Dalkeith Property | NSW Environment, Energy and Science

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Heritage

Dalkeith Property

Item details

Name of item: Dalkeith Property
Type of item: Built
Group/Collection: Residential buildings (private)
Category: House
Location: Lat: -33.8368786232 Long: 151.2241885430
Primary address: 8 Bannerman Street, Cremorne, NSW 2090
Parish: Willoughby
County: Cumberland
Local govt. area: North Sydney
Local Aboriginal Land Council: Metropolitan
Property description
Lot/Volume CodeLot/Volume NumberSection NumberPlan/Folio CodePlan/Folio Number
LOT1 DP603005
All addresses
Street AddressSuburb/townLGAParishCountyType
8 Bannerman StreetCremorneNorth SydneyWilloughbyCumberlandPrimary Address
2 Guthrie AvenueCremorneNorth Sydney  Alternate Address

Owner/s

Organisation NameOwner CategoryDate Ownership Updated
 Private25 Mar 99

Statement of significance:

Interesting example of Federation Arts & Crafts style house which is representative of the type of residences which typified the early development in the area. Association value for its use as a chapel for the Norwegian Seaman's Church. Excellent survival of garden and context and it remains a significant local landmark.
Date significance updated: 27 Jul 11
Note: The State Heritage Inventory provides information about heritage items listed by local and State government agencies. The State Heritage Inventory is continually being updated by local and State agencies as new information becomes available. Read the OEH copyright and disclaimer.

Description

Designer/Maker: H.A.Wilshire (house); Poole & Siddeley (1914 pool room at front)
Builder/Maker: G.E.Flower
Construction years: 1911-1914
Physical description: Garden:
The house is set well back from the street, on a sloping site terraced with rock walling, and accessed by paths and steps. A spacious lawn occupies the lowest terrace level adjoining the street edge.

A low stone wall with iron gate (and historic plaque on one pillar), and hedge of Viburnum odoratissimum marks the front boundary. Another similar hedge lines the upper terrace on which the house sits (Stuart Read, pers.comm., 2/5/2016).

The garden is mature and features palms, with Cocos Island or Queen palms (Syragus romanzoffianum) and silver date (Phoenix sylvestris) prominent near the front fence, brush box (Lophostemon confertus) near the house and a lemon-scented gum tree (Corymbia citriodora) and jacaranda (J.mimosifolia) are on the lowest terrace near the footpath and garage. Another brush box and jacaranda are behind the house on an upper grassed terrace (Stuart Read, pers.comm., 2/5/2016).

Shrubs include sago palm (Cycas revoluta) and sweet pittosporum (P.undulatum) in the front garden bordering the upper (house) terrace). A white-painted flag pole runs an Australian flag in the front yard (ibid, 2/5/2016).

House (c1908-12):
Two storey house of rusticated ashlar sandstone with extensive use of timber shingle cladding to the upper storey. Multi-hipped roof is clad in slate with terracotta ridge capping. Features include the sheet metal verandah balustrade with decorative relief castings, rendered flat rain hoods over window and door openings and roughcast rendered entrance porch.This building is designed in the Federation Arts and Crafts style (LEP, 2013).

An interesting example of a Federation Arts and Crafts style house which is representative of the type of residences which typified the early development in the are. Associational value for its use a chapel for the Norwegian Seaman's church. Excellent survival of garden and context and it remains a significant local landmark (LEP, 2013).

Pool room appears to have been designed in 1914 by Stone & Siddeley . Rough cast plaster over masonry, flat roofed (with iron pipe balustrading)(Archnex, 2016, 3, 6).

Outbuildings:
A double garage is on one side of the house accessed off Bannerman Street.

Workshop/cottage (pre-dates 1914 Pool room at front of house, i.e. c.1912-14):
1914 Pool room drawings show a 'chimney to rise thro (sic) workshop', with 'rough cast above workshop roof'.
The roof is shallowly pitched and slate, with terracotta ridge tiles to hip and skillion roof. Walls are sandstone to front (downhill), and lightweight framing clad in 'fibro' cladding to the extension the rear (uphill). tongue-and-groove lining boards to the ceiling in the living/dining space. The bedroom has internal wall / ceiling linings of vertical boards (walls), hardboard and boarding (ibid, 2016, 6).
The current configuration of workshop/cottage (two rooms: living/dining and bedroom, with open plan kitchen in living/dining area and bathroom/WC in bedroom area) is a result of works during hte Sjomannskirken period of use and documented in a drawing of c1969 (ibid, 2016, 3).
Modifications and dates: 2011: unapproved works undertaken: demolition of rear portion of the house; rendering of small outbuilding to rear; installing new roofing on this building.
Current use: Residence
Former use: Aboriginal land, Residence, Norwegian Seamen's Church, Meditation Centre

