Toxana | NSW Environment, Energy and Science

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Item details

Name of item: Toxana
Type of item: Built
Group/Collection: Residential buildings (private)
Category: Town House
Location: Lat: -33.5976301192 Long: 150.7534275120
Primary address: 147 Windsor Street, Richmond, NSW 2753
Parish: Ham Common
County: Cumberland
Local govt. area: Hawkesbury
Local Aboriginal Land Council: Deerubbin
Property description
Lot/Volume CodeLot/Volume NumberSection NumberPlan/Folio CodePlan/Folio Number
LOTC DP330610
All addresses
Street AddressSuburb/townLGAParishCountyType
147 Windsor StreetRichmondHawkesburyHam CommonCumberlandPrimary Address
East Market StreetRichmondHawkesburyHam CommonCumberlandAlternate Address
147 Windsor StreetRichmondHawkesburyHam CommonCumberlandDuplicate Address


Organisation NameOwner CategoryDate Ownership Updated
Edds Family Superannuation FundPrivate 

Statement of significance:

Toxana dates from c.1840 and was built for William Bowman who was elected to the first Parliament of NSW in 1843. Toxana is one of the most important house in the Richmond district with important historic associations and outstanding Regency and Georgian detailing. The house is a substantial two storey building with iron-work balustrading and open iron columns on the first floor, while the ground storey has tapered round timber columns. The house, which is raised well above ground, level and has a very prominent entry. The house is built of face brick with sandstone quoins and reveals, as well as heavy stonework surrounding the front door (Mitchell, 2000).
Date significance updated: 15 Dec 14
Note: The State Heritage Inventory provides information about heritage items listed by local and State government agencies. The State Heritage Inventory is continually being updated by local and State agencies as new information becomes available. Read the OEH copyright and disclaimer.


Builder/Maker: James Melville (bricks); George Marlin (carpentry)
Construction years: 1843-1844
Physical description: Site:
Toxana is on a lot facing Richmond's main street, near its main intersection and Richmond Park. The site has a set back from the street with a front garden, behind a masonry pier and iron palisade fence. At the rear is a driveway and car parking area.

Toxana has outstanding Regency and Georgian detailing. It is a substantial two storey house with iron-work balustrading and open iron columns on the first floor, while the ground storey has tapered round timber columns. The house is raised well above ground level and has a very prominent entry. It is built of face brick with sandstone quoins and reveals, as well as heavy stonework surrounding the front door. (Mitchell 2000).
Date condition updated:02 Aug 13
Modifications and dates: 1836 - HF White survey showed thre buildings on corner of E.Market/WIndsor Streets
9/3/1937 - grant to Wm.Bowman of 4 acres 3 roods 24 perches; bounded on NW by E.Market St. 8 chains 9 links; on NE by Francis St. 6 chains 7 links; on SE 8 chains 8 links; on SW by Windsor St. 6 chains 6 links.

30/3/1841 Galloway's town plan showed 3 buildings at corner plus a more substantial building (in the centre of Bowman's block) and another small building facing E. Market St. whilst a garden and series of sheds were shown on the future site of Toxana.

c.1842 Toxana erected for Bowman

12/2/1866 GM Pitt's street alignment plan showed building at cn.r E.Market St./WIndsor St.s, but only fence lines on rest of frontage.

1891 Toxana leased to Hawkesbury Agriculutural College as accommodation (etc). Photo showed timber picket fence to Windsor St.

16/8/1892 heavy wind blew down upper verandah
10/1892 Toxana receives town water supply (no longer having to rely on its own roof water/tanks)

1893 Bee farm established using walled-in garden behind house

22/1/1894 title issued to Rev.Cameron for 7 acres 3 roods 9 perches

1/1896 staff and students move out, to H.A.C. buildings on east side of town

24/4/1899 title issued to Cameron for 7 acres 3 roods 22 perches

9/1905 Toxana occupied by 'Head Quarters 3rd Australian Infantry Regiment'

3/11/1906 auction sale of Toxana's land, divided into 25 lots.

24/1/1907 transfer of lots 6, 7 and 10 to Woodhill
18/4/07 issue new title for above.

