Throsby Park Historic Site | NSW Environment & Heritage

Culture and heritage

Heritage

Throsby Park Historic Site

Item details

Name of item: Throsby Park Historic Site
Other name/s: Throsby Park
Type of item: Landscape
Group/Collection: Farming and Grazing
Category: Farm
Location: Lat: -34.5515709769 Long: 150.3947576600
Primary address: Church Road, Moss Vale, NSW 2577
Local govt. area: Wingecarribee
Local Aboriginal Land Council: Illawarra
Hectares (approx): 74
Property description
Lot/Volume CodeLot/Volume NumberSection NumberPlan/Folio CodePlan/Folio Number
LOTK DP109154
LOT1 DP580481
LOT4 DP730956
All addresses
Street AddressSuburb/townLGAParishCountyType
Church RoadMoss ValeWingecarribee  Primary Address
Throsby Park RoadMoss ValeWingecarribee  Alternate Address
Illawarra HighwayMoss ValeWingecarribee  Alternate Address

Owner/s

Organisation NameOwner CategoryDate Ownership Updated
Historic Houses Trust of NSWGeneral 

Statement of significance:

Throsby Park Historic Site is of national significance. The Throsby Park grant is important because it set in motion the first settlement outside the County of Cumberland and the opening up of the Southern Highlands. The Throsby Park Historic Site is the 184 acres core area of the 1000 acre grant made to Dr Charles Throsby in 1819. The Throsby Park Historic Site is a rare surviving property, which exhibits a strong sense of continuity from its early colonial origins and continuous family ownership. It is a symbol of early colonial Australia and of the lifestyle of the wealthier and more important members of colonial society. It is a rare property, that retains the ability to reflect its colonial period of use as an intense commercial mixed farming and subsistence operation that came to an end with the death of Charles Throsby in 1856. It is a substantially intact, surviving example of the cultural landscape of an intensely farmed high quality property which became the generators and breeding grounds for subsequent rural expansion and squatting empires. The farm complex which includes rare surviving 1830s farm buildings played an important role in developing the export industry for colonial beef products and in modern times has become known for its association with equestrian activities. It contains numerous archaeological deposits with potential insights into the evolution of the site and the range of colonial activities and industries carried out there. Artist Conrad Martens celebrated its qualities in a painting in 1836.

Throsby Park House, the centrepiece of the site, with a design possibly influenced by the work of John Verge, is a significant architectural milestone in the progression toward an Australian rural house form. It is a fine and early representative example of the 'large verandahed cottage' which developed in the 1830s from villa and bungalow antecedents within the Old Colonial Georgian Style. Sited crowning a hill overlooking Moss Vale, the house makes a strong visual statement, with its commanding position and attendant dark pines contained within a sweeping rural landscape. Together with its collection of furniture, the house evocatively expresses the compromise between the demands of English architecture and fashion, the colonial climate and colonial building conditions and the wealth and social aspirations of its colonial builder in a way that few houses can.

The Throsby Park Historic Site has strong associations with Dr Charles Throsby who was a significant contributor to the development of the colony in his various capacities as government official, explorer, member of the first Legislative Council, pastoralist and known for his improvements to the quality of colonial cattle. His successor Charles Throsby, the person primarily responsible for the development of the property was an important figure instrumental in the development of both the property and the district. He ran an intense mixed farming business on the property that set up the family's wealth for future generations. He built Throsby Cottage, the first residence in the district, which although much altered, still stands on the property and Christ Church, Bong Bong, the first church in the district and Throsby Park House, an early 'mansion' in the district.

The cultural landscape of Throsby Park is important at National, State, Regional and Local level as the surviving remnant of a 1,000 acre grant by Governor Macquarie in 1819 to Dr.Charles Throsby for his pioneering exploration for a route to the south coast from Bong Bong. Inherited by Charles Throsby, nephew of Dr.Charles Throsby, in 1834, the predominantly early nineteenth century farming landscape is articulated by a range of buildings comprising the oldest homestead complex outside the County of Cumberland. The landscape is articulated by a range of buildings, early plantings and archaeological sites which illustrate the social and rural processes of settlement and the continuity of land use and circulation patterns. The 'Cottage', built by 1823 as the first residence, remained in use after the main house, was completed in 1834 as the residence of Charles and Elizabeth Throsby. The main house is an excellent example of bungalow style homestead with a courtyard which is rare in New South Wales and demonstrates the needs of a large rural family. The associated stables building is an important example of early Victorian colonial design which remains in use as part of the riding school established in 1934 by the Throsby family. The property includes an important collection of colonial furniture purchased or donated in recent times as well as pieces associated with the Throsby family. In addition the property has been associated with significant nineteenth century figures including the Earl of Belmore, Bishop Barker and members of the Fairfax family. The complex is rare in having retained a close association with the Throsby family into the 1990s.
Date significance updated: 14 Dec 00
Note: The State Heritage Inventory provides information about heritage items listed by local and State government agencies. The State Heritage Inventory is continually being updated by local and State agencies as new information becomes available. Read the OEH copyright and disclaimer.

Description

Construction years: 1820-1836
Physical description: Throsby Park Historic Site is located about 140 km south of Sydney, about 2 km east of Moss Vale Railway Station. The site contains 74 hectares of the original 1000 acres grant made to Dr Charles Throsby in 1819.

