a similar class of people in England at the time. Within the Camden area a number of examples of gentlemen's country estates/residences were built in the 19th century. Structures such as Camelot at (nearby) Kirkham, Camden Park House, built for the Macarthur family, and Fernhill at Mulgoa to the north are examples. The main feature of these holdings was a grand house situated on a part of the landscape so as to be visible to neighbours and surrounding residences. The house at Studley Park is a good example of this, situated on a rise and equipped with a tower (Campanile) which enhances its visibility and makes it a prominent landmark in the area. The visibility and grandness emphasises the perceived importance of its owner and visually underlines their standing in society (GML ibid, 9).

Studley Park was built at the height of a housing boom. Due to its size, grandiosity and the cost incurred, it came to be known as Payne's Folly. At the back is a large block containing stables and coach house. (www.walkabout.com.au/locations/NSWCamden.shtml Things to see).

Due to its elevation the house has clear views of (and its tower in particular can be viewed from) other colonial landmarks in the district such as the spire of St. John's Church, Camden, Camelot (formerly Kirkham), Harrington Park and Orielton estates (Read, S., pers.comm., 12/5/08).

Racecourse (1890+):
In October 1890 a racecourse was established, its northern boundary being Cowpasture Road (Camden Valley Way), the western boundary at what is now Hilder Road and the southern boundary defined by what is now Lodges Road. The racecourse closed c1899 due to competition from courses closer to Sydney (LEP, 2012).

By 1890 it appears that Payne was suffering financial difficulties as were many Sydney business people at this time due to economic depression experienced by the colony during the early 1890s. In May 1891 Francis Buckle took possession of Studley Park in lieu of debts owed to him by Payne. Buckle maintained Studley Park until 1902 (LEP, 2012).

School (1901+):
A school known as the Camden Classical and Commercial School was first established in 1872 at Camden by a Sir William Gordon of Narellan. This school was combined in 1882 with a school called the Camden Grammar School, which was started by a Mr Crabbe in Argyle Street, Camden. In 1890 Dr Henry Oliver, a famed educationist of his era, took over the control of the school from Mr Crabbe and moved it to Campbelltown, as Dr Oliver considered Campbelltown to be a more central location for the school (LEP, 2012).

Dr Oliver purchased the property at Studley Park, Narellan, in 1901. He moved the school from Campbelltown to the Narellan site on 26 April 1902. Any day student attending the school from the Campbelltown area caught the Camden Tram to the Graham's Hill platform which was a flag stop (Narellan Hotel) and then walked to the school (LEP, 2012).

Due to the occupation of Studley Park by the school a number of changes occurred to the main house. It was modified to provide dormitory-style accommodation as well as providing accommodation for the Headmaster. A single-storey weatherboard room was also added to the rear of the main house to serve as a dining room and three smaller rooms were added to provide additional toilet and storage facilities. The stable building was modified for use as classrooms and a number of sporting facilities such as a tennis court and swimming pool were added to the grounds (LEP, 2012).

In 1919 the property was transferred to the Reverend Charles Herbert Palmer. In addition to the school, the Reverend Palmer also obtained the freehold of the estate (LEP, 2012).

In September 1927 a serious fire caused extensive damage to the roof level promenade. The students formed a bucket chain up the main stair from a well situated in the kitchen courtyard. This action reportedly saved the house. The roof promenade was totally reconstructed using funds from an insurance payout. The promenade was later dismantled and replaced by modern sheet metal roofing (LEP, 2012).

By 1929 student numbers at the school were declining as a result of the encroaching economic problems of the depression. This decline continued and led to the sale of the property to A.A. Gregory in 1933 (LEP, 2012).

Country Retreat and attraction (1933+):
Archibald Adolphus Gregory, a senior executive of the Twentieth Century Fox Corporation, purchased Studley Park for 4,900 pounds in November 1933. Gregory made a number of changes to the main house and it would appear that he used the house for entertaining and as a retreat for himself and his friends and associates as well as operating the property as a commercial venture offering accommodation and recreational pursuits (LEP, 2012).

Gregory made substantial changes to the interior of the house, evident in the amount of Art Deco style decoration dating from the 1930s that remains today. Most of the original ceilings, cornices and wall finishes to the principal rooms were replaced by Art Deco style plaster finishes. Interestingly however, Gregory retained the original ceiling finishes in the dining room and the main ground floor hall. The dining hall and kitchen facilities added to the main house during the school's period of occupation were converted to a theatrette, presumably to show films from the Twentieth Century Fox Corporation to Gregory's guests, many of whom were probably involved in the movie industry. Another interesting aspect of Gregory's period of ownership of Studley Park is the establishment of a golf course on the property (LEP, 2012).

Gregory was a keen golfer and commissioned construction of a nine hole golf course, later adding another nine holes (Richardson, 2010). It would appear that Gregory created a recreational retreat with a 'country club' atmosphere at Studley Park during his period of ownership. Ray Herbert states that the course was designed by Eric Apperly who was at one time the NSW Amateur Golf Champion (LEP, 2012).

Army Use (1939-75):
The outbreak of World War II resulted in a large increase in recruitment for the Australian Army and this in turn created a need for the establishment of training facilities for the new recruits. Studley Park was one of the sites earmarked by the Department of Defence and the property was first leased by the Department on 2 October 1939. The occupation of the site by the Army was cause for complaint by AA Gregory who in January 1940 wrote to Major Bundey of the Eastern Command Training School complaining about various aspects of the Army's use of Studley Park (LEP, 2012).