History

Historical notes: Cremorne Point and Mosman Bay:
Wooloorigang / Cremorne Point and Mosman Bay were both once Cammeraygal territory named Wul-warra-Jeung before European settlement in Sydney Cove to their south. Aborigines called the waters east of the point Goram-Bullagong. In early European settlement after 1788 it became known as Careening Point and Mosman Cove became known as Hungry Bay. Careening Point commemorates HMS Sirius, a ship from the First Fleet of 1788, which was refurbished, pushed upstream in Mosman Bay (Read, 2009).

In January 1822 Scot James Robertson, watch maker, arrived on the Providence with wife and six children to become Supervisor of Governor Brisbane's astronomical instruments and clocks at his observatory in the Parramatta Domain. Brisbane was named 'founder' of Australian science by Sir William Herschell, himself a noted astronomer and botanist who spent some time in South Africa. Robertson was granted a large amount of land on the Upper Hunter River and later in 1823 a further 86 acres (34.8ha) of Cremorne headland, where he built a Georgian house with fine cedar joinery. In its grounds were some fine pear trees. One of his sons became Sir John Robertson, NSW's fifth Premier - and premier five times. His statue graces the pedestrian avenue in the Domain opposite the Art Gallery of NSW (ibid, 2009).

The difficulty of crossing the harbour was overcome by John in a novel manner. Rather than hire a boat from Blues Point (there were no ferries yet) and walk, he would walk to Mrs Macquarie's Point, tie his clothes to his head and swim. At Fort Denison he would rest before swimming the remainder. Robertson's Point commemorates his father's occupation. Today it sports a lighthouse for navigation (ibid, 2009).

The foreshore path from Neutral Bay to Cremorne Point wharf dates to 1830 when the reserve was retained by the Crown. Cremorne Point Reserve is the most substantial example in North Sydney of imposition of the 100' (Harbour Foreshore) Reservation, applied from 1828 (ibid, 2009).

The Rev. W.B.Clarke identified a coal seam running under much of Sydney and proposed it be mined. An experimental copper smelting industry was established in the mid-1840s on the eastern shore but was not successful and was removed by 1849 (ibid, 2009).

In 1853 North Shore pioneer James Milson bought the land - Robertson's house became the Cremorne Hotel, later Cremorne House - and three years later leased 22 acres to J.R.Clarke and Charles H.Woolcott, who planned Cremorne Gardens, named for the rather notorious Regency Pleasure Gardens in London. These opened in 1856 with 30 acres (12.2ha) and amusements galore. Steamers plied from Circular Quay and Woolloomooloo Bay every half hour until late. There were scenic walks - the Serpentine Walk and Italian Walk. Papers advertised 'a monster dancing stage, 200' in circumference', an 'excellent (German) band, carousel, archery, quoits, rifle shooting, skittles, gymnastics, rifle gallery and refreshments' at Sydney prices. Even a masked ball. At 8pm, magnificent fireworks, a la Vauxhall Pleasure Gardens (London) and splendid pyrotechny as in Cremorne Gardens, London. The Sydney Morning Herald declared Cremorne to 'be ranked among the best of those places of holiday resort of a superior order which have recently sprung into existence in the neighbourhood of Sydney'. Anyone missing the last boat was compelled to remain behind overnight, as the bush was too thick to penetrate and few cared to swim back. By 1862 the place had an unsavoury reputation and the 'Gardens' were in ruins (ibid, 2009).

Around 1875 a white cask was moored just off Cremorne Point and used for target practice from Mrs Macquarie's Chair. Balls from the 68 pound cannon would skim across the harbour ending up near Whiting Beach, near Taronga Zoo. The barrage would stop for the hourly steam ferry. In the 1880s and 1890s Cremorne Point was a more genteel Victorian sunday destination (ibid, 2009).

In 1891 and 1893 Sydney Harbour Collieries Ltd. sank exploratory bores and discovered coal ten feet thick. Despite support from the Mines Department, the Lands Department refused permission to build coal wharves and the company found an alternative base in Balmain (ibid, 2009).

By the beginning of the 20th century the maritime enterprises that had dominated the Lower North Shore had begun to give way to residential development. Neutral Bay and Cremorne became known as 'alternative society suburbs', where the emerging Arts and Crafts architectural style was creating a 'friendly', relaxed style in contrast to the uniformity of terrace housing (National Trust of Australia, 2019, 18).