Consists of 43 elements: main house [3906822], drainage ditch [3906823], site of convict huts [3906824], dump [3906825], truck and fence posts [3906826], horse dray [3906827], stock loading ramp [3906828], piggery and boiling down vat [3906829], dams [3906830, 3906846], roadways [3906831, 3906843, 3906847 and 3906936], horse yards [3906832], stables [3906833], gardens [3906834], stable yards [3906835], dairy [3906836], hayshed [3906837], dairyman's cottage [3906838] meat house [3906839], latrine block site [3906840], windbreak [3906841], sheep dip [3906842], Throsby grave [3906844], Throsby quarry [3906845], fencing [3906848], site of structures [(1) 3906849, (2) 3906850, (3) 3906852], site of horse mill [3906851], drainage channel [3906853], orchard paddock [3906854], dairy shed [3906928], machinery shed site [3906929], groom's outhouse [3906930], kennel shed [3906931], site of grave [3906932], harvester and farm equipment [3906933], cottage and garden [3906934], collection [3906935] and cottage laundry [3906951].
The grounds also include a summer house and orchards.

Several buildings which originally formed part of the property are now privately owned. These include the Mill, Barn and original stables.

Fabrics include local stone, weatherboard, corrugated iron and sandstock bricks.

Throsby Park House:
A one story structure with cellars and attics, built of locally quarried stone, internally divided by brick walls with cedar joinery throughout and an iron roof.

Throsby Cottage (c.1823+):
A timber framed weatherboard cottage. It has four wings with brick chimneys and corrugated iron hipped roofs on three wings and a gable roof on the fourth.
Initial (c.1823) cottage incoporated into larger, later cottage (Casey & Lowe, 12/7/2017, 2).

Laundry:
A timber framed weatherboard clad building with a corrugated iron roof.

Stables:
The stables has sandstock brick masonry in Flemish bond with an attic in the roof space lit be a pair of dormer windows. The corrugated iron roof is hipped, the walls are lime washed and the floors are stone flagged.

Horse Yards:
Made of post and rail fencing.

Collection:
The collection consists of furniture and pictures, some originally purchased by or made for the Throsbys' and others purchased or donated to the collection.
Physical condition and/or
Archaeological potential:
The buildings are in good condition as a result of recent conservation works. Prior to this, the buildings were all in a delapidated condition. Archaeological potential is high.
Date condition updated:14 Dec 00
Modifications and dates: c1915-16 a clay tennis court was built on terraced ground to the rear of the house

1940s-70s tennis court converted to horse exercise yard - with timber post-and-rail fencing.

Infrastructues have been modified as needed during entire history of complex. The hay shed [3906837] was replicated in 1991 after the original collapsed.

Outlying former parts of the estate, the Barn and Stables were owned by Miss Rachel Roxburgh, who adaptively reused the Barn to become her home, and used the Stables to house her kiln (she was a potter, as well as an acclaimed historian and writer on colonial architecture in NSW). Miss Roxburgh died in 1991. (Simpson, C., 2003)

2010: transferred to the Historic Houses Trust (HHT) of NSW which have reverted its use to the original use as a residence, while ensuring regular opportunities for the public to visit (Silink, HHT, 2010, 12).
2010-2013: HHT undertook essential conservation and maintenance projects to repair damage to the building. A major task was repairing the 26 verandah columns' lower decayed sections - cut off and replaced with brick and render base 'plates'. Spliced in sections of recycled hardwood (ironbark, tallowwood) replacing rotten sections only. A fibro room added under a corner of the internal verandah was dismantled, its missing shaped support posts replaced in recycled hardwood, A wooden trapdoor discovered in this room cut into the flagstone floor was the old entrance to the cellar. The hinged door was in good condition but its frame decayed. A new support frame was insterted, carefully modelled on the original and a damp-proof course added between the two surfaces. Inside the house's main rooms some minor patch repairs, painting and cleaning was done. The current planned works, including painting most of the exterior, will be completed this month (february), after which HHT will search for a new tenant (under the Endangered Houses Programme)(Insites, 2/2013).
Current use: residence and farm
Former use: Aboriginal land, pastoral property, private school/college, guest house/riding school, summer house of Governor, historic site/house museum

History

Historical notes: In 1819, retired Naval Surgeon Dr Charles Throsby was granted 1000 acres by Governor Macquarie in appreciation of his services to the Colony. Macquarie stated that Throsby was to select the 1000 acres in any part of the area Throsby had discovered. Dr Throsby's services to the colony included involvement in the exploration of routes down the Illawarra Escarpment, from Sutton Forest to Jervis Bay and from the Cowpastures to Bathurst. This exploration was undertaken by himself, Hamilton Hume, James Meehan the surveyor, and Mr. Wild, through Camden, Bargo, Marulan and the Kangaroo Valley. Dr Throsby later explored ,with Mr. Wild, the route through Bong Bong and Wingecarribee and Wollondilly and this is part of the site where he chose to settle.

His glowing reports of the Southern Tablelands had prompted Macquarie to open up the area placing Throsby in charge of the building of the 75 mile long road from Picton to the Wingecarribee River, west to the Wollondilly River over the Cook Bundanoon Mountains to Tarlo.

During a tour of inspection, Macquarie gave the name Throsby Park to the property that Throsby had selected. By 1820, a hut had been constructed on the property and by 1823 Throsby's nephew, also named Charles had erected a small cottage on the property. The nephew managed the property during Throsby's absences. The cottage is reported to have been used as a court when Throsby was required to act as Magistrate.

Dr Throsby was appointed to the Legislative Council in 1825 and served on it for three years. In 1825 Governor Darling visited the property. By 1828 Dr Charles Throsby was named on a list of the 12 largest stockholders in the country. Throsby also built Glenfield Farm at Casula (Silink, HHT, 2010, 12). Throsby continued to add to the Throsby Park property by both grant and purchase. At the time of his death, by suicide, in 1828 he held 21,600 acres (8,770 hectares).

Dr Throsby died in 1828 following a bout of severe depression. His nephew Charles inherited the estate and continued to make improvements, expanding both the property holdings and associated infrastructure. In 1828, the property had a small house, large barn and other outhouses. The number of employees grew steadily from 30, mainly assigned servants including labourers, stockmen , shepherds, watchman, hutkeepers, overseer, ploughman, gardener, fencer and shoemaker, to 50 workers in 1841.