In April 1940 approval was given for the purchase of the entire property by the Department of Defence at a cash price of 16,000 pounds, including all buildings, property, floor coverings and some furniture (LEP, 2012).

In December 1940 Hoyden Bros were successful with their tender to construct the camp at Studley Park, to be completed by June 1941. In order to accommodate the Army personnel a number of alterations were made to the main house and the stables building. The morning room and boudoir of the main house became sleeping accommodation while the dining room served as a lecture hall (LEP, 2012).

In addition, a series of asbestos cement roofed weatherboard buildings were progressively erected east of the house between 1940 and 1945. A meat and ration store was constructed in the area east of the main house with a timber cool room installed in the southern end. A small rifle range was constructed to the north of the main house in an area once used as a quarry. In 1942 and 1943 all buildings underwent repairs and alterations (LEP, 2012).

The end of the war signalled a decline in the use of Studley Park, until 1948 when the Citizen Military Forces were raised to fulfil the role of the pre-war militia. From 1946 the main building was used for Officer Married Quarters for three couples. The major use of Studley Park by the Army since 1948 has been for the Citizen Military Forces (which later became the Army Reserves). However, the site has been used by other sections of the Army since that time. In 1951 Studley Park was to house the then newly formed Women's Royal Australian Army Corps (WRAAC)(LEP, 2012).

The WRAAC's occupation of Studley Park was short-lived, as in September of 1951 the decision was made to centralise the recruit training at Point Lonsdale, Victoria and subsequently the women housed at Studley Park were transported to this facility. During the Vietnam War, Studley Park was used as an intelligence centre where troops were introduced to helicopter tactics (LEP, 2012).

Golf Club and use (1949+):
The period of time that the site has been used by the Army overlaps the use of the site by Camden Golf Club (LEP, 2012).

In March 1946 an area of 140 acres was granted as a grazing licence to C.K. Whyte who planned to reconstruct the golf course. Whyte did not manage to re-establish the course, apparently due to difficulties in obtaining replacement water piping and other machinery that had been removed during the war. In 1949 a group of local residents, dissatisfied with not having a golf course, approached the Department of Defence and secured a lease on all but 18 acres of Studley Park, for use as a golf club. On 7 June 1950 a lease on Studley Park was granted to the Camden Golf Club Limited for ten years with a renewable option for a further ten years. This established the second main use for the site that has dominated since 1948. The Camden Golf Club converted the stables building for use as their clubhouse (LEP, 2012).

In 1951 the first intake of the newly-formed Women's Royal Australian Army Corps began training at Studley Park House (CCC ibid, undated). In 1958 the club carried out major extensions to this building and undertook further work in 1973 and in recent years. In 1982 there was a fire in the Maintenance Shed and some time later fire destroyed the former Engine House (LEP, 2012).

In 1975 the Department of Defence declared the property to be surplus to its needs. In October 1996 the house and Lot 1 was purchased by the Camden Golf Club. However, the property is relatively intact and is a good example of a Victorian gentleman's country estate as they were established during the nineteenth century in and around Sydney (LEP, 2012).

Today Camden Golf Club owns this lovely house. It is open to the public during the year on specially-planned open days and for functions to raise money for restoration (CCC ibid, undated).

In 2009 the house was sold to a private owner and the golf course land transferred to the care, control and management of Camden Council (Howard, pers.comm., 14/12/10).

In 2019, the (from 2008) owner, the Moran family, may be about to restore Studley Park House. They are preparing to breathe new life into the heritage gem. The family has begun discussions to reinvigorate the homestead. are working with the (Camden) Golf Club and (Camden) Council (McGoffin, 1/2/2019).

