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Old Government House

Item details

Name of item: Old Government House
Other name/s: Parramatta Park including Old Government House
Type of item: Complex / Group
Group/Collection: Government and Administration
Category: Government House
Primary address: Parramatta Park, Parramatta, NSW 2150
Parish: St John
County: Cumberland
Local govt. area: Parramatta
Property description
Lot/Volume CodeLot/Volume NumberSection NumberPlan/Folio CodePlan/Folio Number
CROWN LAND    
LOT369 DP752058

Boundary:

Refer to Heritage Council map.
All addresses
Street AddressSuburb/townLGAParishCountyType
Parramatta ParkParramattaParramattaSt JohnCumberlandPrimary Address

Statement of significance:

This building, built c1799 and enlarged 1815 to a design by Lieutenant John Watts, was associated with the administration of the colony from its early days until superseded by the 1845 Government House on the shores of Sydney Harbour.
It has now been suitably restored and seems to illustrate the best of elegant colonial Georgian architecture of the period. Used by the King's School 1910-70. (Australian Heritage Commission).
Date significance updated: 06 Nov 03
Note: The State Heritage Inventory provides information about heritage items listed by local and State government agencies. The State Heritage Inventory is continually being updated by local and State agencies as new information becomes available. Read the OEH copyright and disclaimer.

Description

Designer/Maker: Lt. John Watts, Francis Greenway and W.L. Vernon
Construction years: 1799-1820
Physical description: Aboriginal Parramatta:
Research has demonstrated that the presence of large and cohesive Aboriginal groups in the township of Parramatta represented a conspicuous and enduring aspect of the post-colonial periods of Parramatta's development (Steele, 1999, 8). Parramatta was their traditional hunting and fishing grounds and this aspect of traditional use can be interpreted still in Parramatta Park through features such remnant indigenous plantings, scarred trees and the proximity to the Parramatta River and riverine features such as the anabranch of the Crescent and the "Island", a billabong type feature near the George Street gatehouse.

The park and house show evidence of the original custodians of the land. Scars on trees still standing in Parramatta Park tell the story of the Burramatta land management and there are shells used in the mortar of Old Government House that have been found to originate from Aboriginal middens (Ridley, 2019, 8).

1788-1800: military outpost, Government Farm & Domain:
Early in November 1788 Governor Phillip established a military outpost at Rose Hill. He entrusted the supervision of convicts sent there to commence farming to James Smith, a free man who came from England in the Lady Penrhyn intending to proceed to India, but who was permitted to remain at Sydney Cove (Gray, A.J., entry on Dodd in ADBonline, accessed 7/8/9).

On 4 November 1788 a party of ten convicts known to have some farming experience was sent to the site (the Crescent) to clear it and prepare for further troops and convicts. After the initial removal of trees and erection of temporary huts, convicts began clearing land radiating out from the new settlement (McClymont, 2004, 6).

Smith was soon found unequal to the task and was replaced in March 1789 by Henry Dodd. Dodd was an experienced farmhand who arrived with Phillip as his personal servant. He was found to be the only free man who could be employed 'in cultivating the lands on the public account'. In February 1788 he supervised clearing and hoeing operations at the head of Farm Cove and soon had a few acres under corn.

'This man', wrote David Collins, 'joined to much agricultural knowledge a perfect idea of the labour to be required from the convicts; and his figure was calculated to make the idle and the worthless shrink if he came near them'. Although the number of convicts at Rose Hill increased steadily during the year, the military guard was reduced in October. Dodd's 'influence' was such that 'military coercion was not so necessary as when the settlement was first established'.

That Dodd was no mean gardener was apparent to all who saw the 'plentiful and luxuriant' produce, including a cabbage weighing twenty-six pounds (11.8 kg), which he sent to Government House in 1789, a few days before Christmas. In February 1790 Phillip reported that 100 convicts were working under the direction of this 'very industrious man' and that the corn produced was 'exceedingly good'. When Watkin Tench visited Rose Hill in November 1790, Dodd informed him that 88 (36 ha) of 200 acres (81 ha) cleared and prepared for cultivation were under wheat, barley, oats and maize. Tench was mildly critical of certain procedures, but readily appreciated the practical problems (ibid, ADBonline, accessed 7/8/9).

Phillip laid out the area of the Domain in 1790 as part of the Parramatta township. It was located on the western edge of the original township, and contained a Governor's residence, stockyards, lumber yard, and the redoubt. It was also used for grazing and food cultivation, grazing continuing until 1900 (Old Government House Conservation Plan, 1996). Phillip planned a house and an experimental garden on the site... following the failure of crops in Farm Cove. Beside the first simple government house. of lath and plaster, it contained a gardener's cottage and the experimental garden (Pollen, 1983).

Phillip transferred Henry Edward Dodd from the almost unproductive farm at Farm Cove to Rose Hill to hasten the clearing and planting. Dodd had been a labourer on Phillip's farm in the New Forest in England and accompanied him as his manservant. Desperate for reliable supervisors, Phillip pressed Dodd into service because of this agricultural experience and ability to control working convict on whose results rested the fate of the little colony. A big man, Dodd was hard but fair, able to coax indolent convicts to work; he was greatly respected by the marine officers. He lived across the river from the Redoubt where his hut, a threshing barn and grain store were accessible by bridge (across from Pitt Row). On his visits to the outpost, Phillip shared Dodd's hut until his own house was built in 1790. Dodd's untimely death in January 1791 from pneumonia, was regretted by all. Dodd's grave marker remains the oldest in the stock yard which later became St. John's cemetery. Dodd's efforts contributed greatly to saving the little colony from starvation McClymont, 2004, 6, 8).

Phillip reported in 2/1790 that 100 convicts were then employed in clearing and cultivating the ground: '77 acres in corn promise a good crop'. Surgeon John Harris wrote that) gardens had been established by July 1789, and a small house had been constructed for Superintendent Dodd, who was supervising the agricultural activities. George Barrington, who later occupied this house, states that Phillip initially used this residence prior to the construction of his official 'government house' which commenced mid1790. Lt. Philip Gidley King 9/4/1790 noted that (Dodd's) farm house was on the opposite (northern) side of the creek (Parramatta River). A painting shows a 1791 view of the Government Farm at Rose Hill including Superintendent Dodd's house (taken from the Redoubt (Rosen, 2002, 40)

On 28 January 1791, Dodd, died. He was believed to have taken ill after being exposed to the night while chasing thieves robbing his garden. The garden was an important agricultural site and with the Domain had a crucial role in the early economy of the colony. In late 1791, Mrs Mary Ann Parker described Government House as: a small convenient building, placed upon a gentle ascent, and surrounded by a couple of acres of garden ground'. The six acre garden surrounding Government House had earlier been partly sown with wheat and maize (Rosen, 2002, 40).

Dodd was buried in the corner of a stock reserve which later became the burial-ground of St John's, Parramatta. His funeral was attended by all the free people and convicts at Rose Hill'... A stone erected to his memory still stands in St John's cemetery, but more significantly Collins's tribute endures. 'He had acquired an ascendancy over the convicts which he preserved without being hated by them; he knew how to proportion their labour to their ability, and, by an attentive and quiet demeanour, had gained the approbation and countenance of the different officers who had been on duty at Rose Hill.' (Gray, A.J., entry on Dodd in ADBonline, accessed 7/8/9).

In December 1791 Watkin Tench reported (of the garden around Government House): 'the semicircular hill, which sweeps from the overseer of the cattle's house to the Governor's house, is planted with maize...looked at a little patch of wheat in the governor's garden...went round the crescent at the bottom of the garden, which certainly in beauty and form and situation is unrivalled in New South Wales. Here are eight thousand vines planted. Besides the vines, are several small fruit trees' adding (31/12/1791) that Sydney 'had long been considered only as a depot for stores; it exhibited nothing but a few old scattered huts, and some sterile gardens; Cultivation of the ground was abandoned, and all our strength transferred to Rose Hill...' (Rosen, 2002, 40).

In April 1792, Phillip wrote to Sir Joseph Banks that he had: ' gathered this year about 300 weight of very fine grapes, the quantity next year will be very considerable. I have oranges but they are not yet ripe'

A detail from a c.1796 plan originally prepared by Govr. Hunter, indicates six structures still evident in the vicinity of Dodd's cottage, where opposite, the unnamed Pitt Row runs in front of Government House to the river (ibid, 41).

Under Phillip a town plan was surveyed that included High Street (now George Street), a prominent boulevard designed to rival Pall Mall and other cities finest streets of the time, running between the planned site of Government House and 'The Landing Place', further down the river. High Street was 205'/63m wide and one mile/1.6km long. On each side of this street, the Government erected huts set 60'/18.5m apart and constructed to accommodate 10 persons. These were built of wattle and daub with thatched rooves, and measured 12x24'. Convicts built the new street and huts from July 1790. From the early 1810s these were occupied by emancipated convicts and free settlers. From 1814/5 the huts were in disrepair and many were demolished as part of landscaping by Governor and Mrs Macquarie who pushed back (east) the township to create an expanded Governor's Domain. Huts were still standing outside the Domain in 1822 (now part of the Law Courts/Attorney-General's/Blood bank/Parramatta District Hospital site).

Governor Phillip's second Government House was built in the park in 1790, to facilitate the opening up and settlement of the Sydney basin. Part of the original house is in evidence in the present building which dates from 1799 (extended in the 1810s by the Macquaries). The house was used by NSW's Governors until 1855, after which it was leased to private tenants including the Kings School. The house was taken over by the National Trust (NSW) which opened it as a house museum in 1970. (Old Government House Conservation Plan, 1996)

1800-1857: Science, Government & Recreation:
Governor Philip Gidley King (1800-10) appears to have set up Australia's first public botanic garden, under Sir Joseph Banks' personal plant collector, George Caley, on the Government Farm. Caley also used Old Government house to mount and treat his plant collection/specimens.

The character of the Domain was changed by the gradual removal of the stockyards, lumber yard etc to other areas of the township and by Governor Macquarie who extended the domain east to O'Connell Street and reworked the site according to currently fashionable picturesque principles. Phillips straight lined paths and fences were moved out and changed into flowing curves and a more 'naturalistic' character of grass and private estate or parkland. Elizabeth Macquarie is likely to have played a strong part in this refashioning, as she brought pattern books on laying out of estates with her to NSW and had prior involvement in her family's estates in Scotland. The Park's River Road dates to the Macquarie period (c1810-20).

Governor King from November 1805-January 1806 hosted paramount Maori chief of New Zealand's Bay of Islands as guest at Government House. Both men sought a trade agreement for Maori to supply potatoes and flax to Sydney, in return for iron and potentially muskets, to Te Pahi's people, in Northland, New Zealand. Te Pahi agreed to meet King after the Governor had met with his son, Maatara, in July 1805. This was followed by consignments of livestock delivered by visiting ships to New Zealand. The trade agreement was, sadly, never realised. King received news that he was about to be replaced by William Bligh virtually on the eve of Te Pahi's departure to New Zealand. Te Pahi attempted to reinstate it during an unsuccessful return to Old Government House in 1808, but instead found administrative chaos as Bligh, by that time, was under house arrest. Te Pahi visited Rev. Samuel Marsden on his Parramatta farm and regularly attended his services at (Old) St. John's Church. Marsden was so impressed by Te Pahi's mind and that of his relative Ruatara who stayed on Marsden's farm for 8 months in 1809 that he established the first christian mission to New Zealand at Te Pahi's former estate at Rangihoua Bay in 1814. Marsden built a (Parramatta) school/seminary for Maori, most of whom were sons of Northern chiefs and other Pacific people, on the north side of the river. It was known as ' Rangihou' ('Rangihoo' in some mission writings) after Rangihoua, and is today the Rangihou Reserve (Brown, 2016, 5).

Convicted London joiner and carpenter James Gough (1790-1876) who arrived on the Earl Spencer in 1813 was involved in the joinery at Old Government House (Dalkin, 2014, 31).

Little information is available about the service wings of more substantial residences during the early years in the colony...An inventory of government-owned furnitutre was conduted in 1821 by Major H.C.Antill, prior to the departure of Lachlan and Elizabeth Macquarie. This itemises the Service WIng's Butler's Pantry, Housekeeper's room, Servants' Hall, Small Larder, Large Larder, Kitchen and Scullery. It ignoresbuilt-in fittings and provides scant information about common domestic artefacts which must have been provided by the Macquaries themselves )(McDonald, 2004, 29).