Throsby's estate, including Glenfield and Throsby Park was left to his nephew Charles Throsby. His nephew Charles Throsby had married Elizabeth (Betsy) Broughton in 1824.

The 1830s were a time of great pastoral opportunities in NSW, particularly for pastoralists. Throsby took advantage of these opportunities and became a major producer of food for the colony, supplying by tender much of his produce of beef, mutton, maize, flour, straw, bran and spirits. to road parties and the mounted police. Throsby moved much of his pastoral operation to the Monaro and Deniliquin areas in 1837. Throsby Park was in the ideal position to supply these properties, which Throsby did by bullock and dray.

Construction of Throsby Park House by (the nephew) Charles and Elizabeth Throsby began some time around 1833 and was completed by 1836 when Backhouse described the house as a 'noble mansion' during his visit.

By 1842 Charles Throsby was one of the fourth largest shareholders in the Bank of Australia and continued to make improvements to Throsby Park. He was actively involved in community affairs being appointed District Warden by Governor Fitzroy in 1843, a position he held until his death in 1854. He donated the land for, and erected Christ Church Bong Bong nearby in 1845.

The coming of the (Great Southern) railway to Moss Vale (the station opened in December 1867) required subdivision of part of Throsby Park estate and provided impetus for the establishment of the town of Moss Vale. Its name commemorates Jemmy Moss, an ex-convict servant of Charles Throsby, who lived in a hut on Throsby land in what is now Spring Street, Moss Vale. Moss had been transported to NSW for 7 years in 1828 for stealing, but proved a valued employee to the Throsby family. By the time the station opened (on the new line to Goulburn) in 1867, the town had a store, a postal service and hotel, mainly to cater for the needs of the large numbers of railway workers who had come to the district. Their small tent communities sprang up all along the Great Southern Railway line as it forged south towards Goulburn. The opening up of the Yarrawa Brush (rainforest area, split up and cleared for farming) in the 1860s - the Robertson, Burrawang and Wilde's Meadow area - added to the importance of the rail head at Moss Vale, which became the district centre for sending produce and other freight to the Sydney market (Emery, 2001, 82).

The latter years of the 19th century perhaps marked the heyday of Moss Vale. The town was thriving, capitalising on the prosperity of the surrounding farming and grazing industries. With steady growth came the usual public buildings that reflected the aspirations of the inhabitants - a School of Arts, new Post & Telegraph Office, Court House and E.S. & A. & Commercial bank buildings. Most of the business activity was centred at the southern end of Argyle Street from the railway bridge and up the hill as far as Yarrawa Road - the shift of the town to the north is a relatively recent occurrence. As well as being the commercial hub of the district, Moss Vale a century ago was also the educational centre. A number of private boarding schools sprang up, including Tudor House, opened in 1902 at Hamilton, a house designed by noted architect Horbury Hunt and built for Alick Osborne and his wife Isabel, a daughter of Charles and Elizabeth Throsby of Throsby Park. Throsby Park was also used as a school, first by Henry Southey in the 1870s. Southey had attended Magdalen College, Oxford, and was quite a scholar. His school at Moss Vale opened with 11 boys, but grew quickly, transferring to Mittagong to become Oaklands School. For a short time from 1888, James Neale Dalton leased Throsby Park and somewhat grandiosely named it 'St George College', which was to be styled 'on the principles of the great schools at Eton and Rugby' (ibid, 2001, 83).

Charles' widow Elizabeth leased out many of the functions of the property to tenants, a situation that continued until 1891. In 1868 she moved into the cottage and leased Throsby Park house to the Governor, Lord Belmore as his summer residence. During 1873-74 the Bishop of Sydney the Rt Reverend Frederic Barker used it as his summer residence. In 1874-75 Henry E. Southey used the premises as a school. The history of occupation of the house is sketchy after this period except for 1882 - 1887 when Edward Ross Fairfax occupied it. The Bong Bong Picnic Race Club which formed in 1886 held its race meeting on the Throsby Estate.

Elizabeth Throsby died in 1891 leaving the property to Patrick Hill Throsby who died in 1894 leaving the property to Francis Henry Throsby. Patrick was a successful breeder and racer of horses. The Moss Vale Jockey Club formed in 1900 and held its race meetings on the Bong Bong track which was on the Throsby estate.

In 1905, the area was threatened by bushfires. Francis Throsby became concerned for the safety of the house and had the shingle roof removed and replaced by corrugated galvanised iron. He also had major alterations and additions made to the house in 1910.

A clay tennis court was built on terraced ground to the rear of Throsby Park house c.1915-16 and became the social hub of the property up until the second World War. It was modified some time in the 1940s-70s to become a horse exercise yard, which included installation of timber post-and-rail fencing (TKD, 2015, 2).

Francis and his wife Jeannie settled Throsby Park House and the surrounding 181 acres on their son Francis Henry Osborne Throsby in 1930, but they continued to occupy the house until 1938.

Francis Henry Osborne Throsby and his wife Joan had been occupying the Mill where they had operated a guesthouse prior to their move to Throsby Park House in 1938. They transferred the operation of the guesthouse as well as a riding school to Throsby Park. During World War II, Throsby Park was home to a number of families whose men were either away at the war or working in Sydney. The riding school continued operating after the war with up to 35 children in residence during school holidays. Share farmers still operated on the property at various times.

Various alterations and additions continued to be made to the property and its associated infrastructure. Francis Henry Osborne Throsby died in 1960. In 1963 Delicia and Joan Hester Throsby purchased Throsby Park house.

