Carwoola Homestead | NSW Environment & Heritage

Culture and heritage

Heritage

Carwoola Homestead

Item details

Name of item: Carwoola Homestead
Type of item: Built
Group/Collection: Farming and Grazing
Category: Homestead Complex
Location: Lat: -35.4260010022 Long: 149.3851357420
Primary address: 1071 Captains Flat Road, Bungendore, NSW 2621
Parish: Carwoola & Molonglo
County: Murray
Local govt. area: Palerang
Local Aboriginal Land Council: Ngambri
Property description
Lot/Volume CodeLot/Volume NumberSection NumberPlan/Folio CodePlan/Folio Number
LOT30 DP596573
All addresses
Street AddressSuburb/townLGAParishCountyType
1071 Captains Flat RoadBungendorePalerangCarwoola & MolongloMurrayPrimary Address
 BungendorePalerangCarwoolaMurrayAlternate Address

Owner/s

Organisation NameOwner CategoryDate Ownership Updated
Carwoola Pastoral Co Pty LtdPrivate06 Apr 99

Statement of significance:

Carwoola is an early colonial homestead complex containing a large number of early buildings set in an impressive rural landscape of natural and man-made elements. Carwoola homestead and outbuildings was erected over a period between about 1830 to 1850. The main blocks architecture is strong, simple and unpretentious, while the outbuildings re not only noteworthy as vernacular forms but also for the interesting groupings that they create in an impressive garden setting. The site has important historical associations and was a centre of rural hospitality in the district during the later part of the 19th century. (Branch Managers Report to the Heritage Council 22 June 1979)
Date significance updated: 03 Oct 00
Note: The State Heritage Inventory provides information about heritage items listed by local and State government agencies. The State Heritage Inventory is continually being updated by local and State agencies as new information becomes available. Read the OEH copyright and disclaimer.

Description

Builder/Maker: William and Thomas Rutledge
Construction years: 1830-1850
Physical description: Farm:
Farm:
The farm today is 5000 acres.
Carwoola is an early colonial homestead complex containing a large number of early buildings set in an impressive rural landscape of natural and man-made elements (LEP, 2014). The site has important historical associations and was a centre of rural hospitality in the district during the later part of the 19th century. (Branch Managers Report to the Heritage Council 22 June 1979). The site has significant historic values as evidence of early pastoral development and achievement. Historic (a), associational (b), aesthetic (c) and research (f) heritage significance.

Outbuildings, Yards and Garden:
The homestead complex with its wide variety of out-buildings in both stone and slab, was described in 1866 as 'the magnificent property of Thomas Rutledge, Esq. Which may be termed 'the model farm Par Excellence of NSW'. It could equally be described as the nineteenth century homestead par excellence because of its completeness (Cantlon, 1981, 96).

The homestead is approached via a large complex to its west comprising a shelter belt of Monterey pines (Pinus radiata) perpendicular to the road and passing a full suite of rural outbuildings, yards and appurtenances and a recent manager's house to the south (Stuart Read, pers.comm., 1/11/2016).

The homestead complex is set in an impressive garden setting (LEP, 2014). The current owners have re-established the oak-lined original driveway (which approaches the house from the north-west). A rear driveway approaches from due west of the homestead along the shelter belt of Monterey pines (Stuart Read, pers.comm., 10/2016). The sizeable pond at the front (east) is an addition, and has been extended twice (Purves & Darlington, 2016, 31).

Mature oaks (Quercus robur) and elms (Ulmus procera) allow winter sun in, allowing naturalised spring European bulbs such as daffodils and jonquils (Narcissus spp.), star flowers (Ipheion sp.), star-of-Jerusalem (Ornithogalum umbellatum) and winter or Lenten roses (Helleborus niger and H.orientalis) to flourish below. Summer brings roses and lavender flowers (Lavandula sp.)(Purves & Darlington, 2016, 31). A mature Bunya pine (Araucaria bidwillii) is north-east of the homestead - the current owner has added a second young Bunya pine. Younger plantings include red and pink-flowered crab apples (Malus spp./cv.s), winter honeysuckle (Lonicera fragrantissima), Persian lilac (Syringa persica / S.p.'Meyeri'), golden chain tree (Laburnum rossii) and Japanese or flowering quince (Chaenomeles speciosa) (Stuart Read, pers.comm., 10/2016).

A large vegetable garden is north of the outbuilding complex north and west of the homestead, providing year-round food for the family, along with salad greens and citrus from a glasshouse, built in the back of the old stables (ibid, 2016, 31). An old walnut (Juglans regia) and mulberry (Morus nigra) tree shelter in the lee of tall brick walls facing north. Apple trees and a chicken palace are also in this area. A recently planted trufferie is nearby (ibid, 2016, 31). An enormously-long high stone wall extends protecting the remains of the kitchen garden in which an old mulberry, a walnut and a fig tree survive (Cantlon, 1981, 96).

