Kawaree | NSW Environment & Heritage

Culture and heritage

Heritage

Kawaree

Item details

Name of item: Kawaree
Other name/s: Aged persons home
Type of item: Complex / Group
Group/Collection: Residential buildings (private)
Category: Villa
Location: Lat: -35.3559006993 Long: 149.2264548160
Primary address: 3 Tharwa Road, Queanbeyan, NSW 2620
Parish: Queanbeyan
County: Murray
Local govt. area: Queanbeyan
Local Aboriginal Land Council: Ngambri
Property description
Lot/Volume CodeLot/Volume NumberSection NumberPlan/Folio CodePlan/Folio Number
LOT1 DP774149
All addresses
Street AddressSuburb/townLGAParishCountyType
3 Tharwa RoadQueanbeyanQueanbeyanQueanbeyanMurrayPrimary Address
54 Canberra RoadQueanbeyanQueanbeyanQueanbeyanMurrayAlternate Address
18 George StreetQueanbeyanPalerang  Alternate Address

Owner/s

Organisation NameOwner CategoryDate Ownership Updated
Mount Warrigal Retirement Village LtdPrivate26 Mar 99

Description

Construction years: 1886-1889
Physical description: Much change has occurred to Kawaree's landscape since 1987's construction of the Kawaree Retirement Village and subsequent expansion of that with an Aged Care Facility.

Kawaree, at the time the Colmans lived there, had open horse paddocks, chicken runs, vegetable gardens and fruit orchards. Open space was a vital part of the Kawaree way of life, providing as it did for the transport and dietary needs of its occupants. Colman and his wife lived there until their deaths in 1959 (ibid, 2017, 15).

Grounds:
The Kawaree landscape was initially developed over 70 years through the gold rush of the 1880s, the depression of the 1890s, Federation, the 1920s, the Great Depression of the 1930s, World War 2 and was finalised in the optimisim of post-war Australia (ibid, 2017, 1).

The property was a large block on the edge of (i.e. outside the) Queanbeyan's town grid, basically a semi-rural villa estate.

The serpentine carriage drive and loop before the house was reflective of Victorian estate planning - it was converted into a driveway in the Inter-war period with flanking garden reflecting that era of garden style (ibid, 2017, 16-17, paraphrased).

Garden:
There is no documented evidence of any garden design for the period between the house's completion in 1889 and 1921 when the property was first rented, to 1924 when the Colmans became its owners (ibid, 2017, 16).

The picket fence and gate towards the house reflect Late Victorian era garden detail that remains (ibid, 2017, 16).
The overflowing house gardens (beds) which framed the lawns and serpentine carriage loop were typical of Arts & Crafts (interwar) period (ibid, 2017, 16).

The Colmans (here from 1921, renting (and owning from 1924)) were avid gardeners and highly regarded for their wide variety of roses, also for the range of flowers, shrubs and conifers which filled the abundant garden spaces. The overflowing house gardens framed the lawns and serpentine carriage loop, typical of the Arts & Crafts (interwar) period, whilst the picket fence was a remnant of an earlier time and is evidence of the Late Victorian garden style. Photographic evidence suggests the garden was structurally in place when the first images were taken in 1924, and the style is reflective of both Late Victorian and early 20th century garden (styles). Although the picket fence and formal entry are evident in gardens from the VIctorian and Late Victorian eras, the remaining elements indicate other influences which were more reflective of the Federation and Picturesque ideals of the new century, tempered with plant choices resilient to drought (hardy species of roses, conifers and perennials. The extent of the garden is a display of the optimism of the period prior to the (Great) depression of 1929 (ibid, 2017, 16).

House:
The house is of a late Victorian style, built at a time of great growth in the Southern NSW regional areas (Area Design Consultants, 2017, 1). In the late 1980s it was converted into, extended and modified for use as the community facility as part of estate changes to create the Kawaree Retirement Village.
Current use: Nursing home, aged care facility
Former use: Aboriginal lands, farmland, private gentleman's estate

History

Historical notes: Queanbeyan:
While searching for the Murrumbidgee River in 1820, JOseph Wild, James Vaughan and Charles Throsby Smith came upon two small streams forming a single river winding through a valley at the eastern end of the Limestone Plains. These were later named the Molonglo and the Queanbeyan Rivers.