The NSW Government under Premier the Hon Thomas Lewis acquired the house in 1975 under the NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service (NPWS) Act, but Joan and Delicia continued to occupy the rear section of the house. A condition of acquisition was that Delicia be entitled to reside in part of the house and continue to operate her renowned riding school on the site. Joan Throsby died in 1977. Throsby Cottage was purchased by the NSW NPWS in 1991.

The house was in a dilapidated state before the NSW NPWS began conservation works. Under NSW NPWS management since the 1970s it has been opened to the public on an occasional basis, with guided tours, open days and special events.

Several buildings formed part of the original property are now privately owned. These include the Mill, Barn and original stables.

The barn at Throsby Park was built by Dr. Charles Throsby soon after he had taken possession of the land and built a small wooden cottage by the 1820s. It is of brick construction set on sandstone foundation with 60 centimetre thick walls. The roof was originally shingled but now covered with corrugated iron. The barn was one of two buildings erected soon after Dr Throsby took possession of his land grant. The property has a Wingecarribee local heritage
listing as well as being included as an item of significance within the Throsby Park group (Brown, pers.comm., 3/6/10).

In 2010 the property was transferred to the Historic Houses Trust (HHT) of NSW (now Sydney Living Museums) which will use its expertise to build on the excellent restoration works undertaken by the NPWS. By returning Throsby Park to its original use as a residence, HHT will maintain its heritage values while ensuring regular opportunities for the public to visit and appreciate the property (Silink, HHT, 2010, 12).

In April 2014 a forty-year lease over the 74 ha estate was granted to descendent, expatriate banker, Tim Throsby. One of twelve submissions for the leashold, Throsby won not only because of family connection, but based on a $2.5m investment in conserving the house itself and a remaining $1.3m in annual rental over 40 years. Mr Throsby's father Pat was Del Throsby's (Delicia, the last family member to live there, until her death in 2006) (son/brother?) and had lived at the property when he was young. 'There's nothing economically sensible about all this. It's a labour of love on our part' Mr Thosby told the Sun-Herald. 'The plan for us now is to spend some time turning it into a comfortable family home and we'll move back here in a few years to live in it'. The lease decision in April over the 74 hectare estate with its own Act of Parliament makes it the largest and one of the most significant historic properties to be entrusted to a member of the public, Historic Houses Trust of NSW chair Michael Rose said. 'This is a real success in terms of taking a state-owned property, which was not in great condition and not being used, and bringing it back to life and conserving it in a way that won't cost the state', Mr Rose said. The adjoining property, called Barnham Stables, predates Throsby Park and was where workers lived while the homestead was being built. Mr. Throsby purchased that 8396 square meter property in 2007 for $1.425m from artist John Olsen and his wife, Katherine (Macken, in SMH, 19/10/2014).