1/3/1920 title issued to Woodhill for lot 10 DP 4906, lot 6 and part lot 7 (containing Toxana)

15/4/1921 transfer of lot 6 and part lot 7 (containing Toxana) DP 4906 totalling 3 roods 6.75 perches to Mulvena
14/9/21 title issued to Mulven for part lot 7 and all of lot 6 DP 4906 totalling 3 roods 6.75 perches

23/2/1935 title issued to Mulvena for 1 rood 19.5 perches

1942 Australian Army planned to lease Toxana for a service club, lease never implemented.

1978 bought by Windsor Municipal Council.
29/11/79 leased to Commonwealth of Australia.
21/10/1980 lease of rooms 1, 3-5 and 7 of ground floor to the Commonwealth of Australia.
18/6/1988 lease of basement to Paul Clarke, Malcolm Dahmes and Graham Paull.
Current use: residence
Former use: residence, Agricultural college accomodation, flats


The lower Hawkesbury was home to the Dharug people. The proximity to the Nepean River and South Creek qualifies it as a key area for food resources for indigenous groups (Proudfoot, 1987).
The Dharug and Darkinjung people called the river Deerubbin and it was a vital source of food and transport (Nichols, 2010).

Governor Arthur Phillip explored the local area in search of suitable agricultural land in 1789 and discovered and named the Hawkesbury River after Baron Hawkesbury. This region played a significant role in the early development of the colony with European settlers established here by 1794. Situated on fertile floodplains and well known for its abundant agriculture, Green Hills (as it was originally called) supported the colony through desperate times. However, frequent flooding meant that the farmers along the riverbanks were often ruined.

Governor Lachlan Macquarie replaced Governor Bligh, taking up duty on 1/1/1810. Under his influence the colony propsered. His vision was for a free community, working in conjunction with the penal colony. He implemented an unrivalled public works program, completing 265 public buildings, establishing new public amenities and improving existing services such as roads.

Under his leadership the Hawkesbury district thrived. He visited the district on his first tour and recorded in his journal on 6/12/1810: 'After dinner I chrestened the new townships...I gave the name of Windsor to the town intended to be erected in the district of the Green Hills...the township in the Richmond district I have named Richmond...' the district reminded Macquarie of those towns in England, whilst Castlereagh, Pitt Town and Wilberforce were named after English statesmen. These are often referred to as Macquarie's Five Towns. Their localities, chiefly Windsor and Richmond, became more permanent with streets, town square and public buildings.

Macquarie also appointed local men in positions of authority. In 1810 a group of settlers sent a letter to him congratulating him on his leadership and improvements. It was published in the Sydney Gazette with his reply. He was 'much pleased with the sentiments' of the letter and assured them that the Haweksbury would 'always be an object of the greatest interest' to him (Nichols, 2010).

In marking out the towns of Windsor and Richmond in 1810, Governor Macquarie was acting on instructions from London. All of the Governors who held office between 1789 and 1822, from Phillip to Brisbane, recieved the same Letter of Instruction regarding the disposal of the 'waste lands of the Crown' that Britain claimed as her own. This included directives for the formation of towns and thus the extension of British civilisation to its Antipodean outpost (Proudfoot 1987, 7-9).

John Bowman (1763-1825) arrived in NSW in 1798 and settled at Richmond, farming the property Archerfield which he received as a grant of 100 acres on April 8, 1799. He came from England as a free settler under certain encouraging conditions (Baker et al, 1967, 51).

Bowman quickly identified himself with the cause of free settlers on the Haweksbury, opposing the monopolistic practices of the military and supporting stable government as administered by Governors Bligh and Macquarie. The settlers submitted various petitions and addresses from time to time to the Governors, particularly to Bligh, and even wrote to Viscount Castlereagh, Colonial Secretary in England, plainly stating their case against the military faction. Their efforts were rewarded by the instructions given to Macquarie to give help and encouragement to the smaller settlers, and by the decline of the influence of the military during his governorship.

After Bligh was deposed by the Rum Rebellion, the Hawkesbury settlers still persisted in supporting the deposed Governor and stating their claims, and fourteen of them, including Bowman, sent off the 1809 memorial to Viscount Castlereagh stating that they had no hand in the rebellion (ibid., 1967, 52).

When Macquarie had brought stability to the colony, and regained respect for the administration, Bowman concentrated on farming pursuits.

John Bowman was promised land (the site that would became Toxana) by Macquarie (Kass, 2008, 3). In 1821 he commenced building a house on Richmond's main street, now 367 Windsor Street. H.F. White's survey of Richmond of 1836 showed that Bowman had erected buildings on the land - it shows three buildings at the corner of East Market and Windsor Streets on Bowman's land - which, as yet, had not been formally granted to him (Kass, 2008, 3). John Bowman died the following hear, leaving his house in his will to his son George, who lived until 1878 and concerned himself with farming and grazing stock on the Hunter River, as well as with public affairs, being elected to the new Parliament in 1851.