The first non-Aboriginal use of land at Queanbeyan was by an unauthorised occupant, Timothy Beard, who called his property 'Quinbean' which is thought to be an Aboriginal word for 'clear water'. This gave the city its modern name, Queanbeyan.

The area became a natural stop for travellers crossing into the Monaro and by 1824, prospective settlers were establishing 'stock stations' around the region. With this came an increase in population in the 1830s, and by 1836, a post office was established and a court house followed in 1837. Queanbeyan was formally proclaimed as a settlement on 28/9/1838.

Gold was discovered in the area in 1851, lead and silver mines also flourished briefly and the increasing wealth attracted bushrangers, including John Tennant, Jacky Jacky, Frank Gardiner and Ben Hall, who were active in the area.

Queanbeyan was proclaimed a Municipality in 2/1885, containing an area of 5700 acres. Wheat experimentalist William James Farrer established its status as an agricultural district with his famous 'Federation' rust-free strain of wheat, developed on his Tharwa property, 'Lambrigg', in the 1880s (west of Queanbeyan)(Area Design Consultants, 2017, 11).

Kawaree:
The site of Kawareee is on part of portion 35 of the Parish of Queanbeyan and was purchased by Robert Campbell in 5/1836. Campbell was a merchant, pastoralist, politician and philanthropist born in Greenock, Scotland in 1769 and who arrived in Sydney in 1798. With the permission of the Governor, he established the Campbell's Wharf at Circular Quay. In compensation for the loss of his ship 'Sydney' while it was on government service, he was awarded compensation in the form of a land grant at Limestone Plains in 1824 which he took up in 1825. He renamed his original grant 'Duntroon' after Duntroon Castle, the hereditary home of the Campbells (clan) in Scotland (ibid, 2017, 11).

Through the next decade Campbell amassed vast landholdings on the LImestone Plains and elsewhere in NSW. Before he died on 15/4/1846, Campbell divided his holdings between his six children. His son George Campbell conveyed five ares to James Brown of Googong, Queanbeyan in 1854. On his death in 1883, Brown's daughter Eliza Richardson inherited the land. She sold two acres two roods to local solicitor Earnest Edward (E.E.) Morgan of Queanbeyan in 2/1886. This land formed part of the area known as 'Garryowen' (bounded by Uriarra Road, Stornaway Street, Tharwa Road and Campbell Street) which was subdivided in the 1850s into small landholdings of 10-20 acres to the west of the town grid and was fully occupied by 1860 (ibid, 2017, 12-13).

Kawaree Cottage was built by E.E. Morgan between 1886-1889 on the block which according to Sheedy, formed the extremity of the southern boundary of Garryowen, the block which was previously owned by James Brown of Googong (ibid, 2017, 13).

The house is of a late Victorian style, built at a time of great growth in the Southern NSW regional areas (ibid, 2017, 1). There is no documented evidence of any garden design for the period between the house's completion in 1889 and 1921 when the property was first rented, to 1924 when the Colmans became its owners (ibid, 2017, 16). The Kawaree landscape was initially developed over 70 years through the gold rush of the 1880s, the depression of the 1890s, Federation, the 1920s, the Great Depression of the 1930s, World War 2 and was finalised in the optimisim of post-war Australia (ibid, 2017, 1).

In 1892 the property was sold to the trustees of the Wesleyan Methodist Church for use as a parsonage (for Queanbeyan). The manse was lived in by Methodist Ministers continuously for 30 years, but due to the distance being too far from the church, the Methodist Church sold the property to a parishioner, Herbert George (HG) COlman, in 1924 (ibid, 2017, 13).

Colman came from Blayney to work for James Buchanan Young, who had migrated to Australia in 1885, moved to Blayney and then to Queanbeyan in 1914, where he purchased Harry Solomon's store in Monaro Street and changed its name to J.B.Young's department store. Colman was the store's manager. He was responsible for the rapid expansion of the company J.B.Young's, which purchased the first lease offered for sale in Canberra in 12/1924, as the fledgling Federal Capital began to expand. A branch store was built in what was then called Eastlake and is now Kingston, Canberra's first suburb and shopping precinct. The store opened in 7/1935. After the expansion into Canberra, the business began to grow rapidly and HG Colman and two other directors, bought out J.B.Young. The store saw expansion into (Canberra's suburb) Civic, which opened in 9/1932 and in other regional centres until JB Young's landholdings was bought out by Grace Brothers and closed by the early 1980s. Later Grace Brothers was bought out by Myers in 1985 and many of their stores closed (ibid, 2017, 14-15).