Historic themes

Australian theme (abbrev)New South Wales themeLocal theme
1. Environment-Tracing the evolution of a continent's special environments Environment - naturally evolved-Activities associated with the physical surroundings that support human life and influence or shape human cultures. Cultural: Plains and plateaux supporting human activities-
1. Environment-Tracing the evolution of a continent's special environments Environment - naturally evolved-Activities associated with the physical surroundings that support human life and influence or shape human cultures. Introduce cultural planting-
1. Environment-Tracing the evolution of a continent's special environments Environment - naturally evolved-Activities associated with the physical surroundings that support human life and influence or shape human cultures. Changing the environment-
2. Peopling-Peopling the continent Convict-Activities relating to incarceration, transport, reform, accommodation and working during the convict period in NSW (1788-1850) - does not include activities associated with the conviction of persons in NSW that are unrelated to the imperial 'convict system': use the theme of Law & Order for such activities Working on private assignment-
2. Peopling-Peopling the continent Convict-Activities relating to incarceration, transport, reform, accommodation and working during the convict period in NSW (1788-1850) - does not include activities associated with the conviction of persons in NSW that are unrelated to the imperial 'convict system': use the theme of Law & Order for such activities Administering the convict system-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Agriculture-Activities relating to the cultivation and rearing of plant and animal species, usually for commercial purposes, can include aquaculture Marking the transition from pastoralism to agriculture-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Agriculture-Activities relating to the cultivation and rearing of plant and animal species, usually for commercial purposes, can include aquaculture Experimenting with new crops and methods-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Agriculture-Activities relating to the cultivation and rearing of plant and animal species, usually for commercial purposes, can include aquaculture Farming wheat and other grains-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Agriculture-Activities relating to the cultivation and rearing of plant and animal species, usually for commercial purposes, can include aquaculture Clearing land for farming-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Agriculture-Activities relating to the cultivation and rearing of plant and animal species, usually for commercial purposes, can include aquaculture Farming by detainees and prisoners-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Agriculture-Activities relating to the cultivation and rearing of plant and animal species, usually for commercial purposes, can include aquaculture Ancillary structures - wells, cisterns-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Agriculture-Activities relating to the cultivation and rearing of plant and animal species, usually for commercial purposes, can include aquaculture Flour milling-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Agriculture-Activities relating to the cultivation and rearing of plant and animal species, usually for commercial purposes, can include aquaculture Improving agricultural production-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Agriculture-Activities relating to the cultivation and rearing of plant and animal species, usually for commercial purposes, can include aquaculture Attempting to transplant European farming practices to Australian environments-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Environment - cultural landscape-Activities associated with the interactions between humans, human societies and the shaping of their physical surroundings Developing local, regional and national economies-National Theme 3
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Environment - cultural landscape-Activities associated with the interactions between humans, human societies and the shaping of their physical surroundings Landscapes of scenic beauty-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Environment - cultural landscape-Activities associated with the interactions between humans, human societies and the shaping of their physical surroundings Significant tree(s) providing rural amenity or character-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Environment - cultural landscape-Activities associated with the interactions between humans, human societies and the shaping of their physical surroundings Landscapes demonstrating styles in landscape design-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Environment - cultural landscape-Activities associated with the interactions between humans, human societies and the shaping of their physical surroundings Landscapes of urban and rural interaction-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Environment - cultural landscape-Activities associated with the interactions between humans, human societies and the shaping of their physical surroundings Gardens and landscapes reminiscent of an 'old country'-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Environment - cultural landscape-Activities associated with the interactions between humans, human societies and the shaping of their physical surroundings Landscapes and countryside of rural charm-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Environment - cultural landscape-Activities associated with the interactions between humans, human societies and the shaping of their physical surroundings Landscapes and countryside of rural charm-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Environment - cultural landscape-Activities associated with the interactions between humans, human societies and the shaping of their physical surroundings Landscapes of food production-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Environment - cultural landscape-Activities associated with the interactions between humans, human societies and the shaping of their physical surroundings Landscapes and gardens of domestic accommodation-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Exploration-Activities associated with making places previously unknown to a cultural group known to them. (none)-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Exploration-Activities associated with making places previously unknown to a cultural group known to them. Exploring and surveying for the Crown-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Exploration-Activities associated with making places previously unknown to a cultural group known to them. Opening Up, 1818-39-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Exploration-Activities associated with making places previously unknown to a cultural group known to them. Routes taken by Dr Charles Throsby in the Southern Highlands-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Pastoralism-Activities associated with the breeding, raising, processing and distribution of livestock for human use Modifying landscapes to increase productivity-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Pastoralism-Activities associated with the breeding, raising, processing and distribution of livestock for human use Processing livestock into meat products-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Pastoralism-Activities associated with the breeding, raising, processing and distribution of livestock for human use Working for pastoralists-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Pastoralism-Activities associated with the breeding, raising, processing and distribution of livestock for human use Beef cattle breeding and raising-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Pastoralism-Activities associated with the breeding, raising, processing and distribution of livestock for human use Sheep farming for lamb and mutton-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Accommodation-Activities associated with the provision of accommodation, and particular types of accommodation – does not include architectural styles – use the theme of Creative Endeavour for such activities. Housing working animals-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Accommodation-Activities associated with the provision of accommodation, and particular types of accommodation – does not include architectural styles – use the theme of Creative Endeavour for such activities. Housing for farm and station hands-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Accommodation-Activities associated with the provision of accommodation, and particular types of accommodation – does not include architectural styles – use the theme of Creative Endeavour for such activities. Housing famous families-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Accommodation-Activities associated with the provision of accommodation, and particular types of accommodation – does not include architectural styles – use the theme of Creative Endeavour for such activities. Housing the prosperous - hill station summer retreats-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Accommodation-Activities associated with the provision of accommodation, and particular types of accommodation – does not include architectural styles – use the theme of Creative Endeavour for such activities. Accommodating convicts-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Accommodation-Activities associated with the provision of accommodation, and particular types of accommodation – does not include architectural styles – use the theme of Creative Endeavour for such activities. Guesthouses-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Land tenure-Activities and processes for identifying forms of ownership and occupancy of land and water, both Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Demonstrating Governor Macquarie's town and landscape planning-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Land tenure-Activities and processes for identifying forms of ownership and occupancy of land and water, both Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Selecting land for pastoral or agricultural purposes-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Land tenure-Activities and processes for identifying forms of ownership and occupancy of land and water, both Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Changing land uses - from rural to tourist-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Land tenure-Activities and processes for identifying forms of ownership and occupancy of land and water, both Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Expressing lines of early grant allotments-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Land tenure-Activities and processes for identifying forms of ownership and occupancy of land and water, both Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Changing land uses - from rural to suburban-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Land tenure-Activities and processes for identifying forms of ownership and occupancy of land and water, both Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Fencing boundaries - wooden post and rail-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Land tenure-Activities and processes for identifying forms of ownership and occupancy of land and water, both Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Resuming private lands for public purposes-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Land tenure-Activities and processes for identifying forms of ownership and occupancy of land and water, both Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Sub-division of large estates-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Land tenure-Activities and processes for identifying forms of ownership and occupancy of land and water, both Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Granting Crown lands for private farming-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Land tenure-Activities and processes for identifying forms of ownership and occupancy of land and water, both Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Naming places (toponymy)-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Towns, suburbs and villages-Activities associated with creating, planning and managing urban functions, landscapes and lifestyles in towns, suburbs and villages Vernacular hamlets and settlements-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Towns, suburbs and villages-Activities associated with creating, planning and managing urban functions, landscapes and lifestyles in towns, suburbs and villages Country Estate-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Towns, suburbs and villages-Activities associated with creating, planning and managing urban functions, landscapes and lifestyles in towns, suburbs and villages Rural orchards-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Towns, suburbs and villages-Activities associated with creating, planning and managing urban functions, landscapes and lifestyles in towns, suburbs and villages Role of transport in settlement-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Towns, suburbs and villages-Activities associated with creating, planning and managing urban functions, landscapes and lifestyles in towns, suburbs and villages Developing suburbia-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Towns, suburbs and villages-Activities associated with creating, planning and managing urban functions, landscapes and lifestyles in towns, suburbs and villages Indicators of early town planning and the disposition of people within the emerging settlement-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Towns, suburbs and villages-Activities associated with creating, planning and managing urban functions, landscapes and lifestyles in towns, suburbs and villages Creating landmark structures and places in regional settings-
