Caroline Chisholm Cottage | NSW Environment & Heritage

Culture and heritage

Heritage

Caroline Chisholm Cottage

Item details

Name of item: Caroline Chisholm Cottage
Other name/s: Maitland hospital; East Maitland Immigrants' Home; Maitland Benevolent Asylum; Caroline Chisholm Baracks (fmr.)
Type of item: Built
Group/Collection: Residential buildings (private)
Category: Cottage
Location: Lat: -32.7464671163 Long: 151.5800313710
Primary address: 3 Mill Street, East Maitland, NSW 2323
Parish: Gosforth
County: Northumberland
Local govt. area: Maitland
Local Aboriginal Land Council: Mindaribba
Property description
Lot/Volume CodeLot/Volume NumberSection NumberPlan/Folio CodePlan/Folio Number
LOT200 DP877644
 200 DP877644
 202 DP877644
All addresses
Street AddressSuburb/townLGAParishCountyType
3 Mill StreetEast MaitlandMaitlandGosforthNorthumberlandPrimary Address

Statement of significance:

The cottage is significant for its close association with Caroline Chisholm, one of Australia's greatest pioneering women, who rented 1 and 3 Smith's Row (Mill Street) and converted it into a single cottage to shelter homeless immigrants in the district. At present it is the only known building to still survive that was associated with Caroline Chisholm. It is one of the oldest buildings in the district and demonstrates a way of life that was typical of the working class of Maitland at that time. It was the site of Maitland's first hospital in 1842 and 1843, known as the Maitland Benevolent Asylum. The construction method used for the cottage is of scientific interest as it is an example of a cheap house erected during the early development of a rural New South Wales town during the 1830s. (Stafford, pp 20, 1985)
Date significance updated: 07 Jan 00
Note: The State Heritage Inventory provides information about heritage items listed by local and State government agencies. The State Heritage Inventory is continually being updated by local and State agencies as new information becomes available. Read the OEH copyright and disclaimer.

Description

Designer/Maker: Unknown
Builder/Maker: John Smith
Construction years: 1831-1835
Physical description: Garden:
Garden area.

Cottage:
A single storey residence built of sandstone walls, timber floors and roof frames with a timber shingle roof that has been covered with corrugated iron.

Consists of four front rooms, facing Mill Street on the west side, a room formerly used as a kitchen on the north east corner of the building and a new kitchen to the south of the old, in the middle of the eastern side and a bathroom on the south east corner.

There are no passageways and rooms are connected to one another by simple doorways. There are two entrances into the building, located on the north and south end of the timber and corrugated iron verandah on the west side.

A large double hung door is also located in the centre of the eastern elevation of the building which opens onto the garden area.

It is a very simple, humble cottage with a minimum of decoration. Only the joinery of two of three fireplaces and some of the architraves provide any evidence of style.

The windows, which are a very simple colonial style, and the stark nature of the rest of the fabric indicate that the building was built for a minimum cost for the use of low income earners (Stafford, 1985, 22)
Physical condition and/or
Archaeological potential:
Physical condition is poor. (1985)
Date condition updated:06 Jan 00
Modifications and dates: 1831-35 construction of terrace of five cottage terraces, rented to working class people.

March 1842, the first two cottages, now being the only remaining structure of the terrace, rented by Caroline Chisholm as the East Maitland Immigrant's Home, and used as a hostel for homeless immigrants who travelled to the Hunter region in search of work. Likely modifications to allow this use.

15/4/1854: Smith subdivided the land and sold the property that now contains the Barracks to Henry Gore
Further information: Caroline Chisholm was honored by her portrait on the previous Australian Five Dollar note.
Current use: Dwelling
Former use: worker's dwelling, hospital, benevolent asylum

History

Historical notes: Caroline Chisholm Cottage was part of a 140 acre grant issues to John Smith on 25 October 1838 by the Governor of NSW, Sir George Gipps. Smith subdivided the land and sold the property that now contains Caroline Chisholm Cottage to Henry Gore, a Yeoman from Maitland on 15 April 1854 (RNI).