Historic themes

Australian theme (abbrev)New South Wales themeLocal theme
1. Environment-Tracing the evolution of a continent's special environments Environment - naturally evolved-Activities associated with the physical surroundings that support human life and influence or shape human cultures. Gardens-
1. Environment-Tracing the evolution of a continent's special environments Environment - naturally evolved-Activities associated with the physical surroundings that support human life and influence or shape human cultures. Other open space-
1. Environment-Tracing the evolution of a continent's special environments Environment - naturally evolved-Activities associated with the physical surroundings that support human life and influence or shape human cultures. Cultural: Plains and plateaux supporting human activities-
1. Environment-Tracing the evolution of a continent's special environments Environment - naturally evolved-Activities associated with the physical surroundings that support human life and influence or shape human cultures. Changing the environment-
2. Peopling-Peopling the continent Convict-Activities relating to incarceration, transport, reform, accommodation and working during the convict period in NSW (1788-1850) - does not include activities associated with the conviction of persons in NSW that are unrelated to the imperial 'convict system': use the theme of Law & Order for such activities Demonstrating emancipist's entrepreneurial activities-
2. Peopling-Peopling the continent Convict-Activities relating to incarceration, transport, reform, accommodation and working during the convict period in NSW (1788-1850) - does not include activities associated with the conviction of persons in NSW that are unrelated to the imperial 'convict system': use the theme of Law & Order for such activities Demonstrating convicts' experiences and activities-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Agriculture-Activities relating to the cultivation and rearing of plant and animal species, usually for commercial purposes, can include aquaculture Private farming-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Agriculture-Activities relating to the cultivation and rearing of plant and animal species, usually for commercial purposes, can include aquaculture Ancillary structures - sheds, crop storage-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Agriculture-Activities relating to the cultivation and rearing of plant and animal species, usually for commercial purposes, can include aquaculture Cereal production-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Agriculture-Activities relating to the cultivation and rearing of plant and animal species, usually for commercial purposes, can include aquaculture Ancillary structures - silos-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Commerce-Activities relating to buying, selling and exchanging goods and services Operating a set for movie or television filming-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Commerce-Activities relating to buying, selling and exchanging goods and services Operating an entertainment venue-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Commerce-Activities relating to buying, selling and exchanging goods and services Innkeeping-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Commerce-Activities relating to buying, selling and exchanging goods and services Keeping cafes and restaurants-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Commerce-Activities relating to buying, selling and exchanging goods and services Operating a tourism venture-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Commerce-Activities relating to buying, selling and exchanging goods and services Developing Commercial Enterprise-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Environment - cultural landscape-Activities associated with the interactions between humans, human societies and the shaping of their physical surroundings Significant Places: How are significant places marked in the landscape of Parramatta by, or for, different groups?-Monuments and Sites
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Environment - cultural landscape-Activities associated with the interactions between humans, human societies and the shaping of their physical surroundings Sydney and Australian Landmark-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Environment - cultural landscape-Activities associated with the interactions between humans, human societies and the shaping of their physical surroundings Landscapes of sport and recreation-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Environment - cultural landscape-Activities associated with the interactions between humans, human societies and the shaping of their physical surroundings Landscapes and parklands of distinctive styles-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Environment - cultural landscape-Activities associated with the interactions between humans, human societies and the shaping of their physical surroundings Landscapes and gardens of domestic accommodation-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Environment - cultural landscape-Activities associated with the interactions between humans, human societies and the shaping of their physical surroundings Landscapes demonstrating styles in landscape design-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Environment - cultural landscape-Activities associated with the interactions between humans, human societies and the shaping of their physical surroundings Landscapes of institutions - productive and ornamental-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Environment - cultural landscape-Activities associated with the interactions between humans, human societies and the shaping of their physical surroundings Creating environments evocative of the 'old country'-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Events-Activities and processes that mark the consequences of natural and cultural occurences Providing a venue for significant events-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Events-Activities and processes that mark the consequences of natural and cultural occurences Holding film and stage premieres-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Events-Activities and processes that mark the consequences of natural and cultural occurences Developing local landmarks-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Pastoralism-Activities associated with the breeding, raising, processing and distribution of livestock for human use Agisting and fattening stock for slaughter-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Pastoralism-Activities associated with the breeding, raising, processing and distribution of livestock for human use Sheep farming for wool-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Accommodation-Activities associated with the provision of accommodation, and particular types of accommodation – does not include architectural styles – use the theme of Creative Endeavour for such activities. Country Homes-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Accommodation-Activities associated with the provision of accommodation, and particular types of accommodation – does not include architectural styles – use the theme of Creative Endeavour for such activities. (none)-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Accommodation-Activities associated with the provision of accommodation, and particular types of accommodation – does not include architectural styles – use the theme of Creative Endeavour for such activities. Housing for farm and station hands-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Accommodation-Activities associated with the provision of accommodation, and particular types of accommodation – does not include architectural styles – use the theme of Creative Endeavour for such activities. Housing working animals-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Accommodation-Activities associated with the provision of accommodation, and particular types of accommodation – does not include architectural styles – use the theme of Creative Endeavour for such activities. Housing the prosperous - mansions in town and country-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Accommodation-Activities associated with the provision of accommodation, and particular types of accommodation – does not include architectural styles – use the theme of Creative Endeavour for such activities. Gentlemens Mansions-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Accommodation-Activities associated with the provision of accommodation, and particular types of accommodation – does not include architectural styles – use the theme of Creative Endeavour for such activities. Country Villa-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Accommodation-Activities associated with the provision of accommodation, and particular types of accommodation – does not include architectural styles – use the theme of Creative Endeavour for such activities. Accommodating workers in hostels-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Accommodation-Activities