Outbuildings:
The number of (out-)buildings is so great that much time could be spent in attempting to work out the order of growth of the homestead complex (Cantlon, 1981, 96). Homestead and outbuildings erected over a period between about 1830 to 1850. Most buildings are of the local hard rubble stone, originally white-washed.

The outbuildings are not only noteworthy as vernacular forms. but also for the interesting groupings that they create in their impressive garden setting (LEP, 2014).

Two buildings of rubble stone, stuccoed in front. One is a stable and the other a former dwelling. possibly built by Henry Smith, with cedar fireplaces and window surrounds of interest (NTA (NSW), 1976).
Stone Block
Containing the Meat Room, Coach House, two suites of two rooms, cell with only one barred window and an old kitchen with flagged floor - this block is most striking. Behind this section an enormously-long high stone wall extends protecting the remains of the kitchen garden in which an old mulberry, a walnut and a fig tree survive. On one side are small skillion rooms used as harness store and saddle shop with a saddle store on the other side. A loft runs the full length of this building (ibid, 1981, 96).

Stone Stables (nearby the Stone Block, above):
'A hell of a big building for five bloody horses'(ibid, 1981, 96).

Slab Stables:
Slab building for horse stalls where the slabs are set vertically on large horizontal logs (ibid, 1981, 97).

Slab shed:
Beyond the slab stables is a slab building which may have been a salt shed set on piers (ibid, 1981, 96-7).

Barn of rubble stone:
(beyond the slab salt shed) with walls 2ft (0.6m) thick (ibid, 1981, 97).

On either side of the buildings are large openings to allow for hay drays pulled by six or eight horses (ibid, 1981, 97).

Blacksmith's Shop:
Still functioning in part is the two storied slab blacksmith's shop and coach house, the sturdy box uprights of which are charred black as a prevention against white ants (ibid, 1981, 96).

Cottages:
Some early cottages not far from the homestead are now contained within later additions (ibid, 1981, 97).

Shearing Shed:
This is on other side of the entrance drive from the main gate, with an early small stone house.
Architectural Style: Georgian (NTA (NSW), 1976).

Inner Homestead complex:
The central main house is a two-storied Georgian block flanked on either side by single storey wings that project in front to form a verandah. At the rear of the house two stone wings, built separately , enclose a sheltered court yard, around which are a number of early outbuildings, namely a stone hayshed, stone stables, several stone workman's cottages and a slab hut and stables. (Branch Managers Report to the Heritage Council 22 June 1979). The main block's architecture is strong, simple and unpretentious. There is also another single storey section at the rear with a skillion roof from the main house (NTA (NSW), 1976).

A large U-shaped homestead built in at least two different stages with a wide variety of out-buildings in both stone and slab.

The main facade consists of a two-storied section flanked on either side by two single-storied wings, each of three rooms. The impression is one of grandeur, so it is surprising to find that the central two-storied section consists of but two main rooms downstairs and one large and two smaller bedrooms upstairs. Apart from differences in proportion between the central section and wings, there are indications that the two sections are not contemporaneous. On the rear wall, a mark in the cement render occurs at the junction of the two sections and whereas the central section is built on a plinth, the walls of the wings at the rear are in one plane to ground level (Cantlon, 1981, 96)

Possibly the earliest part of the homestead itself is the north-wing at the rear, a building with a Dutch gable (jerkin roofed). Part of this seven-roomed building is finished in a way which suggests that it could well have been living quarters, perhaps the earliest homestead. Later it was probably used as storage space, augmented by the pine-lined loft which runs the full length of the building. There is also a loft above half of the parallel (southern) kitchen wing which could well be a later building, contemporaneous perhaps with the central two-storied section (ibid, 1981, 96).

The upper storey has five symmetrically disposed windows (to the east/front) which are shown with shutters in early oil paintings at Carwoola. The front door which consists of two vertical panels and sidelights opens into a hall with an elegant staircase and fine straight balusters. To the right is the large sitting room with an exquisitely restrained white marble fire place, said to be the signed work of the 19th century neoclassical sculptor, Canova. To the left of the hall is the dining room, lit, as is the sitting room, by a pair of tall four-paned sash windows. The woodwork for the six-panelled doors, windows and original mantelpieces is (red) cedar. Certain alterations have been made to the mantelpieces: one was removed to accommodate the Canova mantelpiece and one removed to make way for a wooden one in the taste of the 1920s. However there are numerous typically Georgian mantelpieces throughout the homestead. This suggests that the addition of the single storied wings might have taken place within a short period of time after the two storied section (ibid, 1981, 96).