Kawaree, at the time the Colmans lived there, had open horse paddocks, chicken runs, vegetable gardens and fruit orchards. Through the depression, money was scarce as Colman had suffered a financial setback, and, as most did, they relied on produce from their own garden and assets to make ends meet. For their children, George, his brother Jim and sister Biddie, life was an adventure but it was also tough and like so many in the distirct, they made do with whatever was to hand. Horse and sulky took the children to school (at Telopea Park Public School), in Barton. Open space was a vital part of the Kawaree way of life, providing as it did for the transport and dietary needs of its occupants. COlman and his wife lived there until their deaths in 1959. In all the family lived there from 1920-62, when George and James Colman, their sons and executors of HG's will, sold it to Queanbeyan solicitor, Robert Allport and his wife Margaret. The property was converted to Torrens Title in 1969/70 (ibid, 2017, 15).

The Colmans were avid gardeners and highly regarded for their wide variety of roses, also for the range of flowers, shrubs and conifers which filled the abundant garden spaces. The overflowing house gardens framed the lawns and serpentine carriage loop, typical of the Arts & Crafts (interwar) period, whilst the picket fence was a remnant of an earlier time and is evidence of the Late Victorian garden style. Photographic evidence suggests the garden was structurally in place when the first images were taken in 1924, and the style is reflective of both Late Victorian and early 20th century garden (styles). Although the picket fence and formal entry are evident in gardens from the VIctorian and Late Victorian eras, the remaining elements indicate other influences which were more reflective of the Federation and Picturesque ideals of the new century, tempered with plant choices resilient to drought (hardy species of roses, conifers and perennials. The extent of the garden is a display of the optimism of the period prior to the (Great) depression of 1929 (ibid, 2017, 16).

Colman went on to develop one of regional NSW's largest chains of department stores, including J.B. Young's, Fosseys and Owl Supermarkets (ibid, 2017, 1-2).

The Allport family lived in Kawaree until they sold it to John Fisher's company Rynkite P/L in 1987, which began construction of the Kawaree Village Aged Care Facility within its broader gardens and property (ibid, 2017, 15).

Since the development of an aged care facility on Kawaree during the late 1980s the landscape has undergone significant changes to accommodate a number of residential buildings, with the original Kawaree (house) building extended and modified for use as the facility residents' community centre. Through these changes there are a number of extant features that derive from the original Kawaree garden setting (that remain) (Area Design Consultants, 2017, 1-2).

In 1988 a permanent conservation order under the NSW Heritage Act was made on Kawaree. This was replaced by Kawaree's listing on the NSW State Heritage Register in 1999. In 1991 Kawaree was listed on the Queanbeyan Local Environmental Plan, which lapsed and was replaced by the 1998 LEP listing. This was subsequently updated in 1999 and again in 2007, after a local heritage study (ibid, 2017, 10).