associated with the provision of accommodation, and particular types of accommodation – does not include architectural styles – use the theme of Creative Endeavour for such activities. Housing for industrial managers and owners-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Accommodation-Activities associated with the provision of accommodation, and particular types of accommodation – does not include architectural styles – use the theme of Creative Endeavour for such activities. Housing farming families-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Accommodation-Activities associated with the provision of accommodation, and particular types of accommodation – does not include architectural styles – use the theme of Creative Endeavour for such activities. Marine villa-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Accommodation-Activities associated with the provision of accommodation, and particular types of accommodation – does not include architectural styles – use the theme of Creative Endeavour for such activities. Gentlemens Villas-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Accommodation-Activities associated with the provision of accommodation, and particular types of accommodation – does not include architectural styles – use the theme of Creative Endeavour for such activities. Country mansion-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Accommodation-Activities associated with the provision of accommodation, and particular types of accommodation – does not include architectural styles – use the theme of Creative Endeavour for such activities. inter-war residence-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Accommodation-Activities associated with the provision of accommodation, and particular types of accommodation – does not include architectural styles – use the theme of Creative Endeavour for such activities. housing (suburbs)-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Accommodation-Activities associated with the provision of accommodation, and particular types of accommodation – does not include architectural styles – use the theme of Creative Endeavour for such activities. Housing for merchants and dealers-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Accommodation-Activities associated with the provision of accommodation, and particular types of accommodation – does not include architectural styles – use the theme of Creative Endeavour for such activities. Accommodating workers in holiday housing-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Accommodation-Activities associated with the provision of accommodation, and particular types of accommodation – does not include architectural styles – use the theme of Creative Endeavour for such activities. Housing professional people-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Accommodation-Activities associated with the provision of accommodation, and particular types of accommodation – does not include architectural styles – use the theme of Creative Endeavour for such activities. Housing famous families-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Accommodation-Activities associated with the provision of accommodation, and particular types of accommodation – does not include architectural styles – use the theme of Creative Endeavour for such activities. Eccentric residence-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Accommodation-Activities associated with the provision of accommodation, and particular types of accommodation – does not include architectural styles – use the theme of Creative Endeavour for such activities. Adapted heritage building or structure-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Accommodation-Activities associated with the provision of accommodation, and particular types of accommodation – does not include architectural styles – use the theme of Creative Endeavour for such activities. Guesthouses-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Accommodation-Activities associated with the provision of accommodation, and particular types of accommodation – does not include architectural styles – use the theme of Creative Endeavour for such activities. Architectural design-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Accommodation-Activities associated with the provision of accommodation, and particular types of accommodation – does not include architectural styles – use the theme of Creative Endeavour for such activities. Victorian era residence-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Accommodation-Activities associated with the provision of accommodation, and particular types of accommodation – does not include architectural styles – use the theme of Creative Endeavour for such activities. Federation era residence-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Accommodation-Activities associated with the provision of accommodation, and particular types of accommodation – does not include architectural styles – use the theme of Creative Endeavour for such activities. Hotel accommodation-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Accommodation-Activities associated with the provision of accommodation, and particular types of accommodation – does not include architectural styles – use the theme of Creative Endeavour for such activities. school residence-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Accommodation-Activities associated with the provision of accommodation, and particular types of accommodation – does not include architectural styles – use the theme of Creative Endeavour for such activities. Farm homestead-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Accommodation-Activities associated with the provision of accommodation, and particular types of accommodation – does not include architectural styles – use the theme of Creative Endeavour for such activities. Pastoral Homestead-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Land tenure-Activities and processes for identifying forms of ownership and occupancy of land and water, both Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Early land grants-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Land tenure-Activities and processes for identifying forms of ownership and occupancy of land and water, both Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Early farming (sheep grazing)-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Land tenure-Activities and processes for identifying forms of ownership and occupancy of land and water, both Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Demonstrating Governor Macquarie's town and landscape planning-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Land tenure-Activities and processes for identifying forms of ownership and occupancy of land and water, both Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Expressing lines of early grant allotments-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Land tenure-Activities and processes for identifying forms of ownership and occupancy of land and water, both Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Early farming (Cattle grazing)-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Land tenure-Activities and processes for identifying forms of ownership and occupancy of land and water, both Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Changing land uses - from rural to suburban-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Land tenure-Activities and processes for identifying forms of ownership and occupancy of land and water, both Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Resuming private lands for public purposes-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Land tenure-Activities and processes for identifying forms of ownership and occupancy of land and water, both Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Granting Crown lands for private farming-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Land tenure-Activities and processes for identifying forms of ownership and occupancy of land and water, both Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Sub-division of large estates-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Land tenure-Activities and processes for identifying forms of ownership and occupancy of land and water, both Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Leasing land for pastoral purposes-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Towns, suburbs and villages-Activities associated with creating, planning and managing urban functions, landscapes and lifestyles in towns, suburbs and villages 19th century suburban developments-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Towns, suburbs and villages-Activities associated with creating, planning and managing urban functions, landscapes and lifestyles in towns, suburbs and villages 20th century Suburban Developments-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Towns, suburbs and villages-Activities associated with creating, planning and managing urban functions, landscapes and lifestyles in towns, suburbs and villages Subdivision of rural