In 1817 a pigeon house - or probable 'living larder' - was erected at the property (McDonald, 2004, 30).

The Butler's pantry was located conveniently off the Stair Hall so that the incumbent could attend to the arrival and departures of visitors. A variety of domestic tasks were carried out there each day...The current Butler's Pantry was restored by the Trust during the (Centennary of, i.e. 2001) Federation Fund and is loosely based on an 1829 design by Englishman, John Buonarotti Papworth for a property called 'Little Grove' in Barnet, London (McDonald, 2004, 29).

Governor Sir Thomas Makdougall Brisbane (1822-5) had a distinguished military career including campaigns in the Peninsula Wars under the command of his old friend Arthur Wellesley, the Duke of Wellington. Through Wellington, Brisbane first sought the Governorship of NSW in 1815, and, after some persuasion, at the age of 46, he got his commission from Earl Bathurst in March 1821.

Brisbane, his wife Anna Maria and two month old Isabella Maria and a household of relatives, friends and professional assistants arrived in November 1821. They were not fond of colonial society and never took up residence in Sydney. The Parramatta Domain suited Thomas' desire to pursue astronomical and natural sciences, while being of benefit to Maria Anna's 'delicate' nature and a sound place to raise a young family. Two more children were born there, Eleanor Australia and Thomas Australius. Their last child, Henry, born on the return voyage, survived only three months. During Brisbane's governorship, Government House Parramatta saw its most active period as a residence, centre of government and of scientific research (Hoffman, 2012, 22).

Brisbane's biography, Carol Liston reports that Brisbane had chosen the site and had probably designed his observatory for Parramatta before he left Scotland. He had carefully planned to have it operational within months of his arrival in November 1821 so that he could record the predicted return of Encke's Comet in June 1822. His second and main aim was to set about the methodical observation and charting of the then practically unknown soutnern stars. The latter project was of immense scientific and navigational importance, the last observations having been completed on the subject in 1751-2 at the Cape of Good Hope observatory (Brenchley, 1980).

Brisbane brought with him, at his own cost, a complete private observatory, two assistant astronomers, James Dunlop (1793-1848) and Christian Carl (Charles) Rumker (1788-1862) and a keeper of clocks and instruments, James Robertson (Hawkins, 1977, 101). He was also interested in astronomy and had an observatory built (it was complete by 2 May 1822: Hawkins, 1977, 101) and a bathhouse built in 1822 on the hill west of Old Government House. Special marker trees (to ensure accurate location and measurement points) of exotic Himalayan chir pines (Pinus roxburghii) were thought to have been planted in position south of the transit stones, by Brisbane, at this time (1821)(Brenchley, 1980). These pines remain today (ibid, 1980). A massive marker stone was erected due south about one mile distant (next to the later, i.e. what is now Parramatta High School), used to line up telescopes. This stone was later broken off, but probably lies close to its base, thought to be still in situ (Brenchley, 1980). The detailing of the Parramatta observatory, its marker stones and even the use of marker trees of Pinus roxburghii have similarity to the single domed observatory Brisbane built in Scotland in 1826 or 1827, at Makerstoun (Brenchley, 1980).

This is significant as the first permanent observatory site in Australia, also for Brisbane's contribution as the man who established astronomy and scientific activities in the colony. Brisbane was a skilled astronomer in his own right, and work here produced some of the most important astronomical observations in the southern hemisphere in the first half of the 19th century. The observatory's transit stones were also used as the meridian mark for Surveyor-General Sir Thomas Mitchell's first trigonometrical survey of Australia in 1828, for which he received his knighthood. In addition the Hydrographic Office of the British Admiralty used the position of the Parramatta Observatory to fix positions of places in the Southern Hemisphere. In the decades 1820-40 Parramatta became recognised internationally as a respected scientific research centre. This was culturally significant to the colony, which until then was considered a far-off and disreputable receptacle for the worst elements of British society. It is possibly no coincidence that immigration to the colony improved greatly during the relatively short period following Brisbane's years as Governor (Brenchley, 1980).

The site has additional significance for its historic associations with astronomers Dunlop and Rumker. Both were recognised in Europe for their achievements (McDonald, 1986, abridged). Sir John Herschel referred to the observatory as the locus of Australia's first great scientific achievement (Hawkins, 1977, 101). Reports from the observatory won Brisbane and assistants Rumker & Dunlop numerous medals, accolades and professional advancements, while Brisbane was to be elected President of the Royal Society of Edinburgh in 1832. The most important discoveries and reports predicted the return of Enke's Comet in June 1822, defining the shape of the earth, and 'A Catalogue of 7385 Stars, Chiefly in the Southern Hemisphere', printed in 1835. Brisbane's catalogue of stars derived from observations made between 1822 and 1826 at Parramatta. For this work he received the Gold Medal of the Royal Astronomical Society in 1828. Sir John Herschel during its presentation called Brisbane 'the father of Australian Science' (Hawkins, 1977, 103).

Brisbane was recorded as saing that 'Parramatta could be considered the Greenwich of the southern hemisphere'. With his two assistants working incredibly hard, the observatory recorded 40,000 observations of some 7000 stars within a period of two and a quarter years, and included ellipses, transits of planets and solstices and recording the length of the pendulum (gravity experiments). In addition, it recorded vital survey, navigational and meterological data for the southern hemisphere. Brisbane entertained numerous distinguished overseas visitors at Parramatta in those years, especially French scientists including the Freycinets, Duperry (with M.Lesson and M.Garnot), M.Laplace and the Russian Captain Bellinghausen. On publication of the first results from the observatory, Brisbane emerged as a foremost astronomer of the day. In Australia he presided over the first meeting of the new Philosophical Society of Australia where he read a paper titled 'Mean of Twelve Months' Meteorological Observations inthe Years 1822-23 at Parramatta'. Internationally he received the accolade of many of the world's most prominent institutions, including both Oxford and Cambridge (Brenchley, 1980).

Briefed to wind back many of Macquarie's leniencies towards convicts, Brisbane's governorship saw the establishment of secondary penal colonies at Norfolk Island and Moreton Bay where his name lives on as the Queensland capital city of Brisbane. He himself opposed excessive corporal punishment, and was criticised for his granting of reprieves and pardons. Other indelible achievements included The New South Wales Act 1823 establishing the Legislative Council, Courts of Quarter Sessions and trial by jury, the regulation of parish registers, postal services, control of shipping and registration of deed and legal documents. In 1822 he founded an agricultural training college and was first patron of the NSW Agricultural Society, while allowing freedom of the press in what was still a penal colony (Hoffman, 2012, 22-3).

In 1825 he was recalled along with Colonial Secretary Frederick Goulburn when Lord Bathurst refused to side with either in a long-running feud between the two men. With Brisbane's departure, the observatory was run by Rumker, who left its employ in 1823 before Brisbane's recall, taking Dunlop back to Scotland (Brenchley, 1980).

After the 1825 appointment of Governor Darling, Rumker returned to take up an appointment as the first Government Astronomer. In 1826 the observatory and all (Brisbane's) instruments and reference library were purchased by the Government at the(ir) original price. That same year Brisbane published the first articles on observations in the Southern Hemisphere in various Royal Society journals, in London. Rumker's original brief included a massive project to chart the arc of the meridian. In 1828 Sir Thomas Mitchell used the Parramatta Transit instrument for his initial meridian mark to begin the first trigonometrical survey of Australia. All positions were calculated east and west of this mark. That year Governor Darling approved the construction of a residence for the astronomer, next to the observatory (Brenchley, 1980).

Rumker left for England in 1829 to induce the Royal Society to print his astronomical observations made at the observatory (Hawins, 1977, 103). He was also trying to raise funds, staff and equipment for the massive arc of the meridian mapping project (Brenchley, 1980). Rumker's observations were published in 1829 but, after quarrelling with Brisbane, Rumker returned to Hamburg in Germany, eventually to become the director of its observatory (Hawkins, 1977, 103). In 1830 Rumker ran into troubles in London, connected with publication of his observations in Australia. He resigned his commision and joined the Hamburg School of Navigation in (his native) Germany. In 1831 Richard Bourke was appointed Governor of NSW. James Dunlop returned from Scotland and was appointed Superintendent of Parramatta Observatory. His brief included undertaking the charting of the arc of the meridian, with no government funding provided. In 1832 the observatory residence was completed and Dunlop began observations, recording 2000 star observations that year. He recorded a similar number the following year until May, when the records stop (Brenchley, 1980).

In Britain, a book edited by Richardson was published, containing a Catalogue of Stars of the Southern Hemisphere as observed by Brisbane's Observatory. The preface contained the only known plan and elevation of the building, by the Rev. W. B. Clarke, later known for his geological work in the colony. Dunlop's Catalogue of 621 nebulae and clusters of stars observated at Parramatta was presented to the Royal Society (in London) in 1828. For this major work, he was awarded the Society's Gold Medal. In addition the award mentioned that Dunlop had made and maintained some of the instruments used in the observations. Brisbane and Dunlop published jointly the results of his work through the Royal Astronomical Society in April 1831. Dunlop was awarded two other Gold Medals, one from the Institut Royal de France (1835) and the other from the King of Denmark (1833)(Brenchley, 1980).

In January 1836 the HMS Beagle visited Sydney on its circumnavigation of the globe, under Captain Fitzroy, charting longitudes and latitudes by chronometer for the Royal Navy. Old Government House was important to that expedition, as the reason the Beagle visited Sydney was to check its chronometrical determination of longitude against that determined in Governor Brisbane's Observatory just west of Old Government House. Secondly, the Beagle's Captain Fitzroy attended a party at Old Government House on 18/1/1836, in the company of Hannibal Macarthur, his wife Maria and Mrs Anna King (wife of the colony's third Governor, Philip King (Nicholas, 2008, 10).

In October 1846 the Secretary of State called for annual reports on each observatory in the various colonies. King was appointed to the commission of inquiry and found the instruments and books in good condition at the Parramatta observatory but the buildings very dilapidated. On the commission's advice Governor Sir Charles FitzRoy ordered that the instruments be packed and placed in the ordnance store to preserve them (ADB online).

The observatory site only survived the years through the persistence of a few determined and dedicated professionals, beginning with Surveyor-General Sir Thomas Mitchell, who was able to save the transit piers from demolition in 1848 when the rest of the observatory was pulled down (Brenchley, 1980). All the astronomical instruments remained in the colony and survive in the present observatory on Sydney's Observatory Hill, which was completed in 1858 as Sydney's third observatory (after Dawes' Point and Parramatta)(Hawkins, 1977, 103).

The observatory remains as an archaeological site (transit stones), and the bathhouse was adapted in 1887 as a park pavilion/gazebo. Brisbane also granted land on the Government Farm to the first Agricultural Society in Australia in 1822 as an experimental growing ground for fruit trees and other plants. (See Old King's School/Marsden Rehabilitation Centre site)(DPWS, 2002, 15-16). An obelisk was erected to commemorate the site in 1880, but was erected on the wrong spot (Brenchley, 1980).

Cricket in Parramatta started relatively early after formation of the Sydney colony. "The Commercial Journal" newspaper reported that the 'manly' game of Cricket was introduced to Parramatta in 1839 - the maiden match being played on August 17th for pound and supper at mine host of the Royal Exchange Hotel. The Parramatta District Cricket Club has been officially acknowledged by the NSW Cricket Association Library as the 'oldest living' cricket club in Australia (spanning 163 years). The first recorded match against Liverpool at Parramatta on Monday 11th September 1843. Parramatta won by 35 runs. Over the next decade and a half Parramatta participated in many recorded games, for example in 1848 a match was played against the Fitz Roy Club on 'Harris Meadow' at Parramatta and through the 1850s matches regularly played on the 'Barracks Square'.

The shared heritage between Parramatta Cricket Club and Parramatta Park commenced in 1862 when the Club President Dr.George Hogarth Pringle gained approval to build a Cricket Oval within the race track in Parramatta Park. Members toiled hard for 12 months levelling the surface, growing a well grassed pitch and erecting a modest post and rail fence around the field. In March 1863 the first match (Married v. Single) was played. The Parramatta (Cumberland) Cricket Club continued playing on the oval, with significant matches against English International touring teams in 1881, 1884, 1886, 1887 and 1891. Parramatta was a foundation member of the NSW Cricket Association Grade competition in 1893/4 and continues to participate in this competition. The club switched from Cumberland Oval to Old King's Oval in the early 1970s, to accommodate the initial reshaping of the oval into a rectangular layout for Football, which eventually evolved into Parramatta Stadium in 1986 (Parramatta (Central Cumberland) District Cricket and Parramatta Park 'The Shared Heritage', undated (2009).