Historic themes

Australian theme (abbrev)New South Wales themeLocal theme
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Agriculture-Activities relating to the cultivation and rearing of plant and animal species, usually for commercial purposes, can include aquaculture Private farming-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Agriculture-Activities relating to the cultivation and rearing of plant and animal species, usually for commercial purposes, can include aquaculture Clearing land for farming-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Pastoralism-Activities associated with the breeding, raising, processing and distribution of livestock for human use Agisting and fattening stock for slaughter-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Accommodation-Activities associated with the provision of accommodation, and particular types of accommodation – does not include architectural styles – use the theme of Creative Endeavour for such activities. Building settlements, towns and cities-National Theme 4
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Accommodation-Activities associated with the provision of accommodation, and particular types of accommodation – does not include architectural styles – use the theme of Creative Endeavour for such activities. Adapted heritage building or structure-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Land tenure-Activities and processes for identifying forms of ownership and occupancy of land and water, both Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Early land grants-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Land tenure-Activities and processes for identifying forms of ownership and occupancy of land and water, both Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Changing land uses - from rural to suburban-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Land tenure-Activities and processes for identifying forms of ownership and occupancy of land and water, both Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Sub-division of large estates-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Towns, suburbs and villages-Activities associated with creating, planning and managing urban functions, landscapes and lifestyles in towns, suburbs and villages Subdivision of urban estates-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Towns, suburbs and villages-Activities associated with creating, planning and managing urban functions, landscapes and lifestyles in towns, suburbs and villages Impacts of railways on rural development-
7. Governing-Governing Welfare-Activities and process associated with the provision of social services by the state or philanthropic organisations Hospital/nursing home phase-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Creative endeavour-Activities associated with the production and performance of literary, artistic, architectural and other imaginative, interpretive or inventive works; and/or associated with the production and expression of cultural phenomena; and/or environments that have inspired such creative activities. Architectural styles and periods - Victorian (late)-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Creative endeavour-Activities associated with the production and performance of literary, artistic, architectural and other imaginative, interpretive or inventive works; and/or associated with the production and expression of cultural phenomena; and/or environments that have inspired such creative activities. Architectural styles and periods - Federation Arts and Crafts-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Creative endeavour-Activities associated with the production and performance of literary, artistic, architectural and other imaginative, interpretive or inventive works; and/or associated with the production and expression of cultural phenomena; and/or environments that have inspired such creative activities. Landscaping - Federation period-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Creative endeavour-Activities associated with the production and performance of literary, artistic, architectural and other imaginative, interpretive or inventive works; and/or associated with the production and expression of cultural phenomena; and/or environments that have inspired such creative activities. Adaptation of overseas design for local use-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Creative endeavour-Activities associated with the production and performance of literary, artistic, architectural and other imaginative, interpretive or inventive works; and/or associated with the production and expression of cultural phenomena; and/or environments that have inspired such creative activities. Landscaping - Victorian period-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Creative endeavour-Activities associated with the production and performance of literary, artistic, architectural and other imaginative, interpretive or inventive works; and/or associated with the production and expression of cultural phenomena; and/or environments that have inspired such creative activities. Landscaping - 20th century interwar-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Creative endeavour-Activities associated with the production and performance of literary, artistic, architectural and other imaginative, interpretive or inventive works; and/or associated with the production and expression of cultural phenomena; and/or environments that have inspired such creative activities. Landscaping - 20th century post WW2-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Creative endeavour-Activities associated with the production and performance of literary, artistic, architectural and other imaginative, interpretive or inventive works; and/or associated with the production and expression of cultural phenomena; and/or environments that have inspired such creative activities. Landscaping - Victorian gardenesque style-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Creative endeavour-Activities associated with the production and performance of literary, artistic, architectural and other imaginative, interpretive or inventive works; and/or associated with the production and expression of cultural phenomena; and/or environments that have inspired such creative activities. Interior design styles and periods - Victorian-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Creative endeavour-Activities associated with the production and performance of literary, artistic, architectural and other imaginative, interpretive or inventive works; and/or associated with the production and expression of cultural phenomena; and/or environments that have inspired such creative activities. Interior design styles and periods - Edwardian-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Creative endeavour-Activities associated with the production and performance of literary, artistic, architectural and other imaginative, interpretive or inventive works; and/or associated with the production and expression of cultural phenomena; and/or environments that have inspired such creative activities. Interior design styles and periods - Inter War-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Domestic life-Activities associated with creating, maintaining, living in and working around houses and institutions. Ways of life 1788-1850-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Domestic life-Activities associated with creating, maintaining, living in and working around houses and institutions. Ways of life 1850-1900-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Domestic life-Activities associated with creating, maintaining, living in and working around houses and institutions. Ways of life 1900-1950-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Domestic life-Activities associated with creating, maintaining, living in and working around houses and institutions. Ways of life 1950-2000-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Domestic life-Activities associated with creating, maintaining, living in and working around houses and institutions. Living in suburbia-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Domestic life-Activities associated with creating, maintaining, living in and working around houses and institutions. Ornamental Garden-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Domestic life-Activities associated with creating, maintaining, living in and working around houses and institutions. Living in a new house-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Domestic life-Activities associated with creating, maintaining, living in and working around houses and institutions. Living in, adapting and renovating homes for changing conditions-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Leisure-Activities associated with recreation and relaxation Gardening-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Religion-Activities associated with particular systems of faith and worship Practising Methodism-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Religion-Activities associated with particular systems of faith and worship parsonage, manse, vicarage-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Religion-Activities associated with particular systems of faith and worship Gentlemen's Villas-
9. Phases of Life-Marking the phases of life Persons-Activities of, and associations with, identifiable individuals, families and communal groups Associations with Robert Campbell, merchant, shipping agent, landowner, grazier-
9. Phases of Life-Marking the phases of life Persons-Activities of, and associations with, identifiable individuals, families and communal groups Associations with H.G. Colman, deparment store chain owner-
9. Phases of Life-Marking the phases of life Persons-Activities of, and associations with, identifiable individuals, families and communal groups Associations with H.G. Colman, deparment store chain owner-
9. Phases of Life-Marking the phases of life Persons-Activities of, and associations with, identifiable individuals, families and communal groups Associations with James Brown, Googong grazier-
9. Phases of Life-Marking the phases of life Persons-Activities of, and associations with, identifiable individuals, families and communal groups Associations with Eliza Richardson (nee Brown), landholder-
9. Phases of Life-Marking the phases of life Persons-Activities of, and associations with, identifiable individuals, families and communal groups Associations with Earnest Edward (EE) Morgan, Queanbeyan solicitor-
9. Phases of Life-Marking the phases of life Persons-Activities of, and associations with, identifiable individuals, families and communal groups Associations with Robert Allport, Queanbeyan solicitor-