estates-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Towns, suburbs and villages-Activities associated with creating, planning and managing urban functions, landscapes and lifestyles in towns, suburbs and villages Developing the social life of a rural community-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Towns, suburbs and villages-Activities associated with creating, planning and managing urban functions, landscapes and lifestyles in towns, suburbs and villages Country Estate-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Towns, suburbs and villages-Activities associated with creating, planning and managing urban functions, landscapes and lifestyles in towns, suburbs and villages Role of transport in settlement-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Towns, suburbs and villages-Activities associated with creating, planning and managing urban functions, landscapes and lifestyles in towns, suburbs and villages Developing and operating manorial villages-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Towns, suburbs and villages-Activities associated with creating, planning and managing urban functions, landscapes and lifestyles in towns, suburbs and villages Developing suburbia-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Towns, suburbs and villages-Activities associated with creating, planning and managing urban functions, landscapes and lifestyles in towns, suburbs and villages Cultural Social and religious life-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Towns, suburbs and villages-Activities associated with creating, planning and managing urban functions, landscapes and lifestyles in towns, suburbs and villages Shaping inland settlements-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Towns, suburbs and villages-Activities associated with creating, planning and managing urban functions, landscapes and lifestyles in towns, suburbs and villages Gardens - public (parks, reserves)-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Towns, suburbs and villages-Activities associated with creating, planning and managing urban functions, landscapes and lifestyles in towns, suburbs and villages living in the country-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Towns, suburbs and villages-Activities associated with creating, planning and managing urban functions, landscapes and lifestyles in towns, suburbs and villages Suburban Expansion-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Towns, suburbs and villages-Activities associated with creating, planning and managing urban functions, landscapes and lifestyles in towns, suburbs and villages A Picturesque Residential District-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Towns, suburbs and villages-Activities associated with creating, planning and managing urban functions, landscapes and lifestyles in towns, suburbs and villages Rural Estates-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Towns, suburbs and villages-Activities associated with creating, planning and managing urban functions, landscapes and lifestyles in towns, suburbs and villages Creating landmark structures and places in suburban settings-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Towns, suburbs and villages-Activities associated with creating, planning and managing urban functions, landscapes and lifestyles in towns, suburbs and villages Indicators of early town planning and the disposition of people within the emerging settlement-
5. Working-Working Labour-Activities associated with work practises and organised and unorganised labour Servants quarters-
5. Working-Working Labour-Activities associated with work practises and organised and unorganised labour Working in an Inn, Public House, Hotel etc.-
5. Working-Working Labour-Activities associated with work practises and organised and unorganised labour Working in quarries-
5. Working-Working Labour-Activities associated with work practises and organised and unorganised labour Working on a film or television set-
5. Working-Working Labour-Activities associated with work practises and organised and unorganised labour Working independently on the land-
6. Educating-Educating Education-Activities associated with teaching and learning by children and adults, formally and informally. (none)-
6. Educating-Educating Education-Activities associated with teaching and learning by children and adults, formally and informally. Private education-
6. Educating-Educating Education-Activities associated with teaching and learning by children and adults, formally and informally. Private (independent) schooling-
6. Educating-Educating Education-Activities associated with teaching and learning by children and adults, formally and informally. Educating people in regional locations-
6. Educating-Educating Education-Activities associated with teaching and learning by children and adults, formally and informally. apdated villa/ cottage for a school-
6. Educating-Educating Education-Activities associated with teaching and learning by children and adults, formally and informally. Educating people in suburban locations-
6. Educating-Educating Education-Activities associated with teaching and learning by children and adults, formally and informally. Primary education-
6. Educating-Educating Education-Activities associated with teaching and learning by children and adults, formally and informally. school site-
6. Educating-Educating Education-Activities associated with teaching and learning by children and adults, formally and informally. Headmasters residence-
6. Educating-Educating Education-Activities associated with teaching and learning by children and adults, formally and informally. Secondary education-
6. Educating-Educating Education-Activities associated with teaching and learning by children and adults, formally and informally. College boarding house-
7. Governing-Governing Defence-Activities associated with defending places from hostile takeover and occupation (none)-
7. Governing-Governing Defence-Activities associated with defending places from hostile takeover and occupation Training military personnel-
7. Governing-Governing Defence-Activities associated with defending places from hostile takeover and occupation Training civilian militia-
7. Governing-Governing Defence-Activities associated with defending places from hostile takeover and occupation State links in a national network-
7. Governing-Governing Defence-Activities associated with defending places from hostile takeover and occupation Involvement with the Vietnam War-
7. Governing-Governing Defence-Activities associated with defending places from hostile takeover and occupation Involvement with the Second World War-
7. Governing-Governing Defence-Activities associated with defending places from hostile takeover and occupation Involvement with the Korean War-
7. Governing-Governing Defence-Activities associated with defending places from hostile takeover and occupation Army housing-
7. Governing-Governing Defence-Activities associated with defending places from hostile takeover and occupation Civilian Military Force (CMF) activities-
7. Governing-Governing Defence-Activities associated with defending places from hostile takeover and occupation Women's military recruitment training-
7. Governing-Governing Defence-Activities associated with defending places from hostile takeover and occupation Army Reserves use-
7. Governing-Governing Defence-Activities associated with defending places from hostile takeover and occupation National Service scheme training-
7. Governing-Governing Defence-Activities associated with defending places from hostile takeover and occupation Military barracks accommodation-
7. Governing-Governing Government and Administration-Activities associated with the governance of local areas, regions, the State and the nation, and the administration of public programs - includes both principled and corrupt activities. Federal Government-
7. Governing-Governing Government and Administration-Activities associated with the governance of local areas, regions, the State and the nation, and the administration of public programs - includes both principled and corrupt activities. Suburban Consolidation-
7. Governing-Governing Government and Administration-Activities associated with the governance of local areas, regions, the State and the nation, and the administration of public programs - includes both principled and corrupt activities. Developing roles for government - administration of land-
7. Governing-Governing Government and Administration-Activities associated with the governance of local areas, regions, the State and the nation, and the administration of public programs - includes both principled and corrupt activities. Developing roles for government - conserving cultural and natural heritage-