East Maitland was planned in 1828 by the Surveyor George Bayal White. Originally named Maitland, the town was be a centre that could provide marketing services and legal order for the growing population of the area. The cottage was constructed by John Smith between 1831 and 1835 as part of five cottage terraces which were rented to working class people (RNI).

In March 1842, the first two cottages, now being the only remaining structure of the terrace, were rented by Caroline Chisholm as the East Maitland Immigrant's Home, and used as a hostel for homeless immigrants who travelled to the Hunter region in search of work (RNI).

Caroline Chisholm was born in 1808 near Northampton, England. She was reared in the tradition of Evangelical philanthropy and at 22 married Captain Archibald Chisholm on the condition that her philanthropic work should continue. The Chisholms arrived in Australia in 1838 and she dedicated herself to assisting immigrants, unemployed and the homeless (RNI).

In November 1842 the building was converted into the first hospital in the district, known as the Maitland Benevolent Asylum. By October of the following year the demands made upon the building became too great and the service was moved to a new location. The Immigrants' Home continued to function at 1 Smith Street (now Mill Street) for at least ten years (RNI).

In 1985 the owner of the cottage, announced it intended to move the cottage and place it in a historic park on the outskirts of East Maitland. The local community made representations to the Heritage Council. Following discussions with Maitland Council and the owner of the building, the Heritage Council recommended a Permanent Conservation order be placed over the building. A Permanent Conservation was gazetted in 27 March 1987. On 2 April 1999 the building was transferred onto the State Heritage Register.

Historic themes

Australian theme (abbrev)New South Wales themeLocal theme
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Environment - cultural landscape-Activities associated with the interactions between humans, human societies and the shaping of their physical surroundings Developing local, regional and national economies-National Theme 3
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Accommodation-Activities associated with the provision of accommodation, and particular types of accommodation – does not include architectural styles – use the theme of Creative Endeavour for such activities. Worker's Dwellings-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Accommodation-Activities associated with the provision of accommodation, and particular types of accommodation – does not include architectural styles – use the theme of Creative Endeavour for such activities. Building settlements, towns and cities-National Theme 4
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Accommodation-Activities associated with the provision of accommodation, and particular types of accommodation – does not include architectural styles – use the theme of Creative Endeavour for such activities. (none)-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Accommodation-Activities associated with the provision of accommodation, and particular types of accommodation – does not include architectural styles – use the theme of Creative Endeavour for such activities. Accommodating workers in workers' housing-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Accommodation-Activities associated with the provision of accommodation, and particular types of accommodation – does not include architectural styles – use the theme of Creative Endeavour for such activities. early settlement or worker's cottage-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Accommodation-Activities associated with the provision of accommodation, and particular types of accommodation – does not include architectural styles – use the theme of Creative Endeavour for such activities. Terrace-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Land tenure-Activities and processes for identifying forms of ownership and occupancy of land and water, both Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal 1820s-1850s land grants-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Land tenure-Activities and processes for identifying forms of ownership and occupancy of land and water, both Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Townships-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Land tenure-Activities and processes for identifying forms of ownership and occupancy of land and water, both Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Changing land uses - from rural to suburban-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Towns, suburbs and villages-Activities associated with creating, planning and managing urban functions, landscapes and lifestyles in towns, suburbs and villages Terrace housing development-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Towns, suburbs and villages-Activities associated with creating, planning and managing urban functions, landscapes and lifestyles in towns, suburbs and villages 19th century suburban developments-
7. Governing-Governing Welfare-Activities and process associated with the provision of social services by the state or philanthropic organisations (none)-
9. Phases of Life-Marking the phases of life Persons-Activities of, and associations with, identifiable individuals, families and communal groups (none)-
9. Phases of Life-Marking the phases of life Persons-Activities of, and associations with, identifiable individuals, families and communal groups Associations with Caroline Chisholm, women's advocate and philanthropist-
9. Phases of Life-Marking the phases of life Persons-Activities of, and associations with, identifiable individuals, families and communal groups Associations with John Smith, emancipated convict, entrepreneur, miller, property owner-
9. Phases of Life-Marking the phases of life Persons-Activities of, and associations with, identifiable individuals, families and communal groups Associations with George Bayal White, surveyor-