John and Honor Bowman had four children and their son William is listed in the 1828 census as having 300 acres at Richmond, with 137 of these cleared and 130 cultivated. He also had four horses and two horned cattle at this time.

In the 1830s William Bowman (the fourth and youngest child of John) became interested in the promotion of free immigration to the colony. He left for a two year visit to England in 1836, and married Elizabeth Arthur there. In 1837, to sponsor immigrants, he signed an agreement with John Marshall, captain of the ship City of Edinburgh, to pay for the passage of twelve married couples from London to Sydney.

In the same year (Kass, (2008, 3) says it was in 1873) he was granted the site of Toxana, in Windsor Street, Richmond between Market and Toxana Streets. H.F.White's 1836 survey of Richmond shows six buildings on Bowman's land, all of which pre-date Toxana. A garden and a series of sheds were shown on the future site of Toxana (Kass, 2008, 3-4). The two storey house (Toxana) was completed and occupied by 1841 (Baker, 1967).

Recent research suggests its construction dates were probably 1843-4. Galloway's plan confirmed a cottage on the corner at the time and in Alfred Smith's book 'Some ups and downs of an old Richmondite' he recalled that George Bowman lived in the cottage when he was first elected to State Parliament which was June 1843 and until he had built Toxana (Carol Edds, pers.comm., 2/8/2013).

There is some dispute as to the identify of Toxana's builder, some claiming it was (carpenter) George Marlin and others asserting brick layer James Melville was the builder. Sam Boughton writing under pseudonym of 'Cooramil' in the early 20th century claimed that George Marlin built it after coming under contract from England with his family. Marlin and family settled in Richmond afterwards. George C Johston writing under pseudonym 'Cooyal' disputed whether it was built by Marlin and claimed the builder was James Melville. Johnston had heard from Melville himself that he had done the brickwork on Toxana and seen Melville's receipts for sand and other materials for the work. 'Cooramil' replied agreeing Melville completed the brickwork, and remembered him working there. It appears that about 1842, James Melville and George Martin/Marlin (who had done the carpenter's and joiner's work with his three sons George Jr., Phil and Jack) erected Toxana for Bowman (Kass, 2008, 5-6, altering Baker, 1967, 54).

William Bowman was born in 1799 (Kass (2008) says 8/10/1800) and with his elder brother George played a major role in the development of the district. Both brothers and father are included in the Australian Dictionary of Biography (I, 138-139)(Mitchell, 2000). The family was a significant entity in the history of the Hawkesbury and across NSW. Not only did they include some of the earliest free settlers to arrive in the colony, they created a family network extending into pastoralism and farming and were prominent in public affairs (Kass, 2008, 6).

William stood for parliament in the 1843 election, the first such in Australia, which preceded the inaugural session of partly responsible government. The seat for the Cumberland Boroughs of Richmond, Windsor, Liverpool and Campbelltown, was contested by Bowman and rival candidate, Robert Fitzgerald of Windsor. Bowman won by one vote, and was re-elected in 1848. Fitzgerald however also became a member of the NSW Legislative Council later, appointed in 1849.

William served as MLC for Cumberland Boroughs from 1843-51, 1853-56 and MLA for Cumberland Boroughs from 1856-7 (Kass, 2008, 6). William extended his farming and grazing pursuits, and had several properties in the Bathurst district. He later was involved in wine growing. Toxana was a substantial town house erected at the height of the 1840s boom before depression meant straitened circumstances for many of the pastoral elite of the colony. It represents an expression of optimism in a time of boom. G.M.Pitt's street alignment plan of 12/2/1866 showed a building at the corner of East Market and Windsor Streets, but depicted only fence lines on the rest of the frontage owned by Bowman (Kass, 2008, 6).

William Bowman died at Richmond on 11/12/1874 and is buried in St.Peters'graveyard. The property was left to his wife Elizabeth, who lived there until her death on 25/11/1885. It passed to Ann Catherine Cadell, widow of Thomas Cadell. On 5/1/1881 Cadell (of Mullanmuddy, near Mudgee) mortgaged her life estate under Bowman's will to Thomas Forster Knox esq. of Sydney and Henry Edward Augustus Allan, merchant of Sydney for 3 years. This included various land parcels, but not Toxana. There were doubts whether it did include Toxana in some later legal transactions.