7. Governing-Governing Government and Administration-Activities associated with the governance of local areas, regions, the State and the nation, and the administration of public programs - includes both principled and corrupt activities. Developing roles for government - public land administration-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Creative endeavour-Activities associated with the production and performance of literary, artistic, architectural and other imaginative, interpretive or inventive works; and/or associated with the production and expression of cultural phenomena; and/or environments that have inspired such creative activities. Designing structures to emphasise their important roles-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Creative endeavour-Activities associated with the production and performance of literary, artistic, architectural and other imaginative, interpretive or inventive works; and/or associated with the production and expression of cultural phenomena; and/or environments that have inspired such creative activities. Architectural styles and periods - Victorian Italianate-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Creative endeavour-Activities associated with the production and performance of literary, artistic, architectural and other imaginative, interpretive or inventive works; and/or associated with the production and expression of cultural phenomena; and/or environments that have inspired such creative activities. Building in response to natural landscape features.-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Creative endeavour-Activities associated with the production and performance of literary, artistic, architectural and other imaginative, interpretive or inventive works; and/or associated with the production and expression of cultural phenomena; and/or environments that have inspired such creative activities. Making and acting in films-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Creative endeavour-Activities associated with the production and performance of literary, artistic, architectural and other imaginative, interpretive or inventive works; and/or associated with the production and expression of cultural phenomena; and/or environments that have inspired such creative activities. Designing in an exemplary architectural style-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Creative endeavour-Activities associated with the production and performance of literary, artistic, architectural and other imaginative, interpretive or inventive works; and/or associated with the production and expression of cultural phenomena; and/or environments that have inspired such creative activities. Landscaping - 20th century interwar-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Creative endeavour-Activities associated with the production and performance of literary, artistic, architectural and other imaginative, interpretive or inventive works; and/or associated with the production and expression of cultural phenomena; and/or environments that have inspired such creative activities. Landscaping - 20th century post WW2-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Creative endeavour-Activities associated with the production and performance of literary, artistic, architectural and other imaginative, interpretive or inventive works; and/or associated with the production and expression of cultural phenomena; and/or environments that have inspired such creative activities. Patronising artistic endeavours-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Creative endeavour-Activities associated with the production and performance of literary, artistic, architectural and other imaginative, interpretive or inventive works; and/or associated with the production and expression of cultural phenomena; and/or environments that have inspired such creative activities. Interior design styles and periods - Victorian-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Creative endeavour-Activities associated with the production and performance of literary, artistic, architectural and other imaginative, interpretive or inventive works; and/or associated with the production and expression of cultural phenomena; and/or environments that have inspired such creative activities. Interior design styles and periods - Victorian-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Creative endeavour-Activities associated with the production and performance of literary, artistic, architectural and other imaginative, interpretive or inventive works; and/or associated with the production and expression of cultural phenomena; and/or environments that have inspired such creative activities. Architectural styles and periods - Victorian (late)-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Creative endeavour-Activities associated with the production and performance of literary, artistic, architectural and other imaginative, interpretive or inventive works; and/or associated with the production and expression of cultural phenomena; and/or environments that have inspired such creative activities. Vernacular structures and building techniques-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Creative endeavour-Activities associated with the production and performance of literary, artistic, architectural and other imaginative, interpretive or inventive works; and/or associated with the production and expression of cultural phenomena; and/or environments that have inspired such creative activities. Architectural styles and periods - 20th century Art Deco/Jazz Age-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Creative endeavour-Activities associated with the production and performance of literary, artistic, architectural and other imaginative, interpretive or inventive works; and/or associated with the production and expression of cultural phenomena; and/or environments that have inspired such creative activities. Adaptation of overseas design for local use-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Creative endeavour-Activities associated with the production and performance of literary, artistic, architectural and other imaginative, interpretive or inventive works; and/or associated with the production and expression of cultural phenomena; and/or environments that have inspired such creative activities. Landscaping - Federation period-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Creative endeavour-Activities associated with the production and performance of literary, artistic, architectural and other imaginative, interpretive or inventive works; and/or associated with the production and expression of cultural phenomena; and/or environments that have inspired such creative activities. Architectural styles and periods - Interwar Art Deco-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Creative endeavour-Activities associated with the production and performance of literary, artistic, architectural and other imaginative, interpretive or inventive works; and/or associated with the production and expression of cultural phenomena; and/or environments that have inspired such creative activities. Applying architectural design to utlilitarian structures-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Creative endeavour-Activities associated with the production and performance of literary, artistic, architectural and other imaginative, interpretive or inventive works; and/or associated with the production and expression of cultural phenomena; and/or environments that have inspired such creative activities. Performing theatrical entertainments-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Creative endeavour-Activities associated with the production and performance of literary, artistic, architectural and other imaginative, interpretive or inventive works; and/or associated with the production and expression of cultural phenomena; and/or environments that have inspired such creative activities. Interior design styles and periods - Art Deco-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Creative endeavour-Activities associated with the production and performance of literary, artistic, architectural and other imaginative, interpretive or inventive works; and/or associated with the production and expression of cultural phenomena; and/or environments that have inspired such creative activities. Landscaping - WW2 period-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Creative endeavour-Activities associated with the production and performance of literary, artistic, architectural and other imaginative, interpretive or inventive works; and/or associated with the production and expression of cultural phenomena; and/or environments that have inspired such creative activities. Creating works of theatre-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Creative endeavour-Activities associated with the production and performance of literary, artistic, architectural and other imaginative, interpretive or inventive works; and/or associated with the production and expression of cultural phenomena; and/or environments that have inspired such creative activities. Interior design styles and periods - Inter War-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Domestic life-Activities associated with creating, maintaining, living in and working around houses and institutions. Ways of life 1850-1900-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Domestic life-Activities associated with creating, maintaining, living in and working around houses and institutions. Country