Throughout the house is fine cedar joinery, six panelled doors, cantilevered stair, large sash windows with small panes and simple Georgian fireplace surrounds. The windows in the wings are flanked by unusual extra side lights and have cedar shutters which fold into the reveals (NTA (NSW), 1976).
Current use: farm and residence
Former use: Aboriginal land, farm with appurtenances: homestead complex, yards, fields etc

History

Historical notes: The botanist Allan Cunningham journeyed across the Molonglo Plains in April 1824 while leading an expedition into southern New South Wales. He called this flat country Marley's Plains, unaware they had also been called Friday's Plains two years earlier. Both names were superceded by use of the word 'Molonglo'. In 1835 Cunningham's younger brother Richard, the Superintendent of the Sydney Botanic Garden, was clubbed to death by Aborigines while accompanying the NSW Surveyor-General Thomas Mitchell on his second journey of exploration. Allan Cunningham replaced Richard as Superintendent (Barrow, 2005, 71).

The land (2560 acres/1036 ha: Cantlon, 1981, 97) was granted in 1828 to Henry Gilbert Smith who formed the station (NTA, 1976). Smith arrived in Sydney in 1827 (Barrow, 2005, 72).

Use of the name Carwoola dates from at least 1850 and may be a derivation of the word Carrowillah, mentioned as early as 1827. Carwoola or Carrowillah is said to be Aboriginal for 'the meeting of the waters on the plain', a lyrical, apt title because Carwoola station lies on river flats between hills bisected by the Molonglo River, which is fed by numerous streams. The meaning may also be found in the fact that Primrose Creek, a southern tributary of the Molonglo, meets that river to the north-east of St. Thomas' Anglican Church, built on Carwoola land. An historian writing in 1938 claimed that 'The Molonglo River was known to the Aborigines as the Yealambidgee, meaning a chain of waterholes, and the plains on the watershed of this river above Carwoola Gap as Molinggoolah, which name has been corrupted into the modern Molonglo. Moolinggoolah was subdivided by the Aborigines into Carwoola (still retained) and Enwoola (now Foxlow), meaning the centre and the end of the plain below and above the junction of the Tirralilly River (Barrow, 2005, 72).

The origins of Carwoola began with the construction of several small slab dwellings by Edward John Eyre (Barrow, 2005, 72). Eyre, later to become a famous explorer, bought 1260 acres from Smith in 1834 (Purves & Darlington, 2006, 30) at 4 shillings an acre (ibid, 1981, 97).

Smith sold the land in 1836 to William Rutledge (ibid, 1981, 97). Rutledge bought Eyre's two blocks in 1837 (ibid, 1981, 97). Later, Rutledge is said to have bought 'The Briars', a nearby property on which two early stone cottages still stand. This land belonged to William Balcombe who went overland to Port Phillip with William Rutledge in 1838 and later settled at The Briars, Mornington Peninsula, Victoria (ibid, 1981, 97).

It is possible that Gilbert Henry Smith and/or William Rutledge might have been responsible for the earlier buildings (ibid, 1981, 97). The buildings surviving today were built by William and Thomas Rutledge in the late 1830s (Branch Managers Report to the Heritage Council 22 June 1979. The NTA(NSW: 1976) says it was sold to William Rutledge in 1836, adding that Thomas Rutledge settled here and built the present house probably prior to his marriage in 1849 (Roxburgh, 1974) to his first cousin, Martha Forster (ibid, 2015, 72) of Brush Farm (Eastwood, Sydney)(ibid, 1981, 97).

In 1839 Rutledge's brother Thomas had sailed to Australia and become Carwoola's manager. He was only in his early 20s and developed extensive pastoral interests including the purchase of Carwoola. William Rutledge settled in Victoria where he became known as 'terrible Billy' for his explosive temper and unreserved use of 'the language of a centurion' (ibid, 2015, 72-73). Thomas Rutledge later became owner of Carwoola (ibid, 1981, 97).

The Rutledges gradually extended their holdings so that by the 1870s they controlled about 90,000 acres (by 1877 Carwoola and another Rutledge property, Gidleigh, totalled 90,000 acres (36,450ha)(ibid, 2005, 72) and Carwoola became the centre of rural hospitality in the district (Branch Managers Report to the Heritage Council 22 June 1979). Under Thomas Rutledge, Carwoola became a most important centre, catering for the needs of neighbouring settlers and passing travellers (NTA (NSW), 1976). Its homestead was being described as architecturally 'of the modern style'. It was said that it 'comprises two stories, and is built of the best materials, with a verandah around three sides... All the usual appurtenances belonging to a well-appointed station are here also, such as store, post office...Telegraph office...and several cottages for the hands employed (ibid, 2015, 72-73).