In 1905 a Harbour Foreshores Vigilance Committee formed and Cremorne Reserve was proclaimed later that year, with North Sydney Council as trustee. This was the culmination of a ten year campaign to secure the area as public land. It reflected other campaigns for harbour foreshore reserves and conservation of that time. Magnificent harbour and city views were and remain available from here (ibid, 2009).

The McCallum Pool west of Cremorne Point was built in the 1920s as a pleasure pool for residents. As the threat of industrialisation subsided, others arose. Subdivision of the peninsula followed land reservation. By 1925 residential development encroached. While private gardens flourished, weeds and rubbish choked the foreshore reserve. Reports that 'respectable people' didn't go there at night suggest it was sheltering the homeless or carousing couples after dark. North Sydney Council started a beautification campaign in the 1920s with local residents helping, transforming it by the 1930s. Several elements of that era survive - a concrete and chicken wire sign, archway etc. Then, perhaps due to the 1930s depression and World War 2, it sunk into neglect again (ibid, 2009).

The area attracted various architects including J.Burcham Clamp: his house The Laurels (1907, extended 1920) is a striking Arts & Crafts example. A 1927 issue of 'The Home' magazine featured an 'Italian' (Mediterranean revival) example - a house belonging to Mr F.C.Lane (ibid, 2009).

Dalkeith:
Dalkeith was built c1908 for Frank Whiddon to a design by H.A.Wilshire, who appears to have had a penchant for flat-roofed house design (Archnex, 2016, 12).

Whiddon (1877-1947) was Chairman and Managing Director of Whiddon Bros., a wool-scouring business established in 1900 in Botany and acquiring Messrs Johnson's and Vicars' works on the Botany Water Reserve in 1906. The company was formed by he and his brothers Horace and Arthur in 1900 and became a public company in 1910 with authorised capital of 50,000 pounds in 1000 pound shares. Frank was active in the masonic movement and a keen yachtsman. He married Alice Maude Curnow in 1906 at the Pitt Street Congregational Church and it appears Dalkeith was commissioned shortly after (c.1908)(ibid, 3; also Australian Dictionary of Biography Vol.12 entry on Whiddon, Frank by G.P.Walsh, 1990)).

"The house that brains built" (the title of an article in "Building" magazine in February 12, 1912 which attributed the design the H.A. (Henry Austin) Wilshire, architect and G.E.Flower, master builder) appears to have been given an Arts & Crafts style 'makeover' in the immediate post-World War 2 period, with the pool room built following a design by Stone & Siddeley architects in 1914 (ibid, 12).

Examination of the c1912 photograph reveals that there was an outbuilding (the workshop) in the approximate location of the workshop/cottage at that time, but further to the west and of a differing form to the existing structure. The current structure (at least in part) was apparently there by 1914, as evidenced by the notes to the Stone & Siddeley drawings, and entailed certain awkward detailing with regard to underpinning and the passage of the chimney. It also compromised the passage of services and groundwater, resulting in chronic and ongoing damp impacts on the pool room (Archnex, 2016, 12).

The Whiddons had three children while living here: Helen M. (b.1909), Enid A. (b.1912) and Frank B. (b.1914). Alice died in 1919 and Frank married Blodwen Jones in September 1923. It appears they had moved to Point Piper in the interim. The schedules to primary application 54221 indicate conveyances in the property in May 1921 and April 1923 (ibid, 3).

Whiddon was a prominent and dedicated Freemason (ADB, 1990) and later (1945) Grand Master of the NSW Masonic Society (North Sydney Historical Society & NSCC 1985 plaque on site). He was a founding member of (Royal) Prince Edward Yacht Club, a member of the Australian Jockey Club and enjoyed motoring and golf (ADB, 1990) and is commemorated in the Frank Whiddon Masonic Homes (Archnex, 2016, 4).

It is probable that the house was given its present Arts & Crafts style external 'makeover' in the immediate post-World War 1 period, including abandonment of flat roofs and construction of the pitched slate roof with terracotta finials and ridge saddles, a typical treatment at the time (Archnex, 2016, 12 & 4).

Frank Whiddon died in 1947 at his home in Point Piper and was cremated with Masonic rites. He was survived by his widow Blodwen, their daughter, son and two daughters from his first marriage. His younger brother Horace, (from 1934 an MLC although an inactive one), became chairman of directors of the family firm (ADB, 1990).