estates - visiting, enjoying-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Domestic life-Activities associated with creating, maintaining, living in and working around houses and institutions. Ways of life 1900-1950-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Domestic life-Activities associated with creating, maintaining, living in and working around houses and institutions. Ways of life 1950-2000-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Domestic life-Activities associated with creating, maintaining, living in and working around houses and institutions. Living on the urban fringe-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Domestic life-Activities associated with creating, maintaining, living in and working around houses and institutions. Living in suburbia-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Domestic life-Activities associated with creating, maintaining, living in and working around houses and institutions. Ornamental Garden-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Domestic life-Activities associated with creating, maintaining, living in and working around houses and institutions. Living in a rural homestead-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Domestic life-Activities associated with creating, maintaining, living in and working around houses and institutions. Kitchens and servants-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Domestic life-Activities associated with creating, maintaining, living in and working around houses and institutions. Living in a new house-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Domestic life-Activities associated with creating, maintaining, living in and working around houses and institutions. Living in, adapting and renovating homes for changing conditions-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Leisure-Activities associated with recreation and relaxation Horse racing-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Leisure-Activities associated with recreation and relaxation Outdoor relief-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Leisure-Activities associated with recreation and relaxation Horse racing-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Leisure-Activities associated with recreation and relaxation Visiting heritage places-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Leisure-Activities associated with recreation and relaxation Gardening-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Leisure-Activities associated with recreation and relaxation Going to the pub-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Leisure-Activities associated with recreation and relaxation Gathering at landmark places to socialise-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Leisure-Activities associated with recreation and relaxation Tourism-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Leisure-Activities associated with recreation and relaxation Cinema-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Leisure-Activities associated with recreation and relaxation Activities associated with relaxation and recreation-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Leisure-Activities associated with recreation and relaxation Going to the racetrack-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Leisure-Activities associated with recreation and relaxation Playing golf-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Leisure-Activities associated with recreation and relaxation Playing golf-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Leisure-Activities associated with recreation and relaxation Horse riding-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Leisure-Activities associated with recreation and relaxation Playing tennis-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Leisure-Activities associated with recreation and relaxation Leisure-Includes tourism, resorts.
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Social institutions-Activities and organisational arrangements for the provision of social activities Developing clubs for social improvement-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Social institutions-Activities and organisational arrangements for the provision of social activities Places of informal community gatherings-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Social institutions-Activities and organisational arrangements for the provision of social activities Developing local clubs and meeting places-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Social institutions-Activities and organisational arrangements for the provision of social activities Local adaptive reuses of military sites-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Sport-Activities associated with organised recreational and health promotional activities Administering and operating sporting complexes-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Sport-Activities associated with organised recreational and health promotional activities Private sporting facilities-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Sport-Activities associated with organised recreational and health promotional activities Racing horses-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Sport-Activities associated with organised recreational and health promotional activities tennis-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Sport-Activities associated with organised recreational and health promotional activities Trotting races-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Sport-Activities associated with organised recreational and health promotional activities Golf-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Sport-Activities associated with organised recreational and health promotional activities Sport-Includes sporting facilities, equipment, trophies.
9. Phases of Life-Marking the phases of life Persons-Activities of, and associations with, identifiable individuals, families and communal groups Associations with Eric Apperly, architect and golfer-
9. Phases of Life-Marking the phases of life Persons-Activities of, and associations with, identifiable individuals, families and communal groups Associations with William Parrott, emancipated convict grazier-
9. Phases of Life-Marking the phases of life Persons-Activities of, and associations with, identifiable individuals, families and communal groups Associations with William Parrott, emancipated convict grazier-
9. Phases of Life-Marking the phases of life Persons-Activities of, and associations with, identifiable individuals, families and communal groups Associations with John Condron, emancipated convict grazier-
9. Phases of Life-Marking the phases of life Persons-Activities of, and associations with, identifiable individuals, families and communal groups Associations with Henry Ellison, landowner, grazier-
9. Phases of Life-Marking the phases of life Persons-Activities of, and associations with, identifiable individuals, families and communal groups Associations with William Henry Thompson, farmer, grazier-
9. Phases of Life-Marking the phases of life Persons-Activities of, and associations with, identifiable individuals, families and communal groups Associations with William Charles Payne, businessman-
9. Phases of Life-Marking the phases of life Persons-Activities of, and associations with, identifiable individuals, families and communal groups Associations with Francis Buckle, landowner, farmer-
9. Phases of Life-Marking the phases of life Persons-Activities of, and associations with, identifiable individuals, families and communal groups Associations with Dr Henry Oliver, famed educationist-
9. Phases of Life-Marking the phases of life Persons-Activities of, and associations with, identifiable individuals, families and communal groups Associations with Rev. Charles Herbert Palmer, priest and educationist-
9. Phases of Life-Marking the phases of life Persons-Activities of, and associations with, identifiable individuals, families and communal groups Associations with Archibald Adolphus Gregory, senior executive of Twentieth Century Fox Corp.-
9. Phases of Life-Marking the phases of life Persons-Activities of, and associations with, identifiable individuals, families and communal groups Associations with C.K. White, grazier-
9. Phases of Life-Marking the phases of life Persons-Activities of, and associations with, identifiable individuals, families and communal groups Associations with the Camden Golf Club-
9. Phases of Life-Marking the phases of life Persons-Activities of, and associations with, identifiable individuals, families and communal groups Associations with A.L. (Arthur) and G. (George) McCredie and Sons, architects and engineers-
9. Phases of Life-Marking the phases of life Persons-Activities of, and associations with, identifiable individuals, families and communal groups Associations with Governor (later Maj-Gen.) Lachlan Macquarie, 1810-1821-
9. Phases of Life-Marking the phases of life Persons-Activities of, and associations with, identifiable individuals, families and communal groups Associations with John Macarthur, pastoralist and entrepreneur-