Under Governor Fitzroy in the 1840s a Racecourse (the Cumberland Turf Club) was laid out north of the river in response to the 1840s Parramatta Parks Movement which pushed for more public access to the Government Domain. It ran from 1847-1858 (it was large, extending from the River in the west to O'Connell Street in the east) and the Mud Lodge Races ran here from 1858-1883. This was the first step towards a public park which would satisfy the recreational and health needs of the people of Parramatta. The opening of the Vice Regal Domain followed the establishment of the Racecourse (DPWS, 2002, 15).

1857+ Public Park:
In 1857 the western section of the Domain was offered for sale, while 200 acres was retained for public use. The Parramatta Domain Act of 1857 provided for a park of no less than 200 acres to be managed by Trustees for public use and granted as a park for 'promoting the health and recreation of the inhabitants of the town of Parramatta'. The area set aside was not surveyed until 1887 and at that time was 246 acres or 99.6 hectares, which is historically regarded as the original land dedication. An avenue of English oaks was planted along the length of River Road in the 1860s. The opening of the Vice Regal Domain followed the establishment of the Racecourse. Government House was fenced separately and divorced from the park. Cricket was played here from 1868 (DPWS, 2002, 15-16).

By 1902 the fenced cricket ground north of the river was removed and replaced by two entrance avenues to Cumberland Oval. One was a plantation of kurrajongs in line with Victoria Road, the other a more informal plantation of eucalypts and kurrajongs leading from the direction of the King's School. Both led to the ticket box. The Cumberland Oval was double-fenced and its encircling trees removed: the King's Oval retained its encircling trees and gained a picket fence (Parramatta Park Historic Landscape Study, 1987). In the 1910s the Racecourse was divided into three smaller ovals defined by (stone pine) tree planting (DPWS, 2002, 16).

A major programme of restoration works was undertaken to Old Government House in 1909 under the supervision of the Government Architect, Walter Liberty Vernon, before conversion to a school. The verandahs on the pavilions were added at this time. An ablutions block was added to the rear of the north pavilion. The King's School (the oldest independent school in Australia) had continuous occupancy of Old Government House for almost sixty years from 1909, until it was placed in the care of the National Trust of Australia (NSW) in 1967 (National Trust, 2009, 7-8).

Parramatta Park was gazetted as a National Park in 1917 and has since performed the role of a regional park. The Park today is 88.6 hectares in size, representing a loss of 13 hectares in 140 years (Parramatta Park Plan of Management, 1996)

Sporting activities began to dominate after the 1930s including motorcycle and car racing in 1938. In 1939 a Rugby League oval was built at Cumberland Oval (the site of the Stadium) and between 1958 and 1966 a memorial swimming centre alongside (DPWS, 2002, 17).

The road ways in Parramatta Park are significant as many represent the remains of the earliest town planning in Parramatta. The road layouts have been designed to reflect the natural topography of the area including the River Road which follows the course of the Parramatta River. Road alignments have remained substantially unchanged since the 1880s (NB: River Road was constructed by the 1860s and appears on an 1887 survey map.

In 1948 the Murray Memorial Gardens opened on the park's east facing O'Connell Street near the George Street Gate House.

The change of occupancy of Old Government House was brought about by a gesture by the Commercial Bank of Australia Ltd. in granting $50,000 towards restoration work on condition that it was placed in the care of the National Trust of Australia, and with the Government's full endorsement this was agreed to, an Act of Parliament being passed in 1967. A programme of restoration works were undertaken between 1968-70 under the direction of L.J.Buckland, honorary architect in charge of works, aimed at returning the house to the configuration used by Macquarie in 1815 based on the plans of Lt.Watts (National Trust, 2009, 8).

The Visitors' Centre (then kiosk) was built c.1985, designed by Tonkin Zulaikha architects.

A lone pine (Pinus sp.) descended from the Lone Pine at Gallipoli, Turkey was planted in Murray Memorial Gardens in 1988.

During the 1990s the National Trust (NSW) removed a number of the earlier modifications to Old Government House, including many of the outbuildings. Despite the use of the Lt.Watts plans, the house both internally and externally is somewhat different in detail to its appearance in 1816. The Trust's approach has been to present the ground floor largely as it was used by the Macquaries, with the exception of the Governor's Office. Very few of the service areas are presented to the public. Work has been undertaken in the Macquaries' drawing room to present it as it would have appeared based on the early inventories. The garden was also modified to a layout based on 19th century landscaping principles by John Claudius Loudon and a local Sydney nurseryman, Thomas Shepherd. Sometime later it was discovered that the layout that was removed, was in fact an early layout of the carriage loop that had survived intact until the 1850s when it was mapped during surveys for the new railway line. The garden remains in its unaltered configuration. The grounds, which were considered by early visitors to be far superior to the house, currently provide little evidence of the landscaped setting intended and created by the Macquaries (National Trust, 2009, 8).

In 1995 the Rumsey Rose Garden was officially opened, on the site of the former Bowling Greens and before that of the Convict Lumber Yard near Pitt Row (later Pitt Street) and the Macquarie Street gatehouse. The gardens are named in honour of the late Heather and Roy Rumsey, nursery proprietors of Dural who donated two of every species (& cultivar) of 'heritage rose' (Rosa spp. & cv.s) they had stockpiled in their nursery for more than 45 years. The result was more than 500 heritage rose varieties/cultivars and species. In 2008 a new drip irrigation system was added to the garden (Howlett, 2009).

The Parramatta Park Trust Act was passed in 2002, establishing the Parramatta Park Trust as an independent Government Authority (formerly part of NSW National Parks & Wildlife Service's Regional Park network).

Cricket has been played at the Old King's Oval from 1883 to the present day. Cricket was played on the nearby Cumberland (Parramatta) Oval from 1868 until its closure. The sport of cricket has been played within Parramatta Park as an integral part of its history as a public park and contributes to that significance. The current use is a continuation of historic uses here since the public movement for recreation space achieved the release of Government Domain lands for a racecourse in the 1840s and then the creation of Parramatta Park in 1857. (Parramatta District Cricket Club, 2006).

The success of the blockbuster exhibition 'Miss Fisher's Murder Mysteries' in 2014 has highlighted the potential of the property to be a centre for exciting community events in the region, bringing large volumes of visitors. In July 2015 a 'Love Desire & Riches' exhibition and public program of events was launched. In 2016 Miss Fisher will make a return ot the property while other successful events include monthly ghost tours, the Parramatta Lecture Series and family celebrations at Christmas and on Australia Day (NTA, 2015, 5).

In September 2015 the State government announced that Pirtek Stadium (Parramatta) will be the first of Sydney's stadia network to be upgraded, to 30000 seats. Eels to move home for 2 years; Wanderers looking for temporary home. Over $1b to be spent here over next decade (Parramatta Advertiser, Deborah Fitzgerald, 9/9/15, 5).

In October 2015 the State government have short-listed former Parramatta Golf Course and Riverside (fmr. David Jones Car Park) as potential sites for new Powerhouse Museum. A business case will be developed on each site's viability and cost and community views will be canvassed before selection made. The preferred side expected should be announced mid-2016 (Wn.Syd.Business Access, 10/2015, 12).

In February 2016 the State government announced that the Parramatta War Memorial Swimming Centre would be relocated to allow for the extension of the adjacent Pirtek Stadium (Adoranti, Parramatta Advertiser, 17/2/16, 1, 5). In June 2016 the State government called for expressions of interest to design and construct a replacement facility (Adoranti, 1/6/16, 3).

On Monday 22 August 2016 the Parramatta Eels played their final game at Parramatta Stadium, playing St. George Illawarra. This game is before the stadium is demolished to make way for the 30,000 seat Western Sydney Stadium. The Eels played the Dragons in the first game at the stadium on March 18, 1986. The Stadium grew from the ashes of the Cumberland Oval, after the oval grandstand was burnt down by Eels supporters following their first premiership in 1981. The new stadium opened in 1986. Among the largest crowds to attend matches here was 27,243 in 1986 when the Eels took on South Sydney. The hill slopes were replaced by terraces in 2002, limiting the stadium's capacity (Thomson, 2016, 7). The stadium lasted 30 years, hosted 343 games including 189 wins to the Eels, saw one Premiership and hosted 5 million fans (Middleton, David, League Information Services, quoted on Parramatta Advertiser, 24/8/16, 1).

In October 2016 the Dairy and Ranger's Cottage reopened to the public for the first time in four years, after Ptta. Ptta.Park Trust) waterproofed the building and added new audiovisual installations ahead of the day (Taouk, 2016).

In September 2017 Ministers Brad Hazzard and Gabrielle Upton announced on Tuesday that Cumberland Hospital's Wistaria Gardens will be added to the park trust. Wistaria Gardens was originally built as a place of solitude and contemplation for the Superintendent of the Parramatta Lunatic Asylum in 1906. The Superintendent's daughter brought the original wisteria plants from Japan more than 100 years ago (Stevens, 2017).

Over 2017-18, Old Government House held exciting exhibitions including 'Georgian Glass' featuring the Havelberg collection (dating from 1700-1840), donated to the National Trust. 'Tales from the East' examined the connections between India and Australia. A grant of $69k from the federal Environment department enabled the Trust to update the conservation management plan and develop an interpretation plan for the site (NTA (NSW) annual report, in NTA (NSW) Magazine, 10/2018, 13).
Modifications and dates: 1967 the National Trust reconstituted the Lindesay Garden Group as the National Trust Garden Committee, with Diana Pockley as chair. This Committee's work was broader, including work on replanting the grounds of Experiment Farm cottage, Parramatta, Old Government House, Parramatta and Riversdale, Goulburn.

1968 restoration by the National Trust. A Parramatta Properties Committee was established to advise and guide restoration and management works, dating (at least) from 1968, and chaired from 1971-2 by Dame Helen Blaxland. This committee was disbanded in 1984 (Simpson, C., 2003).

1994-2004 (sequential works) partial demolition, restoration, restoration, reinstatement work undertaken by the National Trust of Australia (NSW) under the direction of Clive Lucas after careful research into the interior and exteriors. Works undertaken to address structural and damp problems, extensively renovate and restore parts of the house formerly interpreting each of the successive Governors, to better reflect the period in which Governor and Mrs Macquarie were in residence. Chair rails, original joinery, false balustrades, sham doors (Macquarie period features), doors, windows, shutters, shutter flaps, surface finishes, hardware, bell systems were found in storage and reinstated.
(Bartok, D., 2004)(Heary, M., 2004).

Soft furnishings to breakfast room and bedroom have been made after extensive archival and period research, including curtains, rugs, rush floor mats etc (Read, S., 2004).

Modifications: The current Butler's Pantry was restored by the Trust during the Federation Fund and is based loosely upon an 1829 design by the Englishman, JOhn Buonarotti Papworth (1775-1847), for a property called 'Little Grove' in Barnet, London.

It has recently been furnished with floor-to-ceiling shelves, based upon archaeological evidence, and is a repository for china, glassware, candlesticks, lamps and linen. The room also contains an apparently original fireplace with grate and hobs.

It is also interesting to note that in 1817, a pigeon house - or probable 'living larder0- was erected at the property.
The rage recorded at Old Government House in 1821, when probably installed in 1812, when Macquarie moved the domestic services into a wing of the house.

This range - believed to be the first iron range in Australia - was sophisticated by colonial standards but as closed kitchen ranges were being advertised in England from 1813, it was already redundant technologically.
It appears that the former REstoration COmmittee was not privy to this information and chose to install and earlier, swing-mechanism in the fireplace as well as a seperate oven with cast-iron door, located on the upper left
Further information: See entry for Parramatta Park including Old Government House
Current use: house museum, restaurant, functions
Former use: Aboriginal land, Government House (and Domain), residence, school

History

Historical notes: Aboriginal Parramatta:
Research has demonstrated that the presence of large and cohesive Aboriginal groups in the township of Parramatta represented a conspicuous and enduring aspect of the post-colonial periods of Parramatta's development (Steele, 1999, 8). Parramatta was their traditional hunting and fishing grounds and this aspect of traditional use can be interpreted still in Parramatta Park through features such remnant indigenous plantings, scarred trees and the proximity to the Parramatta River and riverine features such as the anabranch of the Crescent and the "Island", a billabong type feature near the George Street gatehouse.