Used from the early 1950s until 1978 as the Norwegian Seaman's Church, with the former billiard room used as the chapel then used as centre for the International Meditation Society (LEP, 2013).

The current workshop/cottage configuration is the result of works undertaken during hte period of use by the Sjomannskirken and is documented by a c1969 drawing (North Sydney consent 69/309; in Archnex, 2016, 4). These drawings show a 'chimney to rise thro workshop' with 'rough cast above workshop roof' (ibid, 4).

Historic themes

Australian theme (abbrev)New South Wales themeLocal theme
1. Environment-Tracing the evolution of a continent's special environments Environment - naturally evolved-Activities associated with the physical surroundings that support human life and influence or shape human cultures. Gardens-
1. Environment-Tracing the evolution of a continent's special environments Environment - naturally evolved-Activities associated with the physical surroundings that support human life and influence or shape human cultures. Changing the environment-
1. Environment-Tracing the evolution of a continent's special environments Environment - naturally evolved-Activities associated with the physical surroundings that support human life and influence or shape human cultures. Cultural: Cliffs and escarpments influencing human settlement-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Environment - cultural landscape-Activities associated with the interactions between humans, human societies and the shaping of their physical surroundings Developing local, regional and national economies-National Theme 3
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Industry-Activities associated with the manufacture, production and distribution of goods Wool Scouring-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Industry-Activities associated with the manufacture, production and distribution of goods Manufacturing textiles-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Accommodation-Activities associated with the provision of accommodation, and particular types of accommodation – does not include architectural styles – use the theme of Creative Endeavour for such activities. Gentlemens Mansions-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Land tenure-Activities and processes for identifying forms of ownership and occupancy of land and water, both Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Sub-division of large estates-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Land tenure-Activities and processes for identifying forms of ownership and occupancy of land and water, both Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Surveying by Augustus Alt-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Towns, suburbs and villages-Activities associated with creating, planning and managing urban functions, landscapes and lifestyles in towns, suburbs and villages 20th century Suburban Developments-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Towns, suburbs and villages-Activities associated with creating, planning and managing urban functions, landscapes and lifestyles in towns, suburbs and villages Developing suburbia-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Towns, suburbs and villages-Activities associated with creating, planning and managing urban functions, landscapes and lifestyles in towns, suburbs and villages living in the suburbs-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Towns, suburbs and villages-Activities associated with creating, planning and managing urban functions, landscapes and lifestyles in towns, suburbs and villages A Picturesque Residential District-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Towns, suburbs and villages-Activities associated with creating, planning and managing urban functions, landscapes and lifestyles in towns, suburbs and villages Role of transport in settlement-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Creative endeavour-Activities associated with the production and performance of literary, artistic, architectural and other imaginative, interpretive or inventive works; and/or associated with the production and expression of cultural phenomena; and/or environments that have inspired such creative activities. Architectural styles and periods - Federation Arts and Crafts-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Creative endeavour-Activities associated with the production and performance of literary, artistic, architectural and other imaginative, interpretive or inventive works; and/or associated with the production and expression of cultural phenomena; and/or environments that have inspired such creative activities. Architectural styles and periods - Federation Free Classical-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Domestic life-Activities associated with creating, maintaining, living in and working around houses and institutions. Ways of life 1900-1950-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Domestic life-Activities associated with creating, maintaining, living in and working around houses and institutions. Ways of life 1950-2000-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Religion-Activities associated with particular systems of faith and worship Religious worship-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Religion-Activities associated with particular systems of faith and worship Gentlemen's Villas-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Religion-Activities associated with particular systems of faith and worship Church-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Religion-Activities associated with particular systems of faith and worship Providing halls and other community facilities-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Religion-Activities associated with particular systems of faith and worship Practising Lutherism-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Religion-Activities associated with particular systems of faith and worship Practising meditation-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Social institutions-Activities and organisational arrangements for the provision of social activities Belonging to an institution for self improvement-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Social institutions-Activities and organisational arrangements for the provision of social activities Community organisations-
9. Phases of Life-Marking the phases of life Persons-Activities of, and associations with, identifiable individuals, families and communal groups Associations with Henry Austin Wilshire, architect-
9. Phases of Life-Marking the phases of life Persons-Activities of, and associations with, identifiable individuals, families and communal groups Associations with Stone and Siddeley architects-
9. Phases of Life-Marking the phases of life Persons-Activities of, and associations with, identifiable individuals, families and communal groups Associations with G.E. Flower, master builder-
9. Phases of Life-Marking the phases of life Persons-Activities of, and associations with, identifiable individuals, families and communal groups Associations with Frank Whiddon, wool-scouring businessman and Mason-