Eliza Sophia Cameron, nee Bowman, wife of Rev. James Cameron died on 27/1/1886. In that year Ann Cadell agreed to sell Toxana and 8 acres of land in Windsor Street to Rev. Cameron for 5000 pounds if she could get the agreement of all the children affected. This was done and she signed a conveyance of the land on 17/6/1886. The land consisted of two lots: the first 4 acres 3 roods 24 perches on which Toxana sat and the second was part of lot 2 section 11 (Kass, 2008, 7-8).

Toxana became the property of the Rev.James Cameron (bought in 1886, releasing the mortgage from Cadell)> He was later Moderator-General of the Presbyterian Church in Australia.

Photographs from 1888 show the front of Toxana obscured by a large jacaranda (J.mimosifolia) tree on the eastern side and an even larger pair of trees on the western side - these appear to be a silky oak (Grevillea robusta) and a Southern nettle tree/ hackberry (Celtis australis)(Stuart Read, 2/8/2013 interpreting photos). The front fence at this time was a low masonry wall, with stone pillared gate posts; a wrought iron and 'crinkle wire' gate; and low wrought iron balustrade (possibly infilled with wire mesh) atop the masonry wall - the whole below 1m high (ibid).

In 1891 it was leased by the newly set up Hawkesbury Agricultural College to provide temporary accommodation for its students, who (25 students originally) took up occupation on 10/3/1891. The College was officially opened on 16/3/1891, a photo (Hawkesbury Agricultural College Gazette, 31/10/1907, 203) shows the Ministerial party and others on Toxana's front steps (Kass, 2008, 8). An 1891 photo showing the view up Windsor Street from Toxana's upper verandah showed some details of its fencing and what appear to be two Mediterranean cypresses (Cupressus sempervirens) in the front western-half garden (the fence appears to be timber picket, seemingly white - Stuart Read, 2/8/2013, interpreting photo).

Meals were seved in the basement and lectures held in the eastern front verandah room. The rest of Toxana was used for student accommodation. In 1892 meals were taken at Toxana (soon known as the No. 1 College) in the large double first floor room, whilst the front half of that room was used as the first lecture room. The college's work horses were housed int he stables behind Toxana. The College's Ayrshire bull was kept in the 'Toxana paddock' and a rough dairy operated in old sheds behind Toxana, where primitive conditions hampered production, halted the manufacture of cheese most of the time and blighted students with fleas. In 10/1891 some students moved out of Toxana into Towns' house known as No. 2 College). In 1896 all students moved into the purpose-built college erected on the College site in Ham Common (south-east of the town)(Kass, 2008, 9).

The College gave scientific and practical training to aspiring young farmers, and had acquired land just out of Richmond.

A heavy wind was recorded as having blown down the upper verandah of No. 1 College (Toxana) on 16/8/1892. When a water supply was turned on for Richmond on 27/10/1892 Toxana began to receive a piped water supply replacing the earlier supply from tanks on its roof. Early in 1893 a bee farm was established in the walled-in garden behind Toxana and remained there until moved in 1894. A photo (R.N.Dart, Hawkesbury Agricultural College: History and Reminiscences, 12) shows staff and students on Toxana's front steps in 1894.

Cameron applied to bring Toxana's land under Torrens Title on 6/10/1893. He noted that it was leased to the Department of Mines and Agriculture and used as an agricultural college. A certificate of title was issued to him for 7 acres 3 roods 9 perches on 22/1/1894. It was replaced on 24/4/1899 by a new certificate of title for 7 acres 3 roods 22 perches to take account of the amended area after the new survey (DP 59196) (Kass, 2008, 11-12).

A draft conservation plan for Toxana prepared by Graham Edds & Associates provided a series of historic photographs over the life of the building which reveal change in the landscaping of the forecourt since c.1842. The earliest photograph located to date appeared in the Hawkesbury Agricultural College Journal of 1907.

A photo from the 1890s or 1900s from the Woodhill collection (Hawkesbury Ccl. Local Studies Collection, image 7088) shows a masonry low balustrade and iron picket fence, with masonry pillars had replaced the earlier timber pickets. This photo also clearly shows the large jacaranda and silky oak trees part-obscuring the house's street front (Stuart Read, 2/8/2013 interpreting photo).

Cameron died on 8/9/1905. Toxana was then leased to 'Head Quarters 3rd Australian Infantry Regiment' at 75 pounds per annum, and estimated to be worth 2000 pounds including the land value according to valuer C.S.Guest. Richmond was the headquarters of the 3rd Australian Infantry Regiment and Guest, who happened to be the unit's commander, as Lt. Col.Charles Septimus Guest. He was Mayor of Richmond from 1906-07 (Kass, 2008, 13).