In 1848 Rutledge gave a ball at Carwoola, one of the guests being Stewart Mowle who had to ride through a threatening windstorm to get there. Mowle's diaries record his dislike of the Rutledges: 'Rutledge, a very common North of Ireland man, as the Rutledges are...'. Others saw Rutledge differently. He became a prominent breeder of fast racehorses and when he died in 1904, aged 86, was called 'a great sporting enthusiast...He owned and bred some of the best horses in the district'. An obituary notice described him as 'most hospitable, generous, sympathetic and broad minded...(with) a bright and genial disposition'. His widow Martha survived him by five years, dying in 1909 (Barrow, 2015, 72-73). Thomas and Martha Rutledge lie today in the small graveyard of St. Thomas' Anglican Church, whose iron roof and steeple are just visible from Carwoola's second entrance gate, 2km away on the Captain's Flat Road. The church was built on land donated by Rutledge and was the work of noted church architect and builder, the Rev. Alberto Soares. It was built between 1872-4, and consecrated in 1876. Its prominent east window depicting St. Thomas and Christ was presented in 1873 by Sir Edward Knox and his wife, Martha, who was Thomas Rutledge's sister. Sir Edward Knox founded the Colonial Sugar Refining Co. and had many other business interests. Mrs Elizabeth Falkiner of Foxlow presented a stile to give access (over the fence) into the grounds, but over the years this has been removed. Like the Rutledges, Mrs Falkiner and her husband, Franc Brereton Sadlier Falkiner, are buried next to each other in this graveyard (Barrow, 2005, 74).

In its heyday from 80-100 people lived here, with old married mens' quarters (with one room each) and young married mens' quarters (with two rooms each)(Purves & Darlington, 2016, pers.comm.).

Carwoola passed into the hands of a South Australian, James Maslin, in 1907 and at the time of the sale was a station of 40,000 acres (16,200ha) carrying 12,000 sheep (Barrow, 2015, 72-73) The wartime death of his 21-year old son, Jim, is recorded in an inscription on a window in St. Thomas's Anglican Church, Carwoola. Jim was killed in France in action in 1917 and the church window depicts a uniformed soldier. A wall tablet, erected by Alice Thornton Mills, also commemorates Jim Maslin. Thomas Rutledge who also helped fund the church, as well as donating the land, is remembered twice - on a plaque and a memorial window. It is possible that the graveyard may have been in use before the church was built because an inscription on what is called the Bowen family vault honours the 1788 convict Owen Bowen who died in 1840. After gaining his ticket-of-occupation for 100 acres of land, making him the 'first authorised occupant to reside on a large holding in the district'. Bowen arrived on the scene in 1811 (Barrow, 2005, 75).
James Maslin by 1928 had grown the property to 25, 778 acres. In 1928 it was subdivided and sold off in 7 blocks. The sales poster described the property as 'high class grazing, breeding and fattening country on the favoured Southern Tablelands'. The 'homestead' block of 8189 acres was described: as 'built of stone, and out buildings are palatial, and with its surroundings and ornamental trees remind one of an English home. All modern conveniences, including water, electric light and sewerage are installed' (Purves and Darlington, 2016, 30).

In 1929 the homestead was described as: 'a comfortable two-storied stone building...The house has 16 rooms in the main building, including a magnificent billiard room...Outside the home one finds pretty gardens laid out in striking formation, above which tower beautiful English trees, including the elm, oak... (Barrow, 2005, 73).

The property was owned by the Scott family from the 1920s until 1972 (Branch Managers Report to the Heritage Council 22 June 1979).

In 1979 the then owner of Carwoola requested the placement of a Permanent Conservation Order and sought technical advice from the Heritage Council. Following a site visit by the Heritage and Conservation branch and in recognition of its historic and aesthetic significance a Permanent Conservation Order was placed over the property on 21 December 1979. It was transferred to the State Heritage Register on 2 April 1999.

The farm today is 5000 acres.