Assessment of significance

SHR Criteria a)
[Historical significance]
Interesting example of a Federation Arts and Crafts style house which is representative of the type of residences which typified the early development in the area. Excellent survival of garden and context and it remains a significant local landmark (LEP, 2013).
SHR Criteria b)
[Associative significance]
Associational value for its use a chapel for the Norwegian Seaman's church. Associations with Frank Whiddon, industrialist, mason and philanthropist; H.A.Wilshire, architect, G.E.Flower, master builder, Stone & Siddeley architects and the International Meditation Society (LEP, 2013).
SHR Criteria c)
[Aesthetic significance]
Interesting example of a Federation Arts and Crafts style house which is representative of the type of residences which typified the early development in the area. Excellent survival of garden and context and it remains a significant local landmark (LEP, 2013).
SHR Criteria f)
[Rarity]
Socially rare regionally (LEP, 2013).
SHR Criteria g)
[Representativeness]
Interesting example of a Federation Arts and Crafts style house which is representative of the type of residences which typified the early development in the area. Excellent survival of garden and context and it remains a significant local landmark (LEP, 2013). This item is assessed as historically representative regionally. This item is assessed as aesthetically representative regionally. This item is assessed as socially representative locally.
Assessment criteria: Items are assessed against the PDF State Heritage Register (SHR) Criteria to determine the level of significance. Refer to the Listings below for the level of statutory protection.

Procedures /Exemptions

Section of actDescriptionTitleCommentsAction date
57(2)Exemption to allow workStandard Exemptions SCHEDULE OF STANDARD EXEMPTIONS
HERITAGE ACT 1977
Notice of Order Under Section 57 (2) of the Heritage Act 1977

I, the Minister for Planning, pursuant to subsection 57(2) of the Heritage Act 1977, on the recommendation of the Heritage Council of New South Wales, do by this Order:

1. revoke the Schedule of Exemptions to subsection 57(1) of the Heritage Act made under subsection 57(2) and published in the Government Gazette on 22 February 2008; and

2. grant standard exemptions from subsection 57(1) of the Heritage Act 1977, described in the Schedule attached.

FRANK SARTOR
Minister for Planning
Sydney, 11 July 2008

To view the schedule click on the Standard Exemptions for Works Requiring Heritage Council Approval link below.
Sep 5 2008

PDF Standard exemptions for works requiring Heritage Council approval

Listings

Heritage ListingListing TitleListing NumberGazette DateGazette NumberGazette Page
Heritage Act - State Heritage Register 0031002 Apr 99 271546
Heritage Act - Permanent Conservation Order - former 0031015 Jun 84 933127
Local Environmental PlanSchedule 5 Heritage ItemI002703 Nov 13   
Local Environmental PlanNorth Sydney LEP 2001102201 Jan 01   
National Trust of Australia register NTA (NSW) Suburban Regisdter7281   

Study details

TitleYearNumberAuthorInspected byGuidelines used
North Sydney Heritage Study Review19931022Brassil, T., Irving, R., Pratten, C., Conybeare MorrisonTony Brassil No

References, internet links & images

TypeAuthorYearTitleInternet Links
Tourism 2007Neutral Bay Post Office to Cremorne and Military Road Heritage Walk View detail
WrittenArchnex Designs P/L2016Statement of Heritage Impact: 8 Bannerman Street, Cremorne
TourismAttraction Homepage2007Neutral Bay Post Office to Cremorne and Military Road Heritage Walk View detail
WrittenColin Brady Architecture & Planning, in association with Warwick Mayne-Wilson & Associates2006Statement of Heritage Impact - 8 Bannerman Street, Cremorne
WrittenDavid Scobie Architects P/L20158 Bannerman Street, Cremorne - Heritage Impact Statement
WrittenNational Trust of Australia (NSW)2019'House inspections and National Trust Way Tours'
WrittenPaul O'Keefe Architect2012'Dalkeith', 8 Bannerman Street, Cremorne NSW - Conservation Management Plan
WrittenRead, Stuart2009unpublished notes, Cremorne Walk
WrittenStrawbridge, Kylie2017Photographic Record of Dalkeith, 8 Bannerman St., Cremorne 2090
WrittenWalsh, G.P.1990'Whiddon, Frank (1877-1947) entry

Note: internet links may be to web pages, documents or images.

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Data source

The information for this entry comes from the following source:
Name: Heritage Office
Database number: 5045454
File number: EF14/5064; S90/5424; HC 32798


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