5. Working-Working Labour-Activities associated with work practises and organised and unorganised labour Servants quarters-
5. Working-Working Labour-Activities associated with work practises and organised and unorganised labour Working on pastoral stations-
6. Educating-Educating Education-Activities associated with teaching and learning by children and adults, formally and informally. Private education-
6. Educating-Educating Education-Activities associated with teaching and learning by children and adults, formally and informally. apdated villa/ cottage for a school-
6. Educating-Educating Education-Activities associated with teaching and learning by children and adults, formally and informally. Riding (horse) school-
7. Governing-Governing Government and Administration-Activities associated with the governance of local areas, regions, the State and the nation, and the administration of public programs - includes both principled and corrupt activities. Developing roles for government - parks and open spaces-
7. Governing-Governing Government and Administration-Activities associated with the governance of local areas, regions, the State and the nation, and the administration of public programs - includes both principled and corrupt activities. Developing roles for government - providing museums-
7. Governing-Governing Government and Administration-Activities associated with the governance of local areas, regions, the State and the nation, and the administration of public programs - includes both principled and corrupt activities. Developing roles for government - conserving cultural and natural heritage-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Creative endeavour-Activities associated with the production and performance of literary, artistic, architectural and other imaginative, interpretive or inventive works; and/or associated with the production and expression of cultural phenomena; and/or environments that have inspired such creative activities. Landscaping - Federation period-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Creative endeavour-Activities associated with the production and performance of literary, artistic, architectural and other imaginative, interpretive or inventive works; and/or associated with the production and expression of cultural phenomena; and/or environments that have inspired such creative activities. Building in response to natural landscape features.-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Creative endeavour-Activities associated with the production and performance of literary, artistic, architectural and other imaginative, interpretive or inventive works; and/or associated with the production and expression of cultural phenomena; and/or environments that have inspired such creative activities. Landscaping - colonial period-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Creative endeavour-Activities associated with the production and performance of literary, artistic, architectural and other imaginative, interpretive or inventive works; and/or associated with the production and expression of cultural phenomena; and/or environments that have inspired such creative activities. Landscaping - 20th century interwar-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Creative endeavour-Activities associated with the production and performance of literary, artistic, architectural and other imaginative, interpretive or inventive works; and/or associated with the production and expression of cultural phenomena; and/or environments that have inspired such creative activities. Landscaping - Victorian gardenesque style-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Creative endeavour-Activities associated with the production and performance of literary, artistic, architectural and other imaginative, interpretive or inventive works; and/or associated with the production and expression of cultural phenomena; and/or environments that have inspired such creative activities. Interior design styles and periods - Victorian-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Creative endeavour-Activities associated with the production and performance of literary, artistic, architectural and other imaginative, interpretive or inventive works; and/or associated with the production and expression of cultural phenomena; and/or environments that have inspired such creative activities. Architectural styles and periods - Victorian (mid)-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Creative endeavour-Activities associated with the production and performance of literary, artistic, architectural and other imaginative, interpretive or inventive works; and/or associated with the production and expression of cultural phenomena; and/or environments that have inspired such creative activities. Building in response to climate - verandahs-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Creative endeavour-Activities associated with the production and performance of literary, artistic, architectural and other imaginative, interpretive or inventive works; and/or associated with the production and expression of cultural phenomena; and/or environments that have inspired such creative activities. Architectural styles and periods - colonial homestead-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Creative endeavour-Activities associated with the production and performance of literary, artistic, architectural and other imaginative, interpretive or inventive works; and/or associated with the production and expression of cultural phenomena; and/or environments that have inspired such creative activities. Architectural styles and periods - colonial homestead-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Creative endeavour-Activities associated with the production and performance of literary, artistic, architectural and other imaginative, interpretive or inventive works; and/or associated with the production and expression of cultural phenomena; and/or environments that have inspired such creative activities. Vernacular structures and building techniques-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Creative endeavour-Activities associated with the production and performance of literary, artistic, architectural and other imaginative, interpretive or inventive works; and/or associated with the production and expression of cultural phenomena; and/or environments that have inspired such creative activities. Designing landscapes in an exemplary style-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Domestic life-Activities associated with creating, maintaining, living in and working around houses and institutions. Physical evidence of creating, maintaining, living in and working around houses, through domestic artefacts scatters, ar-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Domestic life-Activities associated with creating, maintaining, living in and working around houses and institutions. Living in, adapting and renovating homes for changing conditions-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Domestic life-Activities associated with creating, maintaining, living in and working around houses and institutions. Living in a rural homestead-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Leisure-Activities associated with recreation and relaxation Horse racing-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Leisure-Activities associated with recreation and relaxation Horse riding-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Leisure-Activities associated with recreation and relaxation Visiting heritage places-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Leisure-Activities associated with recreation and relaxation Developing collections of items-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Leisure-Activities associated with recreation and relaxation Gardening-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Leisure-Activities associated with recreation and relaxation Going to a museum-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Leisure-Activities associated with recreation and relaxation Enjoying public parks and gardens-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Leisure-Activities associated with recreation and relaxation Gathering at landmark places to socialise-
9. Phases of Life-Marking the phases of life Birth and Death-Activities associated with the initial stages of human life and the bearing of children, and with the final stages of human life and disposal of the dead. Isolated graves / Remnant headstones-
9. Phases of Life-Marking the phases of life Persons-Activities of, and associations with, identifiable individuals, families and communal groups Associations with Governor (Rt.Hon.) Somerset Lowry-Corry, Earl of Belmore, GCMG, 1868-1872-
9. Phases of Life-Marking the phases of life Persons-Activities of, and associations with, identifiable individuals, families and communal groups Associations with Aaron Muron Bolot, architect-
9. Phases of Life-Marking the phases of life Persons-Activities of, and associations with, identifiable individuals, families and communal groups Associations with Governor Sir Charles Augustus FitzRoy, 1846-1865-
9. Phases of Life-Marking the phases of life Persons-Activities of, and associations with, identifiable individuals, families and communal groups Associations with Governor (Mjr-Gen., later Gnl., Sir) Ralph Darling and Eliza Darling, 1826-1830-
9. Phases of Life-Marking the phases of life Persons-Activities of, and associations with, identifiable individuals, families and communal groups Associations with the Moss Vale Jockey Club-
9. Phases of Life-Marking the phases of life Persons-Activities of, and associations with, identifiable individuals, families and communal groups Associations with Delicia Throsby, riding school instructor-
9. Phases of Life-Marking the phases of life Persons-Activities of, and associations with, identifiable individuals, families and communal groups Associations with Joan Hester Throsby, farmer-
9. Phases of Life-Marking the phases of life Persons-Activities of, and associations with, identifiable individuals, families and communal groups Associations with Tim Throsby, expatriate banker-
9. Phases of Life-Marking the phases of life Persons-Activities of, and associations with, identifiable individuals, families and communal groups Associations with Dr Charles Throsby, retired naval surgeon, explorer, farmer-
9. Phases of Life-Marking the phases of life Persons-Activities of, and associations with, identifiable individuals, families and communal groups Associations with Charles Throsby MLC, major landholder and grazier-
9. Phases of Life-Marking the phases of life Persons-Activities of, and associations with, identifiable individuals, families and communal groups Associations with James Neale Dalton, private school founder-
9. Phases of Life-Marking the phases of life Persons-Activities of, and associations with, identifiable individuals, families and communal groups Associations with Henry Southey, scholar and private school founder-
9. Phases of Life-Marking the phases of life Persons-Activities of, and associations with, identifiable individuals, families and communal groups Associations with Betsy (Elizabeth) Throsby (nee Broughton), gentlewoman and farmer-
9. Phases of Life-Marking the phases of life Persons-Activities of, and associations with, identifiable individuals, families and communal groups Associations with the Right Reverend Frederic Barker, priest-
9. Phases of Life-Marking the phases of life Persons-Activities of, and associations with, identifiable individuals, families and communal groups Associations with Edward Ross Fairfax-
9. Phases of Life-Marking the phases of life Persons-Activities of, and associations with, identifiable individuals, families and communal groups Associations with the Bong Bong Picnic Race Club-
9. Phases of Life-Marking the phases of life Persons-Activities of, and associations with, identifiable individuals, families and communal groups Associations with Patrick Hill Throsby, grazier-
9. Phases of Life-Marking the phases of life Persons-Activities of, and associations with, identifiable individuals, families and communal groups Associations with Francis Henry Throsby, grazier-
9. Phases of Life-Marking the phases of life Persons-Activities of, and associations with, identifiable individuals, families and communal groups Associations with Francis Henry Osborne Throsby, grazier-