Recommended management:

Not covered in study (Morris & Britton, 2000).

Recommendations

Management CategoryDescriptionDate Updated
Recommended ManagementReview a Conservation Management Plan (CMP) 
Recommended ManagementPrepare a maintenance schedule or guidelines 
Recommended ManagementCarry out interpretation, promotion and/or education 

Procedures /Exemptions

Section of actDescriptionTitleCommentsAction date
21(1)(b)Conservation Plan submitted for endorsementConservation Management Plan Studley Park 52 Lodges Road, Narellan NSW 2567 - February 2020 - Endorsement Revision 2 - 19.02.2020 CMP submitted 20 February 2020 for endorsement - currently under assessment  
57(2)Exemption to allow workHeritage Act Any use, alterations to interior & demo


Order Under Section 57(2) to exempt the following activities from Section 57(1):
(1) any use;
(2) alterations to the interiors; and
(3) demolition
Feb 28 1986
21(1)(b)Conservation Plan submitted for endorsementConservation Plan CMP covers house and outbuildings, some coverage of grounds now used as a gold course. Mar 21 2000
57(2)Exemption to allow workStandard Exemptions SCHEDULE OF STANDARD EXEMPTIONS
HERITAGE ACT 1977
Notice of Order Under Section 57 (2) of the Heritage Act 1977

I, the Minister for Planning, pursuant to subsection 57(2) of the Heritage Act 1977, on the recommendation of the Heritage Council of New South Wales, do by this Order:

1. revoke the Schedule of Exemptions to subsection 57(1) of the Heritage Act made under subsection 57(2) and published in the Government Gazette on 22 February 2008; and

2. grant standard exemptions from subsection 57(1) of the Heritage Act 1977, described in the Schedule attached.

FRANK SARTOR
Minister for Planning
Sydney, 11 July 2008

To view the schedule click on the Standard Exemptions for Works Requiring Heritage Council Approval link below.
Sep 5 2008
21(1)(b)Conservation Plan submitted for endorsementdraft CMP submitted - proponent (Urbis) wishes to pursue endorsement Jul 19 2019
21(1)(b)Conservation Plan submitted for endorsementConservation Management Plan Studley Park 52 Lodges Road, Narellan NSW 2567 - November 2019 Revised CMP submitted 9 January 2020 for endorsement - this version withdrawn Feb 12 2020

PDF Standard exemptions for works requiring Heritage Council approval

Listings

Heritage ListingListing TitleListing NumberGazette DateGazette NumberGazette Page
Heritage Act - State Heritage Register 0038902 Apr 99 271546
Heritage Act - Permanent Conservation Order - former 0038928 Feb 86 360956
Local Environmental PlanCamden LEP 2010I13303 Sep 10   
National Trust of Australia register  10045   
Register of the National Estate 324021 Mar 78   

Study details

TitleYearNumberAuthorInspected byGuidelines used
Macarthur Heritage Study1986188 and 392JRC Planning Services  No
Colonial Landscapes of the Cumberland Plain and Camden, NSW2000 Morris, C., & Britton, G./NSW National Trust (for the Heritage Council of NSW)  Yes
National Trust Suburban Register198610045National Trust of Australia (NSW)  No

References, internet links & images

TypeAuthorYearTitleInternet Links
Written  www.walkabout.com.au/locations/NSWCamden.shtml#Things%20to%20see View detail
WrittenCampbelltown City Council Macarthur Heritage Directory
Management Plan (HC endorsed)Godden Mackay Logan2000Studley Park House Conservation Management Plan
WrittenHoward, Lisa (heritage officer, Camden Council2010phone call 14/12/2010
WrittenMcGoffin, Daniel2019'Studley Park House to be restored'
WrittenMcGookin, Daniel2020Reveald: Grand plans to restore Studley Park House into boutique hotel
WrittenRaymond Noel Herbert1999NSW State Heritage Inventory Form
WrittenRichardson, Lance2010A Spook in the House, in Traveller NSW, in the Sydney Morning Herald
WrittenRobinson, Steve2008Camden West View detail
WrittenSchwager Brooks & Partners1987Studley Park Conservation Plan
WrittenUrbis2018Conservation Management Plan - Studley Park, 52 Lodges Road, Narellan NSW 2567
Writtenvarious Heritage Management – Site Management – Camden LGA - Narellan - Camden Valley Way - Lodges Road - 52 - Studley Park - SHR item 00389

Note: internet links may be to web pages, documents or images.

rez
(Click on thumbnail for full size image and image details)

Data source

The information for this entry comes from the following source:
Name: Heritage Office
Database number: 5045438
File number: EF14/4517 S90/01825 & HC 33324


Every effort has been made to ensure that information contained in the State Heritage Inventory is correct. If you find any errors or omissions please send your comments to the Database Manager.

All information and pictures on this page are the copyright of the Heritage Division or respective copyright owners.