Historic themes

Australian theme (abbrev)New South Wales themeLocal theme
1. Environment-Tracing the evolution of a continent's special environments Environment - naturally evolved-Activities associated with the physical surroundings that support human life and influence or shape human cultures. Environment/Contact: What do we know of the Contact Environment?-Environment (Natural) Control
1. Environment-Tracing the evolution of a continent's special environments Environment - naturally evolved-Activities associated with the physical surroundings that support human life and influence or shape human cultures. River flats-
1. Environment-Tracing the evolution of a continent's special environments Environment - naturally evolved-Activities associated with the physical surroundings that support human life and influence or shape human cultures. Changing the environment-
1. Environment-Tracing the evolution of a continent's special environments Environment - naturally evolved-Activities associated with the physical surroundings that support human life and influence or shape human cultures. Cultural: Rivers and water bodies important to humans-
1. Environment-Tracing the evolution of a continent's special environments Environment - naturally evolved-Activities associated with the physical surroundings that support human life and influence or shape human cultures. Cultural: Plains and plateaux supporting human activities-
1. Environment-Tracing the evolution of a continent's special environments Environment - naturally evolved-Activities associated with the physical surroundings that support human life and influence or shape human cultures. Using natural features for human security-
1. Environment-Tracing the evolution of a continent's special environments Environment - naturally evolved-Activities associated with the physical surroundings that support human life and influence or shape human cultures. Natural - pre European settlement vegetation-
1. Environment-Tracing the evolution of a continent's special environments Environment - naturally evolved-Activities associated with the physical surroundings that support human life and influence or shape human cultures. Natural - site important native fauna habitat or food source-
1. Environment-Tracing the evolution of a continent's special environments Environment - naturally evolved-Activities associated with the physical surroundings that support human life and influence or shape human cultures. Introduce cultural planting-
1. Environment-Tracing the evolution of a continent's special environments Environment - naturally evolved-Activities associated with the physical surroundings that support human life and influence or shape human cultures. remnant woodland and grasses-
2. Peopling-Peopling the continent Aboriginal cultures and interactions with other cultures-Activities associated with maintaining, developing, experiencing and remembering Aboriginal cultural identities and practices, past and present. Aboriginal Culture-
2. Peopling-Peopling the continent Aboriginal cultures and interactions with other cultures-Activities associated with maintaining, developing, experiencing and remembering Aboriginal cultural identities and practices, past and present. All nations - place of first contact between Aboriginal and European peoples-
2. Peopling-Peopling the continent Aboriginal cultures and interactions with other cultures-Activities associated with maintaining, developing, experiencing and remembering Aboriginal cultural identities and practices, past and present. Ngunawal Nation - occupation sites-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Agriculture-Activities relating to the cultivation and rearing of plant and animal species, usually for commercial purposes, can include aquaculture Private farming-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Agriculture-Activities relating to the cultivation and rearing of plant and animal species, usually for commercial purposes, can include aquaculture Truffle farming-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Agriculture-Activities relating to the cultivation and rearing of plant and animal species, usually for commercial purposes, can include aquaculture Cereal production-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Agriculture-Activities relating to the cultivation and rearing of plant and animal species, usually for commercial purposes, can include aquaculture Farming wheat and other grains-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Agriculture-Activities relating to the cultivation and rearing of plant and animal species, usually for commercial purposes, can include aquaculture Clearing land for farming-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Agriculture-Activities relating to the cultivation and rearing of plant and animal species, usually for commercial purposes, can include aquaculture Ancillary structures fencing-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Agriculture-Activities relating to the cultivation and rearing of plant and animal species, usually for commercial purposes, can include aquaculture Agroforesty-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Agriculture-Activities relating to the cultivation and rearing of plant and animal species, usually for commercial purposes, can include aquaculture Rural Estates-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Agriculture-Activities relating to the cultivation and rearing of plant and animal species, usually for commercial purposes, can include aquaculture Improving agricultural production-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Agriculture-Activities relating to the cultivation and rearing of plant and animal species, usually for commercial purposes, can include aquaculture Attempting to transplant European farming practices to Australian environments-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Agriculture-Activities relating to the cultivation and rearing of plant and animal species, usually for commercial purposes, can include aquaculture Ancillary structures - wells, cisterns-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Environment - cultural landscape-Activities associated with the interactions between humans, human societies and the shaping of their physical surroundings Developing local, regional and national economies-National Theme 3
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Environment - cultural landscape-Activities associated with the interactions between humans, human societies and the shaping of their physical surroundings Creating environments evocative of the 'old country'-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Environment - cultural landscape-Activities associated with the interactions between humans, human societies and the shaping of their physical surroundings Landscapes of industrial production-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Environment - cultural landscape-Activities associated with the interactions between humans, human societies and the shaping of their physical surroundings Landscapes of food production-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Environment - cultural landscape-Activities associated with the interactions between humans, human societies and the shaping of their physical surroundings Landscapes and gardens of domestic accommodation-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Environment - cultural landscape-Activities associated with the interactions between humans, human societies and the shaping of their physical surroundings Gardens and landscapes reminiscent of an 'old country'-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Environment - cultural landscape-Activities associated with the interactions between humans, human societies and the shaping of their physical surroundings Landscapes and countryside of rural charm-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Environment - cultural landscape-Activities associated with the interactions between humans, human societies and the shaping of their physical surroundings Landscapes demonstrating styles in landscape design-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Exploration-Activities associated with making places previously unknown to a cultural group known to them. (none)-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Pastoralism-Activities associated with the breeding, raising, processing and distribution of livestock for human use (none)-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Pastoralism-Activities associated with the breeding, raising, processing and distribution of livestock for human use Working for pastoralists-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Pastoralism-Activities associated with the breeding, raising, processing and distribution of livestock for human use Beef cattle breeding and raising-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Pastoralism-Activities associated