Assessment of significance

SHR Criteria a)
[Historical significance]
Throsby Park Historic Site has a strong and ongoing association with the Throsby family, initially with explorer and original grantee, Dr Charles Throsby and with his nephew Charles Throsby who did much to develop the property and establish the family fortune.

Dr Charles Throsby was an important colonial figure who became a wealthy property owner, pastoralist, breeder of quality stock and he was one of the three private citizens selected as members of the first Legislative Council in NSW. His explorations did much to open up overland access to the Illawarra District and the Southern Highlands of New South Wales and was rewarded for his efforts by the opportunity to select 1000 acres anywhere in the area he had discovered.
Charles and Elizabeth Throsby were largely responsible for the development of the property. He was a successful farmer and pastoralist who was a very sucessful tenderer to many of the road gangs and mounted police. Charles was responsible for the construction of Christ Church, Bong Bong, acted as the local Magistrate and became the first District Warden for Berrima District. He was a prominant member in his community, as were his descendants. Elizabeth Throsby was involved in a shipping disaster and immortalised as a child in a c.1814 painting now held in the National Gallery Canberra.

Prominant visitors to the property include explorer James Backhouse as well as Governors Macquarie (who granted and named the property), Darling, and Fitzroy as well as Governor, Lord Belmont who leased the property as his summer residence. Conrad Martens painted the property in 1836.
SHR Criteria c)
[Aesthetic significance]
The aesthetic significance of Throsby Park Historic Site is high. The homestead is set in cultivated gardens on a hill with vast open vistas over the sweeping rural landscape. The associated outbuildings, separated from the homestead in their own precinct add to the historic context of the site. When viewed as a whole, the homestead and its associated outbuildings, its natural setting and landforms with cultivated gardens and pastures is evocative of its early 19th century origins and appearance.

Possibly the work of John Verge, Throsby Park House is a significant architecutral milestone in a progression towards an Australian rural residential form which was a combination of the country house, villa and cottage forms. It is a compromise between English architectural fashion, the climate, available building resources and the wealth and social aspirations of the Throsby family.
SHR Criteria d)
[Social significance]
Throsby Park Historic Site is of state significance as the first property developed outside the County of Cumberland and is an important milestone in opening up the Southern Highlands and the Berrima District.

The property is of regional significance because of its association with the development of the Moss Vale district, in particular the establishment of Bong Bong and Berrima. It is also linked to the construction of Christ Church and the Royal Oak Inn at Bong Bong, as well as to the establishment of Bong Bong Picnic Race Club and the Moss Vale Jockey Club.

It is also of ongoing significance to the decendants of the Throsby family.
SHR Criteria e)
[Research potential]
Throsby Park Historic Site contains numerous archaeological deposits, standing structures and features , which have the potential to provide insights into early colonial mixed farming operations and associated subsistence activities and into the lifestyle of wealthy colonial families of the period.

The extant buildings and features have the potential to demonstrate period construction techniques and materials.
SHR Criteria f)
[Rarity]
Throsby Park Historic Site is a rare example of a pastoral property which has remained in the hands of one family from its granting in 1819 until 1975 and who still maintain an ongoing association with the property. Throsby Park house is a rare rural property with surviving 1820s farm buildings, which exhibits a strong sense of continuity from its colonial origins.