The park and house show evidence of the original custodians of the land. Scars on trees still standing in Parramatta Park tell the story of the Burramatta land management (whose bark was removed by Aboriginal people to make food and water containers (Hinkson, 2002 , 67, 69 ) and there are shells used in the mortar of Old Government House that have been found to originate from Aboriginal middens (Ridley, 2020 8), that once lay in enormous heaps along the Parramatta River. An area behind the house from which significant quantities of stone artefacts were uncovered by archaeologists during their excavation of the area in 1996. Archaeological evidence, as well as the accounts of First Fleet diarists, suggest that this part of the river once provided a rich source of food for local Aboriginal people. There has also been specualation that an area at the rear of the house may have once been the site of a ceremonial ground (ibid, 2002, 67, 69).

1788-1800: military outpost, Government Farm & Domain:
Early in November 1788 Governor Phillip established a military outpost at Rose Hill. He entrusted supervision of convicts sent there to commence farming to James Smith, a free man from England who came in the Lady Penrhyn intending to proceed to India, but was permitted to remain at Sydney Cove (Gray, A.J., entry on Dodd in ADBonline, accessed 7/8/9).

On 4 November 1788 a party of ten convicts known to have some farming experience was sent to the site (the Crescent) to clear it and prepare for further troops and convicts. After the initial removal of trees and erection of temporary huts, convicts began clearing land radiating out from the new settlement (McClymont, 2004, 6).

Smith was soon found unequal to the task and was replaced in March 1789 by Henry Dodd. Dodd was an experienced farmhand who arrived with Phillip as his personal servant. He was found to be the only free man who could be employed 'in cultivating the lands on the public account'. In February 1788 he supervised clearing and hoeing operations at the head of Farm Cove and soon had a few acres under corn.

'This man', wrote David Collins, 'joined to much agricultural knowledge a perfect idea of the labour to be required from the convicts; and his figure was calculated to make the idle and the worthless shrink if he came near them'. Although the number of convicts at Rose Hill increased steadily during the year, the military guard was reduced in October. Dodd's 'influence' was such that 'military coercion was not so necessary as when the settlement was first established'.

That Dodd was no mean gardener was apparent to all who saw the 'plentiful and luxuriant' produce, including a cabbage weighing twenty-six pounds (11.8 kg), which he sent to Government House in 1789, a few days before Christmas. In February 1790 Phillip reported that 100 convicts were working under the direction of this 'very industrious man' and that the corn produced was 'exceedingly good'. When Watkin Tench visited Rose Hill in November 1790, Dodd informed him that 88 (36 ha) of 200 acres (81 ha) cleared and prepared for cultivation were under wheat, barley, oats and maize. Tench was mildly critical of certain procedures, but readily appreciated the practical problems (ibid, ADBonline, accessed 7/8/9).

Phillip laid out the area of the Domain in 1790 as part of the Parramatta township. It was located on the western edge of the original township, and contained a Governor's residence, stockyards, lumber yard, and the redoubt. It was also used for grazing and food cultivation, grazing continuing until 1900 (Old Government House Conservation Plan, 1996). Phillip planned a house and an experimental garden on the site... following the failure of crops in Farm Cove. Beside the first simple government house. of lath and plaster, it contained a gardener's cottage and the experimental garden (Pollen, 1983).

Phillip transferred Henry Edward Dodd from the almost unproductive farm at Farm Cove to Rose Hill to hasten the clearing and planting. Dodd had been a labourer on Phillip's farm in the New Forest in England and accompanied him as his manservant. Desperate for reliable supervisors, Phillip pressed Dodd into service because of this agricultural experience and ability to control working convict on whose results rested the fate of the little colony. A big man, Dodd was hard but fair, able to coax indolent convicts to work; he was greatly respected by the marine officers. He lived across the river from the Redoubt where his hut, a threshing barn and grain store were accessible by bridge (across from Pitt Row). On his visits to the outpost, Phillip shared Dodd's hut until his own house was built in 1790. Dodd's untimely death in January 1791 from pneumonia, was regretted by all. Dodd's grave marker remains the oldest in the stock yard which later became St. John's cemetery. Dodd's efforts contributed greatly to saving the little colony from starvation McClymont, 2004, 6, 8).

Phillip reported in 2/1790 that 100 convicts were then employed in clearing and cultivating the ground: '77 acres in corn promise a good crop'. Surgeon John Harris wrote that) gardens had been established by July 1789, and a small house had been constructed for Superintendent Dodd, who was supervising the agricultural activities. George Barrington, who later occupied this house, states that Phillip initially used this residence prior to the construction of his official 'government house' which commenced mid1790. Lt. Philip Gidley King 9/4/1790 noted that (Dodd's) farm house was on the opposite (northern) side of the creek (Parramatta River). A painting shows a 1791 view of the Government Farm at Rose Hill including Superintendent Dodd's house (taken from the Redoubt (Rosen, 2002, 40)

On 28 January 1791, Dodd, died. He was believed to have taken ill after being exposed to the night while chasing thieves robbing his garden. The garden was an important agricultural site and with the Domain had a crucial role in the early economy of the colony. In late 1791, Mrs Mary Ann Parker described Government House as: a small convenient building, placed upon a gentle ascent, and surrounded by a couple of acres of garden ground'. The six acre garden surrounding Government House had earlier been partly sown with wheat and maize (Rosen, 2002, 40).

Dodd was buried in the corner of a stock reserve which later became the burial-ground of St John's, Parramatta. His funeral was attended by all the free people and convicts at Rose Hill'... A stone erected to his memory still stands in St John's cemetery, but more significantly Collins's tribute endures. 'He had acquired an ascendancy over the convicts which he preserved without being hated by them; he knew how to proportion their labour to their ability, and, by an attentive and quiet demeanour, had gained the approbation and countenance of the different officers who had been on duty at Rose Hill.' (Gray, A.J., entry on Dodd in ADBonline, accessed 7/8/9).

In December 1791 Watkin Tench reported (of the garden around Government House): 'the semicircular hill, which sweeps from the overseer of the cattle's house to the Governor's house, is planted with maize...looked at a little patch of wheat in the governor's garden...went round the crescent at the bottom of the garden, which certainly in beauty and form and situation is unrivalled in New South Wales. Here are eight thousand vines planted. Besides the vines, are several small fruit trees' adding (31/12/1791) that Sydney 'had long been considered only as a depot for stores; it exhibited nothing but a few old scattered huts, and some sterile gardens; Cultivation of the ground was abandoned, and all our strength transferred to Rose Hill...' (Rosen, 2002, 40).

In April 1792, Phillip wrote to Sir Joseph Banks that he had: ' gathered this year about 300 weight of very fine grapes, the quantity next year will be very considerable. I have oranges but they are not yet ripe'

A detail from a c.1796 plan originally prepared by Govr. Hunter, indicates six structures still evident in the vicinity of Dodd's cottage, where opposite, the unnamed Pitt Row runs in front of Government House to the river (ibid, 41).

Under Phillip a town plan was surveyed that included High Street (now George Street), a prominent boulevard designed to rival Pall Mall and other cities finest streets of the time, running between the planned site of Government House and 'The Landing Place', further down the river. High Street was 205'/63m wide and one mile/1.6km long. On each side of this street, the Government erected huts set 60'/18.5m apart and constructed to accommodate 10 persons. These were built of wattle and daub with thatched rooves, and measured 12x24'. Convicts built the new street and huts from July 1790. From the early 1810s these were occupied by emancipated convicts and free settlers. From 1814/5 the huts were in disrepair and many were demolished as part of landscaping by Governor and Mrs Macquarie who pushed back (east) the township to create an expanded Governor's Domain. Huts were still standing outside the Domain in 1822 (now part of the Law Courts/Attorney-General's/Blood bank/Parramatta District Hospital site).

Governor Phillip's second Government House was built in the park in 1790, to facilitate the opening up and settlement of the Sydney basin. Part of the original house is in evidence in the present building which dates from 1799 (extended in the 1810s by the Macquaries). The house was used by NSW's Governors until 1855, after which it was leased to private tenants including the Kings School. The house was taken over by the National Trust (NSW) which opened it as a house museum in 1970. (Old Government House Conservation Plan, 1996)

1800-1857: Science, Government & Recreation:
Governor Philip Gidley King (1800-10) appears to have set up Australia's first public botanic garden, under Sir Joseph Banks' personal plant collector, George Caley, on the Government Farm. Caley also used Old Government house to mount and treat his plant collection/specimens.

The character of the Domain was changed by the gradual removal of the stockyards, lumber yard etc to other areas of the township and by Governor Macquarie who extended the domain east to O'Connell Street and reworked the site according to currently fashionable picturesque principles. Phillips straight lined paths and fences were moved out and changed into flowing curves and a more 'naturalistic' character of grass and private estate or parkland. Elizabeth Macquarie is likely to have played a strong part in this refashioning, as she brought pattern books on laying out of estates with her to NSW and had prior involvement in her family's estates in Scotland. The Park's River Road dates to the Macquarie period (c1810-20).

Governor King from November 1805-January 1806 hosted paramount Maori chief of New Zealand's Bay of Islands as guest at Government House. Both men sought a trade agreement for Maori to supply potatoes and flax to Sydney, in return for iron and potentially muskets, to Te Pahi's people, in Northland, New Zealand. Te Pahi agreed to meet King after the Governor had met with his son, Maatara, in July 1805. This was followed by consignments of livestock delivered by visiting ships to New Zealand. The trade agreement was, sadly, never realised. King received news that he was about to be replaced by William Bligh virtually on the eve of Te Pahi's departure to New Zealand. Te Pahi attempted to reinstate it during an unsuccessful return to Old Government House in 1808, but instead found administrative chaos as Bligh, by that time, was under house arrest. Te Pahi visited Rev. Samuel Marsden on his Parramatta farm and regularly attended his services at (Old) St. John's Church. Marsden was so impressed by Te Pahi's mind and that of his relative Ruatara who stayed on Marsden's farm for 8 months in 1809 that he established the first christian mission to New Zealand at Te Pahi's former estate at Rangihoua Bay in 1814. Marsden built a (Parramatta) school/seminary for Maori, most of whom were sons of Northern chiefs and other Pacific people, on the north side of the river. It was known as ' Rangihou' ('Rangihoo' in some mission writings) after Rangihoua, and is today the Rangihou Reserve (Brown, 2016, 5).

Convicted London joiner and carpenter James Gough (1790-1876) who arrived on the Earl Spencer in 1813 was involved in the joinery at Old Government House (Dalkin, 2014, 31).

Little information is available about the service wings of more substantial residences during the early years in the colony...An inventory of government-owned furnitutre was conduted in 1821 by Major H.C.Antill, prior to the departure of Lachlan and Elizabeth Macquarie. This itemises the Service WIng's Butler's Pantry, Housekeeper's room, Servants' Hall, Small Larder, Large Larder, Kitchen and Scullery. It ignoresbuilt-in fittings and provides scant information about common domestic artefacts which must have been provided by the Macquaries themselves )(McDonald, 2004, 29).

In 1817 a pigeon house - or probable 'living larder' - was erected at the property (McDonald, 2004, 30).

The Butler's pantry was located conveniently off the Stair Hall so that the incumbent could attend to the arrival and departures of visitors. A variety of domestic tasks were carried out there each day...The current Butler's Pantry was restored by the Trust during the (Centennary of, i.e. 2001) Federation Fund and is loosely based on an 1829 design by Englishman, John Buonarotti Papworth for a property called 'Little Grove' in Barnet, London (McDonald, 2004, 29).

Governor Sir Thomas Makdougall Brisbane (1822-5) had a distinguished military career including campaigns in the Peninsula Wars under the command of his old friend Arthur Wellesley, the Duke of Wellington. Through Wellington, Brisbane first sought the Governorship of NSW in 1815, and, after some persuasion, at the age of 46, he got his commission from Earl Bathurst in March 1821.

Brisbane, his wife Anna Maria and two month old Isabella Maria and a household of relatives, friends and professional assistants arrived in November 1821. They were not fond of colonial society and never took up residence in Sydney. The Parramatta Domain suited Thomas' desire to pursue astronomical and natural sciences, while being of benefit to Maria Anna's 'delicate' nature and a sound place to raise a young family. Two more children were born there, Eleanor Australia and Thomas Australius. Their last child, Henry, born on the return voyage, survived only three months. During Brisbane's governorship, Government House Parramatta saw its most active period as a residence, centre of government and of scientific research (Hoffman, 2012, 22).