Title passed to the Perpetual Trustee Co. Ltd. as executor of Cameron's will on 24/2/1906. E. H.Cowdery surveyed the land for auction sale in 10/1906. Auction of the Toxana Estate, with its surrounding land divided into 25 lots was held on 3/11/1906 (ibid, 2008, 13). Toxana stood on a triple lot (Lot 7) aside three lots to its east facing WIndsor Street.

Toxana's lot 7, plus lots 6 (immediately to its north) and 10 (the south-eastern corner lot facing Windsor Street) were transferred to George Edward Woodhill of Richmond, store keeper - certificate of title was issued to him on 18/4/1907. The property was converted into and leased as flats - althought the latter may, according to Doug Bowd, have occurred later (Kass, 2008, 15; Baker., 1967, 55).

Another photo of Toxana (1891-5 when used by the Agricultural College, or perhaps taken in 1907 when it was published in the College's Journal in 10/1907) shows the jacaranda tree gone and the silky oak dead - the front of the house is almost clear of tree vegetation, with the exception of one tree (again possibly silky oak) the height of the second storey verandah to the house's south-west (Stuart Read, 2/8/2013, interpreting photo, 1907).

On 8/1/1920 part of lot 7 (15.75 perches) at the corner of Windsor and East Market Street was sold to James Timmins Jr., of Richmond, butcher and a new certificate of title was issued to George Woodhill, then living at Coogee, store keeper, for lot 10 DP 4906 and lot 6 and part of lot 7 (containing Toxana)(Kass, 2008, 16).

On 15/4/1921 Lot 6 and part lot 7 (containing Toxana) DP 4906 totalling 3 roods 6.75 perches were transferred to John Mulvena of Richmond, chemist and a new certificate of title was issued to him on 14/9/1921. A mortgage of 15/4/1921 to George Woodhill of Coogee, store keeper was discharged on 17/3/1923. A survey of the land for subdivision dated 23/10/1934 showed no detail of buildings. After two parcels of land, part of that property, were transferred in 12/1934 a new certificate of title was issued on 22/2/1935 to Mulvena, who was then living in Marrickville.

On 7/5/1942 during the Second World War the combined ministers of Richmond requested that the Army lease Toxana for a service club to be operated by the combined churches (Kass, 2008, 16-17). When the property was examined on 8th May, it was occupied by 'Kellie'. The owner was Chandos Scouller of Glamis Park, North Richmond. The upper flat was occupied by Leading Aircraftsman Stocks of the RAAF and his wife. RAAF headquarters requested that Stocks be allowed to remain due to the rapid expansion of Richmond air base and the difficulty of obtaining accommodation. Stock's flat had a separate entrance so the lower floor could be used as a club. The lease was never implemented.

After the death of Scouller, the property passed to the Perpetual Trustee Co. on 31/5/1960, who transferred it to Isabel Valentine Scouller of North Richmond, spinster on 24/8/1971 (ibid, 2008, 19).

In 1978 Toxana was bought by Windsor Municipal Council for $75,000 and restored at a cost of $179.500 with assistance from the Federal Government grants program. The formal transfer to the Council was signed on 29/11/1978 and it was morgaged to Isabel Scouller until discharged on 29/11/1979. A series of photographs from before 1978 are held at the Hawkesbury City Library's local studies collection and document the state of the building before conservation work commenced (ibid, 2008, 19). Another series of photographs held in HCL's local studies collection document the 1978 restoration works to the building (ibid, 20).

Fisher Lucas Architects were engaged by Council to prepare documentation for the building and forecourt restoration. Council staff supervised the works. The former forecourt planting was removed and replaced as part of these works. Some of the original front fence was removed/relocated during works. A jacaranda (J.mimosifolia) tree in the eastern portion of the forecourt was retained. Photographs show another jacaranda on the west of the house.

A 3/1979 garden plan and fence details prepared by Fisher Lucas confimrs that the subject sweet bay/ bay laurel (Laurus nobilis) were planted as part of the replacement forecourt garden. With the exception of the Qld. black bean (Castanospermum australe) and date palm (Phoenix sp.) still within the rear yard, none of the former mature trees indicated on that plan (figure 1-4) or noted on the detail drawing (figure 1-5) below are extant in 2013 (Edds, 2013, 3-5).

Toxana was given a Permanent Conservation Order under the NSW Heritage Act on 13/7/1979 and entered on the Register of the National Estate on 21/10/1980. On 2/4/1999 it was listed on the NSW State Heritage Register.