Throsby Park was the first property developed outside the County of Cumberland and an important milestone in opening up the Southern Highlands and the Berrima district to settlement.
SHR Criteria g)
[Representativeness]
Throsby Park Historic Site contains representative examples of various elements associated with architecture, colonial society, workmanship and technology. Throsby Park House is a representative example of the 1830s large verandahed cottage type which is a sub-set of the Old Colonial Georgian architectural style.

The farm buildings associated with the historic property are a fine, representative, early nineteenth century period set, although many are altered and all except the stables are now in private ownership.

Throsby Cottage is a good although much altered example of the early cottages built by wealthy settlers as a stepping stone on their way to a larger and more sophisticated residence. By its alterations it demonstrates responses to changing occupational needs.

The joinery in Throsby Park House represents a good example of high quality period workmanship.

The furniture collection associated with Throsby Park provenanced to the place includes representative examples of fine early pieces and some early locally made pieces.
Integrity/Intactness: Integrity and intactness are high. The majority of structures retain their original fabric and form which allows their function and interrelationship between the various building and farm components to be easily established.
Assessment criteria: Items are assessed against the PDF State Heritage Register (SHR) Criteria to determine the level of significance. Refer to the Listings below for the level of statutory protection.

Recommended management:

Implement Conservation Management Plan and maintain cyclical maintainance.

Recommendations

Management CategoryDescriptionDate Updated
Recommended ManagementReview a Conservation Management Plan (CMP) 
Recommended ManagementPrepare a maintenance schedule or guidelines 
Recommended ManagementCarry out interpretation, promotion and/or education 

Procedures /Exemptions

Section of actDescriptionTitleCommentsAction date
21(1)(b)Conservation Plan submitted for endorsementThrosby Park CMP single volume includes CMP proper and appendices A to F Oct 17 2000
57(2)Exemption to allow workStandard Exemptions SCHEDULE OF STANDARD EXEMPTIONS
HERITAGE ACT 1977
Notice of Order Under Section 57 (2) of the Heritage Act 1977

I, the Minister for Planning, pursuant to subsection 57(2) of the Heritage Act 1977, on the recommendation of the Heritage Council of New South Wales, do by this Order:

1. revoke the Schedule of Exemptions to subsection 57(1) of the Heritage Act made under subsection 57(2) and published in the Government Gazette on 22 February 2008; and

2. grant standard exemptions from subsection 57(1) of the Heritage Act 1977, described in the Schedule attached.

FRANK SARTOR
Minister for Planning
Sydney, 11 July 2008

To view the schedule click on the Standard Exemptions for Works Requiring Heritage Council Approval link below.
Sep 5 2008
21(1)(b)Conservation Plan submitted for commentMet HHT & consultant to discuss lease, draft CMP, management guidelines and possible changes to take to the market Feb 22 2012
21(1)(b)Conservation Plan submitted for commentCMP for tender/lease purposes for initial comment Apr 17 2014
21(1)(b)Conservation Plan submitted for endorsementThrosby Park, Moss Vale Management Plan - Volume 1 and Volume 2 May 30 2014

PDF Standard exemptions for works requiring Heritage Council approval

Listings

Heritage ListingListing TitleListing NumberGazette DateGazette NumberGazette Page
Heritage Act - State Heritage Register 0100802 Apr 99 271546
Heritage Act - s.170 NSW State agency heritage register     
Regional Environmental Plan  11 Apr 86   
Local Environmental Plan  12 Jan 90   
Register of the National Estate  21 Mar 78   

Study details

TitleYearNumberAuthorInspected byGuidelines used
National Parks & Wildlife Service Section 170 Register  National Parks & Wildlife Service  No

References, internet links & images

TypeAuthorYearTitleInternet Links
Tourism 2007Throsby Park Historic Site View detail
TourismAttraction Homepage2007Throsby Park Historic Site View detail
WrittenAustralian Museum Business Services2013Throsby Park Conservation Management Plan - Aboriginal Heritage Assessment
WrittenBickford, Anne1977Throsby Park: Report of Inspection 22-23 Oct 1977 NPWS
WrittenCasey & Lowe Archaeology & Heritage2012Throsby Park House - Non-Indigenous Archaeological Assessment
WrittenCrockett, Gary2014'A comfortable residence' View detail
WrittenCrockett, Gary 'A Place of Value' View detail
WrittenEmery, Linda2001'Moss Vale: historic places in the Southern Highlands: an Occasional series'
WrittenHughes, Joy1984Throsby Park, Moss Vale: oral history project
WrittenMacken, Lucy2014'Expat Banker swoops on historic Throsby Park'
WrittenNSW National Parks and Wildlife Service1981Conservation planning issues: a discussion paper Throsby Park Historic Site
WrittenProudfoot, Helen1977Throsby Park Landscape Study
WrittenRoxburgh, Rachel; photographs by Baglin, Douglass1989Throsby Park: an account of the Throsby family in Australia, 1802-1940
Management Plan (HC endorsed)Shepard, Jill1998Throsby Park Historic Site Conservation Management Plan
WrittenSheppard, Jill et al.2006Throsby Park Cottage - Conservation Management Plan
WrittenSilink, Richard2010The HHT to acquire Throsby Park View detail
WrittenSimpson, Caroline2003Some Women of the National Trust, in "National Trust Reflections"
WrittenTanner Kibble Denton Architects2014Thsoby Park, Moss Vale - Management Plan (Management principles, policies and guidelines; significance assessment)
WrittenWilson, David2013'Repairing Throsby Park - or how to conserve timber verandah columns using tried and true methods

Note: internet links may be to web pages, documents or images.

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Data source

The information for this entry comes from the following source:
Name: Heritage Office
Database number: 5045550
File number: 10/10567; S90/7353/1;S90/7080;


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