Brisbane's biography, Carol Liston reports that Brisbane had chosen the site and had probably designed his observatory for Parramatta before he left Scotland. He had carefully planned to have it operational within months of his arrival in November 1821 so that he could record the predicted return of Encke's Comet in June 1822. His second and main aim was to set about the methodical observation and charting of the then practically unknown soutnern stars. The latter project was of immense scientific and navigational importance, the last observations having been completed on the subject in 1751-2 at the Cape of Good Hope observatory (Brenchley, 1980).

Brisbane brought with him, at his own cost, a complete private observatory, two assistant astronomers, James Dunlop (1793-1848) and Christian Carl (Charles) Rumker (1788-1862) and a keeper of clocks and instruments, James Robertson (Hawkins, 1977, 101). He was also interested in astronomy and had an observatory built (it was complete by 2 May 1822: Hawkins, 1977, 101) and a bathhouse built in 1822 on the hill west of Old Government House. Special marker trees (to ensure accurate location and measurement points) of exotic Himalayan chir pines (Pinus roxburghii) were thought to have been planted in position south of the transit stones, by Brisbane, at this time (1821)(Brenchley, 1980). These pines remain today (ibid, 1980). A massive marker stone was erected due south about one mile distant (next to the later, i.e. what is now Parramatta High School), used to line up telescopes. This stone was later broken off, but probably lies close to its base, thought to be still in situ (Brenchley, 1980). The detailing of the Parramatta observatory, its marker stones and even the use of marker trees of Pinus roxburghii have similarity to the single domed observatory Brisbane built in Scotland in 1826 or 1827, at Makerstoun (Brenchley, 1980).

This is significant as the first permanent observatory site in Australia, also for Brisbane's contribution as the man who established astronomy and scientific activities in the colony. Brisbane was a skilled astronomer in his own right, and work here produced some of the most important astronomical observations in the southern hemisphere in the first half of the 19th century. The observatory's transit stones were also used as the meridian mark for Surveyor-General Sir Thomas Mitchell's first trigonometrical survey of Australia in 1828, for which he received his knighthood. In addition the Hydrographic Office of the British Admiralty used the position of the Parramatta Observatory to fix positions of places in the Southern Hemisphere. In the decades 1820-40 Parramatta became recognised internationally as a respected scientific research centre. This was culturally significant to the colony, which until then was considered a far-off and disreputable receptacle for the worst elements of British society. It is possibly no coincidence that immigration to the colony improved greatly during the relatively short period following Brisbane's years as Governor (Brenchley, 1980).

The site has additional significance for its historic associations with astronomers Dunlop and Rumker. Both were recognised in Europe for their achievements (McDonald, 1986, abridged). Sir John Herschel referred to the observatory as the locus of Australia's first great scientific achievement (Hawkins, 1977, 101). Reports from the observatory won Brisbane and assistants Rumker & Dunlop numerous medals, accolades and professional advancements, while Brisbane was to be elected President of the Royal Society of Edinburgh in 1832. The most important discoveries and reports predicted the return of Enke's Comet in June 1822, defining the shape of the earth, and 'A Catalogue of 7385 Stars, Chiefly in the Southern Hemisphere', printed in 1835. Brisbane's catalogue of stars derived from observations made between 1822 and 1826 at Parramatta. For this work he received the Gold Medal of the Royal Astronomical Society in 1828. Sir John Herschel during its presentation called Brisbane 'the father of Australian Science' (Hawkins, 1977, 103).

Brisbane was recorded as saing that 'Parramatta could be considered the Greenwich of the southern hemisphere'. With his two assistants working incredibly hard, the observatory recorded 40,000 observations of some 7000 stars within a period of two and a quarter years, and included ellipses, transits of planets and solstices and recording the length of the pendulum (gravity experiments). In addition, it recorded vital survey, navigational and meterological data for the southern hemisphere. Brisbane entertained numerous distinguished overseas visitors at Parramatta in those years, especially French scientists including the Freycinets, Duperry (with M.Lesson and M.Garnot), M.Laplace and the Russian Captain Bellinghausen. On publication of the first results from the observatory, Brisbane emerged as a foremost astronomer of the day. In Australia he presided over the first meeting of the new Philosophical Society of Australia where he read a paper titled 'Mean of Twelve Months' Meteorological Observations inthe Years 1822-23 at Parramatta'. Internationally he received the accolade of many of the world's most prominent institutions, including both Oxford and Cambridge (Brenchley, 1980).

Briefed to wind back many of Macquarie's leniencies towards convicts, Brisbane's governorship saw the establishment of secondary penal colonies at Norfolk Island and Moreton Bay where his name lives on as the Queensland capital city of Brisbane. He himself opposed excessive corporal punishment, and was criticised for his granting of reprieves and pardons. Other indelible achievements included The New South Wales Act 1823 establishing the Legislative Council, Courts of Quarter Sessions and trial by jury, the regulation of parish registers, postal services, control of shipping and registration of deed and legal documents. In 1822 he founded an agricultural training college and was first patron of the NSW Agricultural Society, while allowing freedom of the press in what was still a penal colony (Hoffman, 2012, 22-3).

In 1825 he was recalled along with Colonial Secretary Frederick Goulburn when Lord Bathurst refused to side with either in a long-running feud between the two men. With Brisbane's departure, the observatory was run by Rumker, who left its employ in 1823 before Brisbane's recall, taking Dunlop back to Scotland (Brenchley, 1980).

After the 1825 appointment of Governor Darling, Rumker returned to take up an appointment as the first Government Astronomer. In 1826 the observatory and all (Brisbane's) instruments and reference library were purchased by the Government at the(ir) original price. That same year Brisbane published the first articles on observations in the Southern Hemisphere in various Royal Society journals, in London. Rumker's original brief included a massive project to chart the arc of the meridian. In 1828 Sir Thomas Mitchell used the Parramatta Transit instrument for his initial meridian mark to begin the first trigonometrical survey of Australia. All positions were calculated east and west of this mark. That year Governor Darling approved the construction of a residence for the astronomer, next to the observatory (Brenchley, 1980).

Rumker left for England in 1829 to induce the Royal Society to print his astronomical observations made at the observatory (Hawins, 1977, 103). He was also trying to raise funds, staff and equipment for the massive arc of the meridian mapping project (Brenchley, 1980). Rumker's observations were published in 1829 but, after quarrelling with Brisbane, Rumker returned to Hamburg in Germany, eventually to become the director of its observatory (Hawkins, 1977, 103). In 1830 Rumker ran into troubles in London, connected with publication of his observations in Australia. He resigned his commision and joined the Hamburg School of Navigation in (his native) Germany. In 1831 Richard Bourke was appointed Governor of NSW. James Dunlop returned from Scotland and was appointed Superintendent of Parramatta Observatory. His brief included undertaking the charting of the arc of the meridian, with no government funding provided. In 1832 the observatory residence was completed and Dunlop began observations, recording 2000 star observations that year. He recorded a similar number the following year until May, when the records stop (Brenchley, 1980).

In Britain, a book edited by Richardson was published, containing a Catalogue of Stars of the Southern Hemisphere as observed by Brisbane's Observatory. The preface contained the only known plan and elevation of the building, by the Rev. W. B. Clarke, later known for his geological work in the colony. Dunlop's Catalogue of 621 nebulae and clusters of stars observated at Parramatta was presented to the Royal Society (in London) in 1828. For this major work, he was awarded the Society's Gold Medal. In addition the award mentioned that Dunlop had made and maintained some of the instruments used in the observations. Brisbane and Dunlop published jointly the results of his work through the Royal Astronomical Society in April 1831. Dunlop was awarded two other Gold Medals, one from the Institut Royal de France (1835) and the other from the King of Denmark (1833)(Brenchley, 1980).

In January 1836 the HMS Beagle visited Sydney on its circumnavigation of the globe, under Captain Fitzroy, charting longitudes and latitudes by chronometer for the Royal Navy. Old Government House was important to that expedition, as the reason the Beagle visited Sydney was to check its chronometrical determination of longitude against that determined in Governor Brisbane's Observatory just west of Old Government House. Secondly, the Beagle's Captain Fitzroy attended a party at Old Government House on 18/1/1836, in the company of Hannibal Macarthur, his wife Maria and Mrs Anna King (wife of the colony's third Governor, Philip King (Nicholas, 2008, 10).

In October 1846 the Secretary of State called for annual reports on each observatory in the various colonies. King was appointed to the commission of inquiry and found the instruments and books in good condition at the Parramatta observatory but the buildings very dilapidated. On the commission's advice Governor Sir Charles FitzRoy ordered that the instruments be packed and placed in the ordnance store to preserve them (ADB online).

The observatory site only survived the years through the persistence of a few determined and dedicated professionals, beginning with Surveyor-General Sir Thomas Mitchell, who was able to save the transit piers from demolition in 1848 when the rest of the observatory was pulled down (Brenchley, 1980). All the astronomical instruments remained in the colony and survive in the present observatory on Sydney's Observatory Hill, which was completed in 1858 as Sydney's third observatory (after Dawes' Point and Parramatta)(Hawkins, 1977, 103).

The observatory remains as an archaeological site (transit stones), and the bathhouse was adapted in 1887 as a park pavilion/gazebo. Brisbane also granted land on the Government Farm to the first Agricultural Society in Australia in 1822 as an experimental growing ground for fruit trees and other plants. (See Old King's School/Marsden Rehabilitation Centre site)(DPWS, 2002, 15-16). An obelisk was erected to commemorate the site in 1880, but was erected on the wrong spot (Brenchley, 1980).

Cricket in Parramatta started relatively early after formation of the Sydney colony. "The Commercial Journal" newspaper reported that the 'manly' game of Cricket was introduced to Parramatta in 1839 - the maiden match being played on August 17th for pound and supper at mine host of the Royal Exchange Hotel. The Parramatta District Cricket Club has been officially acknowledged by the NSW Cricket Association Library as the 'oldest living' cricket club in Australia (spanning 163 years). The first recorded match against Liverpool at Parramatta on Monday 11th September 1843. Parramatta won by 35 runs. Over the next decade and a half Parramatta participated in many recorded games, for example in 1848 a match was played against the Fitz Roy Club on 'Harris Meadow' at Parramatta and through the 1850s matches regularly played on the 'Barracks Square'.

The shared heritage between Parramatta Cricket Club and Parramatta Park commenced in 1862 when the Club President Dr.George Hogarth Pringle gained approval to build a Cricket Oval within the race track in Parramatta Park. Members toiled hard for 12 months levelling the surface, growing a well grassed pitch and erecting a modest post and rail fence around the field. In March 1863 the first match (Married v. Single) was played. The Parramatta (Cumberland) Cricket Club continued playing on the oval, with significant matches against English International touring teams in 1881, 1884, 1886, 1887 and 1891. Parramatta was a foundation member of the NSW Cricket Association Grade competition in 1893/4 and continues to participate in this competition. The club switched from Cumberland Oval to Old King's Oval in the early 1970s, to accommodate the initial reshaping of the oval into a rectangular layout for Football, which eventually evolved into Parramatta Stadium in 1986 (Parramatta (Central Cumberland) District Cricket and Parramatta Park 'The Shared Heritage', undated (2009).

Under Governor Fitzroy in the 1840s a Racecourse (the Cumberland Turf Club) was laid out north of the river in response to the 1840s Parramatta Parks Movement which pushed for more public access to the Government Domain. It ran from 1847-1858 (it was large, extending from the River in the west to O'Connell Street in the east) and the Mud Lodge Races ran here from 1858-1883. This was the first step towards a public park which would satisfy the recreational and health needs of the people of Parramatta. The opening of the Vice Regal Domain followed the establishment of the Racecourse (DPWS, 2002, 15).

1857+ Public Park:
In 1857 the western section of the Domain was offered for sale, while 200 acres was retained for public use. The Parramatta Domain Act of 1857 provided for a park of no less than 200 acres to be managed by Trustees for public use and granted as a park for 'promoting the health and recreation of the inhabitants of the town of Parramatta'. The area set aside was not surveyed until 1887 and at that time was 246 acres or 99.6 hectares, which is historically regarded as the original land dedication. An avenue of English oaks was planted along the length of River Road in the 1860s. The opening of the Vice Regal Domain followed the establishment of the Racecourse. Government House was fenced separately and divorced from the park. Cricket was played here from 1868 (DPWS, 2002, 15-16).