with the breeding, raising, processing and distribution of livestock for human use Sheep farming for lamb and mutton-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Pastoralism-Activities associated with the breeding, raising, processing and distribution of livestock for human use Agisting and fattening stock for slaughter-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Pastoralism-Activities associated with the breeding, raising, processing and distribution of livestock for human use pastoral homestead-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Pastoralism-Activities associated with the breeding, raising, processing and distribution of livestock for human use Sheep farming for wool-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Accommodation-Activities associated with the provision of accommodation, and particular types of accommodation – does not include architectural styles – use the theme of Creative Endeavour for such activities. Country Homes-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Accommodation-Activities associated with the provision of accommodation, and particular types of accommodation – does not include architectural styles – use the theme of Creative Endeavour for such activities. Worker's Dwellings-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Accommodation-Activities associated with the provision of accommodation, and particular types of accommodation – does not include architectural styles – use the theme of Creative Endeavour for such activities. (none)-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Accommodation-Activities associated with the provision of accommodation, and particular types of accommodation – does not include architectural styles – use the theme of Creative Endeavour for such activities. Housing farming families-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Accommodation-Activities associated with the provision of accommodation, and particular types of accommodation – does not include architectural styles – use the theme of Creative Endeavour for such activities. Housing the prosperous - mansions in town and country-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Accommodation-Activities associated with the provision of accommodation, and particular types of accommodation – does not include architectural styles – use the theme of Creative Endeavour for such activities. Housing for farm and station hands-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Accommodation-Activities associated with the provision of accommodation, and particular types of accommodation – does not include architectural styles – use the theme of Creative Endeavour for such activities. Crude huts-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Accommodation-Activities associated with the provision of accommodation, and particular types of accommodation – does not include architectural styles – use the theme of Creative Endeavour for such activities. early settlement or worker's cottage-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Accommodation-Activities associated with the provision of accommodation, and particular types of accommodation – does not include architectural styles – use the theme of Creative Endeavour for such activities. Adapted heritage building or structure-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Accommodation-Activities associated with the provision of accommodation, and particular types of accommodation – does not include architectural styles – use the theme of Creative Endeavour for such activities. Farm homestead-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Accommodation-Activities associated with the provision of accommodation, and particular types of accommodation – does not include architectural styles – use the theme of Creative Endeavour for such activities. Accommodating workers in workers' housing-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Accommodation-Activities associated with the provision of accommodation, and particular types of accommodation – does not include architectural styles – use the theme of Creative Endeavour for such activities. Timber and iron vernacular-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Accommodation-Activities associated with the provision of accommodation, and particular types of accommodation – does not include architectural styles – use the theme of Creative Endeavour for such activities. Housing professional people-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Accommodation-Activities associated with the provision of accommodation, and particular types of accommodation – does not include architectural styles – use the theme of Creative Endeavour for such activities. Country Villa-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Accommodation-Activities associated with the provision of accommodation, and particular types of accommodation – does not include architectural styles – use the theme of Creative Endeavour for such activities. gentlemen's residences-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Accommodation-Activities associated with the provision of accommodation, and particular types of accommodation – does not include architectural styles – use the theme of Creative Endeavour for such activities. Country mansion-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Accommodation-Activities associated with the provision of accommodation, and particular types of accommodation – does not include architectural styles – use the theme of Creative Endeavour for such activities. Pastoral Homestead-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Accommodation-Activities associated with the provision of accommodation, and particular types of accommodation – does not include architectural styles – use the theme of Creative Endeavour for such activities. Shearers' Accommodation-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Accommodation-Activities associated with the provision of accommodation, and particular types of accommodation – does not include architectural styles – use the theme of Creative Endeavour for such activities. Living on the land-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Land tenure-Activities and processes for identifying forms of ownership and occupancy of land and water, both Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal 1820s-1850s land grants-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Land tenure-Activities and processes for identifying forms of ownership and occupancy of land and water, both Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Early land grants-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Land tenure-Activities and processes for identifying forms of ownership and occupancy of land and water, both Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Early farming (Cattle grazing)-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Land tenure-Activities and processes for identifying forms of ownership and occupancy of land and water, both Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Villas-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Land tenure-Activities and processes for identifying forms of ownership and occupancy of land and water, both Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Closer Settlement-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Land tenure-Activities and processes for identifying forms of ownership and occupancy of land and water, both Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Sub-division of large estates-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Land tenure-Activities and processes for identifying forms of ownership and occupancy of land and water, both Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Fencing boundaries - wooden post and rail-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Land tenure-Activities and processes for identifying forms of ownership and occupancy of land and water, both Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Granting Crown lands for private farming-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Land tenure-Activities and processes for identifying forms of ownership and occupancy of land and water, both Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Selecting land for pastoral or agricultural purposes-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Land tenure-Activities and processes for identifying forms of ownership and occupancy of land and water, both Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Changing land uses - from rural to tourist-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Land tenure-Activities and processes for identifying forms of ownership and occupancy of land and water, both Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Bounding adminstrative areas-
5. Working-Working Labour-Activities associated with work practises and organised and unorganised labour Working independently on the land-