Assessment of significance

SHR Criteria a)
[Historical significance]
The cottage is significant for its close association with Caroline Chisholm, one of Australia's greatest pioneering women, who rented 1 and 3 Smith's Row (Mill Street) and converted it into a single cottage to shelter homeless immigrants in the district. It is one of the oldest buildings in the district and demonstrates a way of life that was typical of the working class of Maitland at that time. It was the site of Maitland's first hospital in 1842 and 1843, known as the Maitland Benevolent Asylum. (Stafford, pp 20, 1985) It is associated with the nearby Smith's Flour Mill as it is likely that the cottage was built for workers in the Flour Mill (Branch Managers Report 1986)
SHR Criteria e)
[Research potential]
The construction method used for the cottage is of scientific interest as it is an example of a cheap house erected during the early development of a rural New South Wales town during the 1830s. (Stafford, pp 20, 1985)
SHR Criteria f)
[Rarity]
At present it is the only known building to still survive that was associated with Caroline Chisholm. (Stafford, pp 20, 1985)
Assessment criteria: Items are assessed against the PDF State Heritage Register (SHR) Criteria to determine the level of significance. Refer to the Listings below for the level of statutory protection.

Recommended management:

Recommendations

Management CategoryDescriptionDate Updated
Recommended ManagementProduce a Conservation Management Plan (CMP) 
Recommended ManagementPrepare a maintenance schedule or guidelines 
Recommended ManagementCarry out interpretation, promotion and/or education 

Procedures /Exemptions

Section of actDescriptionTitleCommentsAction date
57(2)Exemption to allow workStandard Exemptions SCHEDULE OF STANDARD EXEMPTIONS
HERITAGE ACT 1977
Notice of Order Under Section 57 (2) of the Heritage Act 1977

I, the Minister for Planning, pursuant to subsection 57(2) of the Heritage Act 1977, on the recommendation of the Heritage Council of New South Wales, do by this Order:

1. revoke the Schedule of Exemptions to subsection 57(1) of the Heritage Act made under subsection 57(2) and published in the Government Gazette on 22 February 2008; and

2. grant standard exemptions from subsection 57(1) of the Heritage Act 1977, described in the Schedule attached.

FRANK SARTOR
Minister for Planning
Sydney, 11 July 2008

To view the schedule click on the Standard Exemptions for Works Requiring Heritage Council Approval link below.
Sep 5 2008

PDF Standard exemptions for works requiring Heritage Council approval

Listings

Heritage ListingListing TitleListing NumberGazette DateGazette NumberGazette Page
Heritage Act - State Heritage Register 0050002 Apr 99 271546
Heritage Act - Permanent Conservation Order - former 0050027 Mar 87 0601698
Local Environmental Plan 199303 Sep 93 0985524
Register of the National Estate - InterimCaroline Chisholm Barracks (fmr.)1254   

References, internet links & images

TypeAuthorYearTitleInternet Links
Tourism 2007East Maitland Heritage Walk View detail
Written 1986Branch Managers Report
Written  Australian Dictionary of Biography - Vol 1
TourismAttraction Homepage2007East Maitland Heritage Walk View detail
WrittenStafford, R1985Conservation Plan of Caroline Chisholm's Barracks

Note: internet links may be to web pages, documents or images.

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Data source

The information for this entry comes from the following source:
Name: Heritage Office
Database number: 5045654
File number: EF14/4920; S90/3312; HC 33185


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