By 1902 the fenced cricket ground north of the river was removed and replaced by two entrance avenues to Cumberland Oval. One was a plantation of kurrajongs in line with Victoria Road, the other a more informal plantation of eucalypts and kurrajongs leading from the direction of the King's School. Both led to the ticket box. The Cumberland Oval was double-fenced and its encircling trees removed: the King's Oval retained its encircling trees and gained a picket fence (Parramatta Park Historic Landscape Study, 1987). In the 1910s the Racecourse was divided into three smaller ovals defined by (stone pine) tree planting (DPWS, 2002, 16).

A major programme of restoration works was undertaken to Old Government House in 1909 under the supervision of the Government Architect, Walter Liberty Vernon, before conversion to a school. The verandahs on the pavilions were added at this time. An ablutions block was added to the rear of the north pavilion. The King's School (the oldest independent school in Australia) had continuous occupancy of Old Government House for almost sixty years from 1909, until it was placed in the care of the National Trust of Australia (NSW) in 1967 (National Trust, 2009, 7-8).

Parramatta Park was gazetted as a National Park in 1917 and has since performed the role of a regional park. The Park today is 88.6 hectares in size, representing a loss of 13 hectares in 140 years (Parramatta Park Plan of Management, 1996)

Sporting activities began to dominate after the 1930s including motorcycle and car racing in 1938. In 1939 a Rugby League oval was built at Cumberland Oval (the site of the Stadium) and between 1958 and 1966 a memorial swimming centre alongside (DPWS, 2002, 17).

The road ways in Parramatta Park are significant as many represent the remains of the earliest town planning in Parramatta. The road layouts have been designed to reflect the natural topography of the area including the River Road which follows the course of the Parramatta River. Road alignments have remained substantially unchanged since the 1880s (NB: River Road was constructed by the 1860s and appears on an 1887 survey map.

In 1948 the Murray Memorial Gardens opened on the park's east facing O'Connell Street near the George Street Gate House.

In 1959 Mrs Helen Blaxland joined the National Trust of Australia (New South Wales), a small group of conservationists led by Annie Wyatt. Two years later she founded the Women's Committee to raise funds for the trust. She introduced the lucrative idea of `house inspections' and initiated the exhibition No Time to Spare!, which was shown at the David Jones Art Gallery in 1962 and later throughout the State for the New South Wales division of the Arts Council of Australia. On display were photographs by Dupain of early public buildings and houses (Simpson, C., 2007).

Elected to the National Trust Council in 1962, Mrs Blaxland was vice-president (1965-71), State representative (1969-71) on the Australian Council of National Trusts and honorary life member from 1967. She chaired (1964-71) the inaugural committee for Lindesay, Darling Point, a house given to the women's committee as their headquarters. The Lindesay committee furnished the house in period style and held trust events there, notably annual antique dealers' fairs and exhibitions of Australian decorative arts. In 1967 control of Old Government House, Parramatta, was vested in the Trust by legislation; Blaxland was prominent on the Parramatta Properties Committee which presented to the public the home of the governors to 1855. She remained on the committee as honorary housekeeper-a self-chosen title-until her involvement with the trust ended when the Parramatta properties committee was abruptly disbanded in 1983 (ibid, 2007). Blaxland's networks were crucial to the acquisition of significant furniture and historic objects for Experiment Farm Cottage and later Old Government House, Parramatta, as she called on friends to donate treasures she knew perfectly well they had (Engledow, 2019, 27).

1967 the National Trust reconstituted the Lindesay Garden Group as the National Trust Garden Committee, with Diana Pockley as chair. This Committee's work was broader, including work on replanting the grounds of Old Government House, Parramatta; Experiment Farm cottage, Parramatta; and Riversdale, Goulburn (Simpson, C., 2003).

In 1989 Dame Helen Blaxland died and the Dame Helen Blaxland Foundation was established in her memory, for the continued preservation of Old Government House, Experiment Farm Cottage and Lindesay (ibid, 2007).

The change of occupancy of Old Government House was brought about by a gesture by the Commercial Bank of Australia Ltd. in granting $50,000 towards restoration work on condition that it was placed in the care of the National Trust of Australia, and with the Government's full endorsement this was agreed to, an Act of Parliament being passed in 1967. A programme of restoration works were undertaken between 1968-70 under the direction of L.J. Buckland, honorary architect in charge of works, aimed at returning the house to the configuration used by Macquarie in 1815 based on the plans of Lt.Watts (National Trust, 2009, 8).

The Visitors' Centre (then kiosk) was built c.1985, designed by Tonkin Zulaikha architects.

A lone pine (Pinus sp.) descended from the Lone Pine at Gallipoli, Turkey was planted in Murray Memorial Gardens in 1988.

During the 1990s the National Trust (NSW) removed a number of the earlier modifications to Old Government House, including many of the outbuildings. Despite the use of the Lt.Watts plans, the house both internally and externally is somewhat different in detail to its appearance in 1816. The Trust's approach has been to present the ground floor largely as it was used by the Macquaries, with the exception of the Governor's Office. Very few of the service areas are presented to the public. Work has been undertaken in the Macquaries' drawing room to present it as it would have appeared based on the early inventories. The garden was also modified to a layout based on 19th century landscaping principles by John Claudius Loudon and a local Sydney nurseryman, Thomas Shepherd. Sometime later it was discovered that the layout that was removed, was in fact an early layout of the carriage loop that had survived intact until the 1850s when it was mapped during surveys for the new railway line. The garden remains in its unaltered configuration. The grounds, which were considered by early visitors to be far superior to the house, currently provide little evidence of the landscaped setting intended and created by the Macquaries (National Trust, 2009, 8).

In 1995 the Rumsey Rose Garden was officially opened, on the site of the former Bowling Greens and before that of the Convict Lumber Yard near Pitt Row (later Pitt Street) and the Macquarie Street gatehouse. The gardens are named in honour of the late Heather and Roy Rumsey, nursery proprietors of Dural who donated two of every species (& cultivar) of 'heritage rose' (Rosa spp. & cv.s) they had stockpiled in their nursery for more than 45 years. The result was more than 500 heritage rose varieties/cultivars and species. In 2008 a new drip irrigation system was added to the garden (Howlett, 2009).

The Parramatta Park Trust Act was passed in 2002, establishing the Parramatta Park Trust as an independent Government Authority (formerly part of NSW National Parks & Wildlife Service's Regional Park network).

2004 Energy Australia National Trust Heritage Award recieved - Clive Lucas OBE of Clive Lucas, Stapelton & Partners Pty Ltd recieved an award from the Royal Australian Insitute of Architects, (NSW Chapter), for the conservation of Old Government House, with meticulous recreation of long lost details from the Georgian period.

Cricket has been played at the Old King's Oval from 1883 to the present day. Cricket was played on the nearby Cumberland (Parramatta) Oval from 1868 until its closure. The sport of cricket has been played within Parramatta Park as an integral part of its history as a public park and contributes to that significance. The current use is a continuation of historic uses here since the public movement for recreation space achieved the release of Government Domain lands for a racecourse in the 1840s and then the creation of Parramatta Park in 1857. (Parramatta District Cricket Club, 2006).

In 2014 the front drive carriageway loop and fence were reinstated to their known earlier alignment and dormer windows reinstated to the southern wing. New signage and interpretation panels were installed (Silink & Hayes, 11/2014). The success of the blockbuster exhibition 'Miss Fisher's Murder Mysteries' in 2014 highlighted the potential of the property to be a centre for exciting events, bringing large volumes of visitors. In July 2015 a 'Love Desire & Riches' exhibition and public program of events was launched. In 2016 Miss Fisher returned to the property and successful events included monthly ghost tours, the Parramatta Lecture Series, family celebrations at Christmas and on Australia Day (NTA, 2015, 5).

In September 2015 the State government announced that Pirtek Stadium (Parramatta) in what was part of Parramatta Park will be the first of Sydney's stadia network to be upgraded, to 30,000 seats. The Parramatta Eels will move their home for 2 years; Western Sydney Wanderers are looking for a temporary home. Over $1b will be spent here over next decade (Parramatta Advertiser, Deborah Fitzgerald, 9/9/15, 5).

In October 2015 the State government short-listed former Parramatta Golf Course and Riverside (fmr. David Jones Car Park) as potential sites for a new Powerhouse Museum. A business case will be developed on each site's viability and cost and community views canvassed before a selection is made. The preferred side expected should be announced mid-2016 (Wn.Syd.Business Access, 10/2015, 12).

In February 2016 the State government announced that Parramatta War Memorial Swimming Centre would be relocated to allow for extension of the adjacent Pirtek Stadium (Adoranti, Parramatta Advertiser, 17/2/16, 1, 5). In June 2016 the government called for expressions of interest to design and construct a replacement facility (Adoranti, 1/6/16, 3).

On Monday 22 August 2016 the Parramatta Eels played their final game at Parramatta Stadiumbefore the stadium is demolished to make way for the 30,000 seat Western Sydney Stadium. The Eels played the Dragons in the first game at the stadium on March 18, 1986. The Stadium grew from the ashes of the Cumberland Oval, after the oval grandstand was burnt down by Eels supporters following their first premiership in 1981. The existing (then) stadium opened in 1986. Among the largest crowds to attend matches here was 27,243 in 1986 when the Eels took on South Sydney. The hill slopes were replaced by terraces in 2002, limiting the stadium's capacity (Thomson, 2016, 7). The stadium lasted 30 years, hosted 343 games including 189 wins to the Eels, saw one Premiership and hosted 5 million fans (Middleton, David, League Information Services, quoted on Parramatta Advertiser, 24/8/16, 1).

In October 2016 the Dairy and Ranger's Cottage reopened to the public for the first time in four years, after Ptta. Ptta.Park Trust) waterproofed the building and added new audiovisual installations ahead of the day (Taouk, 2016).

In September 2017 Ministers Brad Hazzard and Gabrielle Upton announced on Tuesday that Cumberland Hospital's Wistaria Gardens will be added to the Parramatta Park Trust('s management). Wistaria Gardens was originally built as a place of solitude and contemplation for the Superintendent of the Parramatta Lunatic Asylum in 1906. The Superintendent's daughter brought the original wisteria plants from Japan more than 100 years ago (Stevens, 2017).

Over 2017-18, Old Government House held exhibitions including 'Georgian Glass' featuring the Havelberg collection (dating from 1700-1840), donated to the National Trust of Australia (NSW). 'Tales from the East' examined connections between India and Australia. A grant of $69k from the federal government enabled the Trust to update the conservation management plan and develop an interpretation plan (NTA (NSW) annual report, in NTA (NSW) Magazine, 10/2018, 13).

Old Government House opens to the public with the support of a dedicated team of staff and 150 volunteers. It is supported by the Friends of Old Government House and Experiment Farm Cottage, who fundraise and share the site's heritage with the community and tourists through events and local initiatives. Two of Old Government House's volunteers have dedicated their time and historical knowledge to the National Trust (NSW) for more than 45 years each (Ridley, 2020, 9).

A new conservation management plan has been completed for Old Government House (NTA (NSW) Annual Report, 2020, 6). The Trust is collaborating with Parramatta Park Trust to restore the line-of-sight from the front door of Old Government House to George Street, what was the settlement's original Main Street. The two organisations are also partnering to write a new joint Conservation Management Plan, to guide ongoing site management (Mearns, 2020, 14). A focus this year was the Collections Management database: and documentation of the Folk Textile collection. The garments were re-boxed and placed into new shelving units installed in the big larder at Old Government House. In 2020 the Trust acquired an 1840s Australian (red) cedar Hat tree (hat rack) for Old Government House (ibid, 2020, 7).