5. Working-Working Labour-Activities associated with work practises and organised and unorganised labour Working on pastoral stations-
5. Working-Working Labour-Activities associated with work practises and organised and unorganised labour Servants quarters-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Creative endeavour-Activities associated with the production and performance of literary, artistic, architectural and other imaginative, interpretive or inventive works; and/or associated with the production and expression of cultural phenomena; and/or environments that have inspired such creative activities. Architectural styles and periods - colonial Georgian-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Creative endeavour-Activities associated with the production and performance of literary, artistic, architectural and other imaginative, interpretive or inventive works; and/or associated with the production and expression of cultural phenomena; and/or environments that have inspired such creative activities. Landscaping - colonial period-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Creative endeavour-Activities associated with the production and performance of literary, artistic, architectural and other imaginative, interpretive or inventive works; and/or associated with the production and expression of cultural phenomena; and/or environments that have inspired such creative activities. Landscaping - 20th century post WW2-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Creative endeavour-Activities associated with the production and performance of literary, artistic, architectural and other imaginative, interpretive or inventive works; and/or associated with the production and expression of cultural phenomena; and/or environments that have inspired such creative activities. Landscaping - Victorian gardenesque style-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Creative endeavour-Activities associated with the production and performance of literary, artistic, architectural and other imaginative, interpretive or inventive works; and/or associated with the production and expression of cultural phenomena; and/or environments that have inspired such creative activities. Architectural styles and periods - Victorian (mid)-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Creative endeavour-Activities associated with the production and performance of literary, artistic, architectural and other imaginative, interpretive or inventive works; and/or associated with the production and expression of cultural phenomena; and/or environments that have inspired such creative activities. Building in response to natural landscape features.-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Creative endeavour-Activities associated with the production and performance of literary, artistic, architectural and other imaginative, interpretive or inventive works; and/or associated with the production and expression of cultural phenomena; and/or environments that have inspired such creative activities. Landscaping - Federation period-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Creative endeavour-Activities associated with the production and performance of literary, artistic, architectural and other imaginative, interpretive or inventive works; and/or associated with the production and expression of cultural phenomena; and/or environments that have inspired such creative activities. Adaptation of overseas design for local use-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Creative endeavour-Activities associated with the production and performance of literary, artistic, architectural and other imaginative, interpretive or inventive works; and/or associated with the production and expression of cultural phenomena; and/or environments that have inspired such creative activities. Architectural styles and periods - colonial homestead-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Creative endeavour-Activities associated with the production and performance of literary, artistic, architectural and other imaginative, interpretive or inventive works; and/or associated with the production and expression of cultural phenomena; and/or environments that have inspired such creative activities. Vernacular structures and building techniques-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Creative endeavour-Activities associated with the production and performance of literary, artistic, architectural and other imaginative, interpretive or inventive works; and/or associated with the production and expression of cultural phenomena; and/or environments that have inspired such creative activities. Designing landscapes in an exemplary style-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Creative endeavour-Activities associated with the production and performance of literary, artistic, architectural and other imaginative, interpretive or inventive works; and/or associated with the production and expression of cultural phenomena; and/or environments that have inspired such creative activities. Building in response to climate - verandahs-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Creative endeavour-Activities associated with the production and performance of literary, artistic, architectural and other imaginative, interpretive or inventive works; and/or associated with the production and expression of cultural phenomena; and/or environments that have inspired such creative activities. Applying architectural design to utlilitarian structures-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Domestic life-Activities associated with creating, maintaining, living in and working around houses and institutions. Country estates - visiting, enjoying-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Domestic life-Activities associated with creating, maintaining, living in and working around houses and institutions. Ways of life 1900-1950-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Domestic life-Activities associated with creating, maintaining, living in and working around houses and institutions. Ways of life 1950-2000-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Domestic life-Activities associated with creating, maintaining, living in and working around houses and institutions. Ways of life 1788-1850-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Domestic life-Activities associated with creating, maintaining, living in and working around houses and institutions. Ways of life 1850-1900-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Domestic life-Activities associated with creating, maintaining, living in and working around houses and institutions. Kitchens and servants-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Domestic life-Activities associated with creating, maintaining, living in and working around houses and institutions. Living in a rural homestead-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Domestic life-Activities associated with creating, maintaining, living in and working around houses and institutions. Living in, adapting and renovating homes for changing conditions-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Leisure-Activities associated with recreation and relaxation Gardening-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Leisure-Activities associated with recreation and relaxation Activities associated with relaxation and recreation-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Leisure-Activities associated with recreation and relaxation Gathering at landmark places to socialise-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Leisure-Activities associated with recreation and relaxation Going hunting and shooting-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Social institutions-Activities and organisational arrangements for the provision of social activities Places of informal community gatherings-
9. Phases of Life-Marking the phases of life Persons-Activities of, and associations with, identifiable individuals, families and communal groups Associations with Allan Cunningham, colonial and Kings botanist, explorer-
9. Phases of Life-Marking the phases of life Persons-Activities of, and associations with, identifiable individuals, families and communal groups Associations with Edward John Eyre, explorer-
9. Phases of Life-Marking the phases of life Persons-Activities of, and associations with, identifiable individuals, families and communal groups Associations with Thomas Rutledge, grazier and farmer-
9. Phases of Life-Marking the phases of life Persons-Activities of, and associations with, identifiable individuals, families and communal groups Associations with William Rutledge, grazier and farmer-
9. Phases of Life-Marking the phases of life Persons-Activities of, and associations with, identifiable individuals, families and communal groups Associations with Henry Gilbert Smith, grazier, merchant, entrepreneur of Manly resort-