By 29/11/1979 the property was leased to the Commwealth of Australia. A lease of rooms 1, 3-5 and 7 of the ground floor to the Commonwealth of Australia followed on 9/10/1981.

On 18/6/1988 the basement was leased to Paul James Clarke, Malcolm James Dahmes and Graham Allen Paull.

Unspecified works were undertaken by Council in the 1990s, apparently in the roof space (Kass, 2008, 28).

Historic themes

Australian theme (abbrev)New South Wales themeLocal theme
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Towns, suburbs and villages-Activities associated with creating, planning and managing urban functions, landscapes and lifestyles in towns, suburbs and villages (none)-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Towns, suburbs and villages-Activities associated with creating, planning and managing urban functions, landscapes and lifestyles in towns, suburbs and villages Creating landmark structures and places in regional settings-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Creative endeavour-Activities associated with the production and performance of literary, artistic, architectural and other imaginative, interpretive or inventive works; and/or associated with the production and expression of cultural phenomena; and/or environments that have inspired such creative activities. Architectural styles and periods - Georgian revival-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Domestic life-Activities associated with creating, maintaining, living in and working around houses and institutions. Living in a new house-
9. Phases of Life-Marking the phases of life Persons-Activities of, and associations with, identifiable individuals, families and communal groups Associations with Donald Friend, artist-
9. Phases of Life-Marking the phases of life Persons-Activities of, and associations with, identifiable individuals, families and communal groups Associations with Federal Members of Parliament-
9. Phases of Life-Marking the phases of life Persons-Activities of, and associations with, identifiable individuals, families and communal groups Associations with the Hon. William Bowman MLC, grazier, parliamentarian, immigration-proponent-
9. Phases of Life-Marking the phases of life Persons-Activities of, and associations with, identifiable individuals, families and communal groups Associations with Rev. James Cameron, Moderator-General of the Presbyterian Church in Australia-
9. Phases of Life-Marking the phases of life Persons-Activities of, and associations with, identifiable individuals, families and communal groups Associations with the Hawkesbury Agricultural College-

Procedures /Exemptions

Section of actDescriptionTitleCommentsAction date
57(2)Exemption to allow workStandard Exemptions SCHEDULE OF STANDARD EXEMPTIONS
Notice of Order Under Section 57 (2) of the Heritage Act 1977

I, the Minister for Planning, pursuant to subsection 57(2) of the Heritage Act 1977, on the recommendation of the Heritage Council of New South Wales, do by this Order:

1. revoke the Schedule of Exemptions to subsection 57(1) of the Heritage Act made under subsection 57(2) and published in the Government Gazette on 22 February 2008; and

2. grant standard exemptions from subsection 57(1) of the Heritage Act 1977, described in the Schedule attached.

Minister for Planning
Sydney, 11 July 2008

To view the schedule click on the Standard Exemptions for Works Requiring Heritage Council Approval link below.
Sep 5 2008

PDF Standard exemptions for works requiring Heritage Council approval


Heritage ListingListing TitleListing NumberGazette DateGazette NumberGazette Page
Heritage Act - State Heritage Register 0001402 Apr 99 271546
Heritage Act - Permanent Conservation Order - former 0001413 Jul 79 923362
Local Environmental Plan 198918 Dec 89   
Register of the National Estate  21 Oct 80   

References, internet links & images

TypeAuthorYearTitleInternet Links
WrittenBaker, Helen; Roxburgh, Rachel & Warr, Ross1967Historic Buildings - Windsor & Richmond
WrittenGraham Edds & Associates Architects2013Conservation Management Plan - Toxana, Richmond (draft)
WrittenGraham Edds & Associates Architects2013Statement of Heritage Impact - Removal of non-historic trees: Toxana, 157 Windsor Street, Richmond
WrittenGraham Edds & Associates Architects1979Toxana, Richmond: November 1979
WrittenKass, Terry2008A History of Toxana, 157 Windsor Street, Richmond
WrittenNichols, Michelle (Local Studies Librarian)2010Macquarie and the Hawkesbury District

Note: internet links may be to web pages, documents or images.

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(Click on thumbnail for full size image and image details)

Data source

The information for this entry comes from the following source:
Name: Heritage NSW
Database number: 5045691
File number: 10/5003; S90/06221; HC 32044

Every effort has been made to ensure that information contained in the State Heritage Inventory is correct. If you find any errors or omissions please send your comments to the Database Manager.

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