Historic themes

Australian theme (abbrev)New South Wales themeLocal theme
1. Environment-Tracing the evolution of a continent's special environments Environment - naturally evolved-Activities associated with the physical surroundings that support human life and influence or shape human cultures. Parramatta Park-
1. Environment-Tracing the evolution of a continent's special environments Environment - naturally evolved-Activities associated with the physical surroundings that support human life and influence or shape human cultures. Parramatta River-
1. Environment-Tracing the evolution of a continent's special environments Environment - naturally evolved-Activities associated with the physical surroundings that support human life and influence or shape human cultures. Environment/Contact: What do we know of the Contact Environment?-Environment (Natural) Control
1. Environment-Tracing the evolution of a continent's special environments Environment - naturally evolved-Activities associated with the physical surroundings that support human life and influence or shape human cultures. Gardens-
1. Environment-Tracing the evolution of a continent's special environments Environment - naturally evolved-Activities associated with the physical surroundings that support human life and influence or shape human cultures. Parks-
1. Environment-Tracing the evolution of a continent's special environments Environment - naturally evolved-Activities associated with the physical surroundings that support human life and influence or shape human cultures. Other open space-
1. Environment-Tracing the evolution of a continent's special environments Environment - naturally evolved-Activities associated with the physical surroundings that support human life and influence or shape human cultures. River flats-
1. Environment-Tracing the evolution of a continent's special environments Environment - naturally evolved-Activities associated with the physical surroundings that support human life and influence or shape human cultures. Changing the environment-
1. Environment-Tracing the evolution of a continent's special environments Environment - naturally evolved-Activities associated with the physical surroundings that support human life and influence or shape human cultures. Using natural features for human security-
1. Environment-Tracing the evolution of a continent's special environments Environment - naturally evolved-Activities associated with the physical surroundings that support human life and influence or shape human cultures. Cultural: Rivers and water bodies important to humans-
1. Environment-Tracing the evolution of a continent's special environments Environment - naturally evolved-Activities associated with the physical surroundings that support human life and influence or shape human cultures. Cultural: Soils and soil formations used by humans-
2. Peopling-Peopling the continent Aboriginal cultures and interactions with other cultures-Activities associated with maintaining, developing, experiencing and remembering Aboriginal cultural identities and practices, past and present. Burramattagal-
2. Peopling-Peopling the continent Aboriginal cultures and interactions with other cultures-Activities associated with maintaining, developing, experiencing and remembering Aboriginal cultural identities and practices, past and present. All nations - place of first contact between Aboriginal and European peoples-
2. Peopling-Peopling the continent Aboriginal cultures and interactions with other cultures-Activities associated with maintaining, developing, experiencing and remembering Aboriginal cultural identities and practices, past and present. Daruk Nation - sites evidencing occupation-
2. Peopling-Peopling the continent Aboriginal cultures and interactions with other cultures-Activities associated with maintaining, developing, experiencing and remembering Aboriginal cultural identities and practices, past and present. Daruk nation - sites of first contact or early interaction with colonisers-
2. Peopling-Peopling the continent Aboriginal cultures and interactions with other cultures-Activities associated with maintaining, developing, experiencing and remembering Aboriginal cultural identities and practices, past and present. Eora nation - places of contact with the colonisers-
2. Peopling-Peopling the continent Aboriginal cultures and interactions with other cultures-Activities associated with maintaining, developing, experiencing and remembering Aboriginal cultural identities and practices, past and present. All nations - sites evidencing occupation-
2. Peopling-Peopling the continent Convict-Activities relating to incarceration, transport, reform, accommodation and working during the convict period in NSW (1788-1850) - does not include activities associated with the conviction of persons in NSW that are unrelated to the imperial 'convict system': use the theme of Law & Order for such activities Convict barracks-
2. Peopling-Peopling the continent Convict-Activities relating to incarceration, transport, reform, accommodation and working during the convict period in NSW (1788-1850) - does not include activities associated with the conviction of persons in NSW that are unrelated to the imperial 'convict system': use the theme of Law & Order for such activities Convict huts-
2. Peopling-Peopling the continent Convict-Activities relating to incarceration, transport, reform, accommodation and working during the convict period in NSW (1788-1850) - does not include activities associated with the conviction of persons in NSW that are unrelated to the imperial 'convict system': use the theme of Law & Order for such activities Convict labour-
2. Peopling-Peopling the continent Convict-Activities relating to incarceration, transport, reform, accommodation and working during the convict period in NSW (1788-1850) - does not include activities associated with the conviction of persons in NSW that are unrelated to the imperial 'convict system': use the theme of Law & Order for such activities Gaol Town: How does the eighteenth-century gaol town of Parramatta compare with Sydney and the later, free town?-Convicts Convict; Control
2. Peopling-Peopling the continent Convict-Activities relating to incarceration, transport, reform, accommodation and working during the convict period in NSW (1788-1850) - does not include activities associated with the conviction of persons in NSW that are unrelated to the imperial 'convict system': use the theme of Law & Order for such activities Working for the Crown-
2. Peopling-Peopling the continent Convict-Activities relating to incarceration, transport, reform, accommodation and working during the convict period in NSW (1788-1850) - does not include activities associated with the conviction of persons in NSW that are unrelated to the imperial 'convict system': use the theme of Law & Order for such activities Administering the convict system-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Agriculture-Activities relating to the cultivation and rearing of plant and animal species, usually for commercial purposes, can include aquaculture Orchards and viticulture-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Agriculture-Activities relating to the cultivation and rearing of plant and animal species, usually for commercial purposes, can include aquaculture Government agriculture-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Agriculture-Activities relating to the cultivation and rearing of plant and animal species, usually for commercial purposes, can include aquaculture Market gardening-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Agriculture-Activities relating to the cultivation and rearing of plant and animal species, usually for commercial purposes, can include aquaculture Farming wheat and other grains-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Agriculture-Activities relating to the cultivation and rearing of plant and animal species, usually for commercial purposes, can include aquaculture Clearing land for farming-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Agriculture-Activities relating to the cultivation and rearing of plant and animal species, usually for commercial purposes, can include aquaculture Growing vines and maintaining vineyards-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Agriculture-Activities relating to the cultivation and rearing of plant and animal species, usually for commercial purposes, can include aquaculture Experimenting with new crops and methods-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Agriculture-Activities relating to the cultivation and rearing of plant and animal species, usually for commercial purposes, can include aquaculture Experimenting with new breeds of animal-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Agriculture-Activities relating to the cultivation and rearing of plant and animal species, usually for commercial purposes, can include aquaculture Arboretums - collections of trees for ornament or forestry-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Agriculture-Activities relating to the cultivation and rearing of plant and animal species, usually for commercial purposes, can include aquaculture Farming by detainees and prisoners-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Commerce-Activities relating to buying, selling and exchanging goods and services Was Parramatta provincial or fashionable?-Commerce Consumption
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Commerce-Activities relating to buying, selling and exchanging goods and services Economic Function: What function does Parramatta perform as the result of its physical position in relation to Sydney an-Commerce Consumption; Production
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Commerce-Activities relating to buying, selling and exchanging goods and services Global Market: Were the people of Parramatta participating in a global market place? Does this increase as the fruits of-Commerce Consumption; Production
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Accommodation-Activities associated with the provision of accommodation, and particular types of accommodation – does not include architectural styles – use the theme of Creative Endeavour for such activities. Residences to remember-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Accommodation-Activities associated with the provision of accommodation, and particular types of accommodation – does not include architectural styles – use the theme of Creative Endeavour for such activities. Official residences-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Accommodation-Activities associated with the provision of accommodation, and particular types of accommodation – does not include architectural styles – use the theme of Creative Endeavour for such activities. Building settlements, towns and cities-National Theme 4
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Accommodation-Activities associated with the provision of accommodation, and particular types of accommodation – does not include architectural styles – use the theme of Creative Endeavour for such activities. Can archaeological evidence of convict barracks at Parramatta be used in conjunction with evidence of barracks in Windso-Housing Convict; Control
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Accommodation-Activities associated with the provision of accommodation, and particular types of accommodation – does not include architectural styles – use the theme of Creative Endeavour for such activities. Housing public servants and officials-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Accommodation-Activities associated with the provision of accommodation, and particular types of accommodation – does not include architectural styles – use the theme of Creative Endeavour for such activities. Accommodating prisoners and internees-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Accommodation-Activities associated with the provision of accommodation, and particular types of accommodation – does not include architectural styles – use the theme of Creative Endeavour for such activities. Housing the prosperous - mansions in town and country-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Accommodation-Activities associated with the provision of accommodation, and particular types of accommodation – does not include architectural styles – use the theme of Creative Endeavour for such activities. Housing for farm and station hands-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Accommodation-Activities associated with the provision of accommodation, and particular types of accommodation – does not include architectural styles – use the theme of Creative Endeavour for such activities. Country Villa-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Land tenure-Activities and processes for identifying forms of ownership and occupancy of land and water, both Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Early land grants-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Land tenure-Activities and processes for identifying forms of ownership and occupancy of land and water, both Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Naming places (toponymy)-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Land tenure-Activities and processes for identifying forms of ownership and occupancy of land and water, both Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Administering and alienating Crown lands-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Towns, suburbs and villages-Activities associated with creating, planning and managing urban functions, landscapes and lifestyles in towns, suburbs and villages 19th century suburban developments-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Towns, suburbs and villages-Activities associated with creating, planning and managing urban functions, landscapes and lifestyles in towns, suburbs and villages Macquarie's town layout-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Towns, suburbs and villages-Activities associated with creating, planning and managing urban functions, landscapes and lifestyles in towns, suburbs and villages Subdivision of the rural estates-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Towns, suburbs and villages-Activities associated with creating, planning and managing urban functions, landscapes and lifestyles in towns, suburbs and villages Phillip's town layout-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Towns, suburbs and villages-Activities associated with creating, planning and managing urban functions, landscapes and lifestyles in towns, suburbs and villages Gaol Town: How does the eighteenth-century gaol town of Parramatta compare with Sydney and the later, free town?-Townships Convict, Control
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Towns, suburbs and villages-Activities associated with creating, planning and managing urban functions, landscapes and lifestyles in towns, suburbs and villages Order and Amenity: How does the layout of Parramatta reflect existing values relating to order and amenity?-Townships Control
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Towns, suburbs and villages-Activities associated with creating, planning and managing urban functions, landscapes and lifestyles in towns, suburbs and villages Different Towns: Does Phillip's town differ from Macquarie's?-Townships
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Towns, suburbs and villages-Activities associated with creating, planning and managing urban functions, landscapes and lifestyles in towns, suburbs and villages Rural/Urban Space: Rural space: respectable; urban space: degenerate? Is this dichotomy manifest in the archaeological r-Townships
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Towns, suburbs and villages-Activities associated with creating, planning and managing urban functions, landscapes and lifestyles in towns, suburbs and villages Urban landscapes inspiring creative responses-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Towns, suburbs and villages-Activities associated with creating, planning and managing urban functions, landscapes and lifestyles in towns, suburbs and villages Beautifying towns and villages-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Towns, suburbs and villages-Activities associated with creating, planning and managing urban functions, landscapes and lifestyles in towns, suburbs and villages Planning relationships between key structures and town plans-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Towns, suburbs and villages-Activities associated with creating, planning and managing urban functions, landscapes and lifestyles in towns, suburbs and villages Planned towns serving a specific industry-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Towns, suburbs and villages-Activities associated with creating, planning and managing urban functions, landscapes and lifestyles in towns, suburbs and villages Country Estate-
5. Working-Working Labour-Activities associated with work practises and organised and unorganised labour Government servants-
5. Working-Working Labour-Activities associated with work practises and organised and unorganised labour Working at enforced labour-
5. Working-Working Labour-Activities associated with work practises and organised and unorganised labour Government agricultural training farm-
6. Educating-Educating Education-Activities associated with teaching and learning by children and adults, formally and informally. Identity/Imperial: Does the development of education facilities in Parramatta reflect awareness of an imperial identity?-Education
6. Educating-Educating Education-Activities associated with teaching and learning by children and adults, formally and informally. Public education-
6. Educating-Educating Education-Activities associated with teaching and learning by children and adults, formally and informally. Schooling in temporary premises-
6. Educating-Educating Education-Activities associated with teaching and learning by children and adults, formally and informally. Public (primary) schooling-
6. Educating-Educating Education-Activities associated with teaching and learning by children and adults, formally and informally. Public (secondary) schooling-
6. Educating-Educating Education-Activities associated with teaching and learning by children and adults, formally and informally. apdated villa/ cottage for a school-
7. Governing-Governing Defence-Activities associated with defending places from hostile takeover and occupation Military Involvement: What is the level of involvement of the military in the town and the townspeople's lifeways?-Defence Convict; Control
7. Governing-Governing Government and Administration-Activities associated with the governance of local areas, regions, the State and the nation, and the administration of public programs - includes both principled and corrupt activities. Officials and the military settlers-
7. Governing-Governing Government and Administration-Activities associated with the governance of local areas, regions, the State and the nation, and the administration of public programs - includes both principled and corrupt activities. Governing-National Theme 7
7. Governing-Governing Government and Administration-Activities associated with the governance of local areas, regions, the State and the nation, and the administration of public programs - includes both principled and corrupt activities. Colonial government-
7. Governing-Governing Government and Administration-Activities associated with the governance of local areas, regions, the State and the nation, and the administration of public programs - includes both principled and corrupt activities. The garrison-
7. Governing-Governing Government and Administration-Activities associated with the governance of local areas, regions, the State and the nation, and the administration of public programs - includes both principled and corrupt activities. The Redoubt-
7. Governing-Governing Government and Administration-Activities associated with the governance of local areas, regions, the State and the nation, and the administration of public programs - includes both principled and corrupt activities. Direct vice-regal governance (pre 1856)-
7. Governing-Governing Government and Administration-Activities associated with the governance of local areas, regions, the State and the nation, and the administration of public programs - includes both principled and corrupt activities. Developing roles for government - facilitating agriculture-
7. Governing-Governing Government and Administration-Activities associated with the governance of local areas, regions, the State and the nation, and the administration of public programs - includes both principled and corrupt activities. Administrative Centre, 1839-62-
7. Governing-Governing Law and order-Activities associated with maintaining, promoting and implementing criminal and civil law and legal processes The rule of law-
7. Governing-Governing Law and order-Activities associated with maintaining, promoting and implementing criminal and civil law and legal processes Prison colony-
7. Governing-Governing Law and order-Activities associated with maintaining, promoting and implementing criminal and civil law and legal processes Dispensing justice-
7. Governing-Governing Law and order-Activities associated with maintaining, promoting and implementing criminal and civil law and legal processes Jail-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Creative endeavour-Activities associated with the production and performance of literary, artistic, architectural and other imaginative, interpretive or inventive works; and/or associated with the production and expression of cultural phenomena; and/or environments that have inspired such creative activities. 1800–1810: What does the archaeological record tell us about this period?-Cultural Sites
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Creative endeavour-Activities associated with the production and performance of literary, artistic, architectural and other imaginative, interpretive or inventive works; and/or associated with the production and expression of cultural phenomena; and/or environments that have inspired such creative activities. Class: How do people consciously express class identity through material culture?-Cultural Sites Consumption
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Creative endeavour-Activities associated with the production and performance of literary, artistic, architectural and other imaginative, interpretive or inventive works; and/or associated with the production and expression of cultural phenomena; and/or environments that have inspired such creative activities. Rural/Urban Change: How does a rural/urban dichotomy express itself over time?-Cultural Sites
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Creative endeavour-Activities associated with the production and performance of literary, artistic, architectural and other imaginative, interpretive or inventive works; and/or associated with the production and expression of cultural phenomena; and/or environments that have inspired such creative activities. Work/Domesticity: Is there evidence of an increased division between work and domestic life over time in the archaeologi-Cultural Sites Production
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Creative endeavour-Activities associated with the production and performance of literary, artistic, architectural and other imaginative, interpretive or inventive works; and/or associated with the production and expression of cultural phenomena; and/or environments that have inspired such creative activities. Developing cultural institutions and ways of life-National Theme 8
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Creative endeavour-Activities associated with the production and performance of literary, artistic, architectural and other imaginative, interpretive or inventive works; and/or associated with the production and expression of cultural phenomena; and/or environments that have inspired such creative activities. Monuments-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Creative endeavour-Activities associated with the production and performance of literary, artistic, architectural and other imaginative, interpretive or inventive works; and/or associated with the production and expression of cultural phenomena; and/or environments that have inspired such creative activities. Designing in an exemplary architectural style-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Creative endeavour-Activities associated with the production and performance of literary, artistic, architectural and other imaginative, interpretive or inventive works; and/or associated with the production and expression of cultural phenomena; and/or environments that have inspired such creative activities. Designing landscapes in an exemplary style-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Creative endeavour-Activities associated with the production and performance of literary, artistic, architectural and other imaginative, interpretive or inventive works; and/or associated with the production and expression of cultural phenomena; and/or environments that have inspired such creative activities. Designing structures to emphasise their important roles-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Creative endeavour-Activities associated with the production and performance of literary, artistic, architectural and other imaginative, interpretive or inventive works; and/or associated with the production and expression of cultural phenomena; and/or environments that have inspired such creative activities. Illustrations in response to Banks' and Solander's scientific collections-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Domestic life-Activities associated with creating, maintaining, living in and working around houses and institutions. Ways of life 1900-1950-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Domestic life-Activities associated with creating, maintaining, living in and working around houses and institutions. Ways of life 1788-1850-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Domestic life-Activities associated with creating, maintaining, living in and working around houses and institutions. Ways of life 1850-1900-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Leisure-Activities associated with recreation and relaxation Enjoying public parks and gardens-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Leisure-Activities associated with recreation and relaxation Visiting lookouts and places of natural beauty-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Leisure-Activities associated with recreation and relaxation Gathering at landmark places to socialise-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Social institutions-Activities and organisational arrangements for the provision of social activities Developing and maintaining a local museum-
9. Phases of Life-Marking the phases of life Persons-Activities of, and associations with, identifiable individuals, families and communal groups Associations with Samuel Marsden, grazier-
9. Phases of Life-Marking the phases of life Persons-Activities of, and associations with, identifiable individuals, families and communal groups Associations with Walter Liberty Vernon, Government Architect 1890-1911, private architect-
9. Phases of Life-Marking the phases of life Persons-Activities of, and associations with, identifiable individuals, families and communal groups Associations with Governor (later Adm.) Arthur Phillip, 1788-1792,-
9. Phases of Life-Marking the phases of life Persons-Activities of, and associations with, identifiable individuals, families and communal groups Associations with Governor (Rt.Hon.) Somerset Lowry-Corry, Earl of Belmore, GCMG, 1868-1872-
9. Phases of Life-Marking the phases of life Persons-Activities of, and associations with, identifiable individuals, families and communal groups Associations with the Macarthur - Onslow family dynasty-
9. Phases of Life-Marking the phases of life Persons-Activities of, and associations with, identifiable individuals, families and communal groups Associations with Aaron Muron Bolot, architect-
9. Phases of Life-Marking the phases of life Persons-Activities of, and associations with, identifiable individuals, families and communal groups Associations with Lt.-Governor William Paterson, 1794-1796, 1809-
9. Phases of Life-Marking the phases of life Persons-Activities of, and associations with, identifiable individuals, families and communal groups Associations with Governor Sir (later Lord) Augustus F.S.Loftus, 1879-1884+-
9. Phases of Life-Marking the phases of life Persons-Activities of, and associations with, identifiable individuals, families and communal groups Associations with Governor Sir Charles Augustus FitzRoy, 1846-1865-
9. Phases of Life-Marking the phases of life Persons-Activities of, and associations with, identifiable individuals, families and communal groups Associations with Governor Lt.-Cnl. Sir George Gipps, KB, 1838-1846-
9. Phases of Life-Marking the phases of life Persons-Activities of, and associations with, identifiable individuals, families and communal groups Associations with Governor (later Maj-Gen.) Lachlan Macquarie, 1810-1821-
9. Phases of Life-Marking the phases of life Persons-Activities of, and associations with, identifiable individuals, families and communal groups Associations with Governor (Mjr-Gen.) Sir Thomas Brisbane, GCB, KCH, 1821-1825-
9. Phases of Life-Marking the phases of life Persons-Activities of, and associations with, identifiable individuals, families and communal groups Associations with Governor (Mjr-Gen., later Gnl., Sir) Ralph Darling and Eliza Darling, 1826-1830-
9. Phases of Life-Marking the phases of life Persons-Activities of, and associations with, identifiable individuals, families and communal groups Associations with Governor Mjr.-Gen. (later Gen., Sir) Richard Bourke KCB, 1831-7-
9. Phases of Life-Marking the phases of life Persons-Activities of, and associations with, identifiable individuals, families and communal groups Associations with Lt. John Watts, colonial architect, aide-de-camp to Governor Macquarie-
9. Phases of Life-Marking the phases of life Persons-Activities of, and associations with, identifiable individuals, families and communal groups Associations with Governor (Captn.) Phillip Gidley King RN, 1800-1806-
9. Phases of Life-Marking the phases of life Persons-Activities of, and associations with, identifiable individuals, families and communal groups Associations with Elizabeth Macquarie, Governor's wife and taste-maker-
9. Phases of Life-Marking the phases of life Persons-Activities of, and associations with, identifiable individuals, families and communal groups Associations with Dame Helen Blaxland, conservationist and charitable fundraiser-
9. Phases of Life-Marking the phases of life Persons-Activities of, and associations with, identifiable individuals, families and communal groups Associations with Governor (Captn.) John Hunter RN, 1795-1800-