Assessment of significance

SHR Criteria a)
[Historical significance]
Carwoola homestead and outbuildings was erected over a period between about 1830 to 1850. The site has important historical associations and was a centre of rural hospitality in the district during the later part of the 19th century. (Branch Managers Report to the Heritage Council 22 June 1979)
SHR Criteria c)
[Aesthetic significance]
Carwoola is an early colonial homestead complex containing a large number of early buildings set in an impressive rural landscape of natural and man-made elements. The main blocks architecture is strong, simple and unpretentious, while the outbuildings re not only noteworthy as vernacular forms but also for the interesting groupings that they create in an impressive garden setting. (Branch Managers Report to the Heritage Council 22 June 1979)
Assessment criteria: Items are assessed against the PDF State Heritage Register (SHR) Criteria to determine the level of significance. Refer to the Listings below for the level of statutory protection.

Recommended management:

Recommendations

Management CategoryDescriptionDate Updated
Recommended ManagementProduce a Conservation Management Plan (CMP) 
Recommended ManagementCarry out an Archaeological Assessment 
Recommended ManagementPrepare a maintenance schedule or guidelines 
Recommended ManagementCarry out interpretation, promotion and/or education 

Procedures /Exemptions

Section of actDescriptionTitleCommentsAction date
57(2)Exemption to allow workStandard Exemptions SCHEDULE OF STANDARD EXEMPTIONS
HERITAGE ACT 1977
Notice of Order Under Section 57 (2) of the Heritage Act 1977

I, the Minister for Planning, pursuant to subsection 57(2) of the Heritage Act 1977, on the recommendation of the Heritage Council of New South Wales, do by this Order:

1. revoke the Schedule of Exemptions to subsection 57(1) of the Heritage Act made under subsection 57(2) and published in the Government Gazette on 22 February 2008; and

2. grant standard exemptions from subsection 57(1) of the Heritage Act 1977, described in the Schedule attached.

FRANK SARTOR
Minister for Planning
Sydney, 11 July 2008

To view the schedule click on the Standard Exemptions for Works Requiring Heritage Council Approval link below.
Sep 5 2008

PDF Standard exemptions for works requiring Heritage Council approval

Listings

Heritage ListingListing TitleListing NumberGazette DateGazette NumberGazette Page
Heritage Act - State Heritage Register 0003602 Apr 99 271546
Heritage Act - Permanent Conservation Order - former 0003621 Dec 79 1846400
Local Environmental PlanPalerang LEP 2014 19 Sep 14   
National Trust of Australia register National Trust (NSW) Country Register419305 Apr 76   

Study details

TitleYearNumberAuthorInspected byGuidelines used
Heritage Inventory Lake George, Molonglo Valley & Burra2009MB2Plowman, Suzannah  Yes

References, internet links & images

TypeAuthorYearTitleInternet Links
WrittenBarrow, Graeme Unlocking History’s Secrets – Journeys along the Canberra Region’s Heritage Trails
WrittenCantlon, Maurice1981Homesteads of Southern New South Wales 1830-1900
WrittenHeritage Council of NSW (file)1979Branch Managers Report to the Heritage Council 22 June 1979
WrittenPurves, R. & Darlington, B., in Australian Garden History Society, 2016, The Scientist in the Garden: 37th Annual National Conference, Canberra, 14-16 October 20162016'Carwoola, Bungendore, NSW', notes

Note: internet links may be to web pages, documents or images.

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Data source

The information for this entry comes from the following source:
Name: Heritage Office
Database number: 5045443
File number: S90/06270 & HC 32001


Every effort has been made to ensure that information contained in the State Heritage Inventory is correct. If you find any errors or omissions please send your comments to the Database Manager.

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