Recommended management:

Conservation Plan

Recommendations

Management CategoryDescriptionDate Updated
Recommended ManagementReview a Conservation Management Plan (CMP) 
Recommended ManagementPrepare a maintenance schedule or guidelines 
Recommended ManagementCarry out interpretation, promotion and/or education 

Procedures /Exemptions

Section of actDescriptionTitleCommentsAction date
21(1)(b)Conservation Plan submitted for endorsementOld Government House, Parramatta, CMP Jun 27 2003
57(2)Exemption to allow workStandard Exemptions SCHEDULE OF STANDARD EXEMPTIONS
HERITAGE ACT, 1977
Order Under Section 57(2) of the Heritage Act, 1977

I, the Minister for Planning, pursuant to section 57(2) of the Heritage Act 1977, on the recommendation of the Heritage Council of New South Wales, do by this Order:
1. revoke the Schedule of Exemptions to subsection 57(1) of the Heritage Act made under subsection 57(2) and published in the Government
Gazette on 7 March 2003, 18 June 2004 and 8 July 2005; and
2. grant standard exemptions from section 57(1) of the Heritage Act 1977, described in the Schedule below.

FRANK SARTOR
Minister for Planning
Sydney, 25 March 2006

To view the schedule click on the Standard Exemptions for Works Requiring Heritage Council Approval link below.
Mar 25 2006

PDF Standard exemptions for works requiring Heritage Council approval

Listings

Heritage ListingListing TitleListing NumberGazette DateGazette NumberGazette Page
Heritage Act - State Heritage Register - Element 0059602 Apr 99 271546
Heritage Act - Permanent Conservation Order - former 0059609 Jun 89 723410
Regional Environmental Plan Sched.6 pt.1 (state significant)20 Aug 99   
Archaeological zoning planParramatta Archaeological Management Unit 2877    
Cumberland County Council list of Historic Buildings 1961-67     
National Trust of Australia register  9237, 9238   
Register of the National Estate multiple listings21 Mar 78   
National Heritage List  01 Aug 07   
World Heritage List  01 Aug 10   

References, internet links & images

TypeAuthorYearTitleInternet Links
WrittenAdoranti, Kylie2016'Support for Parliament to find new home in Parramatta'
WrittenBartok, Di2004Architect Rewarded (re Clive Lucas winning RAIA prize for restoration work)
WrittenEngledow, Sarah2019'Petal to the metal' (about the very civil service of Dame Helen Blaxland)
WrittenHeary, Monica2004Boyhood trips inspire work
TourismHeritage NSW Old Government House View detail
WrittenHinkson, Melinda2002Exploring Aboriginal Sites in Sydney
WrittenMcDonald, Patricia R2007Gubernatorial Survivors - items in the National Trust collection with a rare provenance to the early governors of the colony
WrittenMearns, Rosalind, Regional Manager, Western Sydney2020'Celebrating our Convict Heritage'
WrittenRead, Stuart2010Elizabeth Macquarie - a partner in design View detail
WrittenRidley, Anna2020'Open Doors for Fifty Years'
WrittenSilink, Richard & Hayes, Gerry2014'Old Government House, Parramatta' under 'Properties and Collections/Highlights'
WrittenSimpson, Caroline2003Some Women of the National Trust, in "National Trust Reflections"
WrittenSydney Living Museums2017Convict Sydney View detail

Note: internet links may be to web pages, documents or images.

rez
(Click on thumbnail for full size image and image details)

Data source

The information for this entry comes from the following source:
Name: Heritage Office
Database number: 5045475
File number: 09/01461; S90/01914


Every effort has been made to ensure that information contained in the State Heritage Inventory is correct. If you find any errors or omissions please send your comments to the Database Manager.

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