Recommended management:

Recommendations

Management CategoryDescriptionDate Updated
Recommended ManagementProduce a Conservation Management Plan (CMP) 
Recommended ManagementPrepare a maintenance schedule or guidelines 
Recommended ManagementCarry out interpretation, promotion and/or education 

Procedures /Exemptions

Section of actDescriptionTitleCommentsAction date
57(2)Exemption to allow workHeritage Act See File For Schedule


Order Under Section 57(2) to exempt the following activities from Section 57(1):
(1) The maintenance of any building or item on the site where maintenance means the continuous protective care of existing material.
(2) Garden maintenance including cultivation, pruning and weed control, the repair and maintenance of existing fences, gates and garden walls, and also including tree surgery but not extensive lopping.
(3)any change of use of the buildings on the site, but not including the historic building known as "Kawaree";
(4) alterations to the interior of any building, the construction of which has been approved by the Heritage Council, but not including the historic building known as "Kawaree".
Jan 22 1988
57(2)Exemption to allow workStandard Exemptions SCHEDULE OF STANDARD EXEMPTIONS
HERITAGE ACT 1977
Notice of Order Under Section 57 (2) of the Heritage Act 1977

I, the Minister for Planning, pursuant to subsection 57(2) of the Heritage Act 1977, on the recommendation of the Heritage Council of New South Wales, do by this Order:

1. revoke the Schedule of Exemptions to subsection 57(1) of the Heritage Act made under subsection 57(2) and published in the Government Gazette on 22 February 2008; and

2. grant standard exemptions from subsection 57(1) of the Heritage Act 1977, described in the Schedule attached.

FRANK SARTOR
Minister for Planning
Sydney, 11 July 2008

To view the schedule click on the Standard Exemptions for Works Requiring Heritage Council Approval link below.
Sep 5 2008

PDF Standard exemptions for works requiring Heritage Council approval

Listings

Heritage ListingListing TitleListing NumberGazette DateGazette NumberGazette Page
Heritage Act - State Heritage Register 0036502 Apr 99 271546
Heritage Act - Permanent Conservation Order - former 0036522 Jan 88 0120372
Local Environmental PlanDwelling (Kawaree) 13 Jul 07 90 
Local Environmental Plan - Lapsed 916 Oct 98 1488341
Local Environmental Plan - Lapsed  30 Aug 91   

References, internet links & images

TypeAuthorYearTitleInternet Links
WrittenArea Design Consultants2017Landscape Conservation & Management Plan for the conservation and management of 'Kawaree' Landscape, 54 Canberra Avenue, Queanbeyan NSW 2620

Note: internet links may be to web pages, documents or images.

rez
(Click on thumbnail for full size image and image details)

Data source

The information for this entry comes from the following source:
Name: Heritage Office
Database number: 5045699
File number: EF14/5206; S90/1394; HC 32957


Every effort has been made to ensure that information contained in the State Heritage Inventory is correct. If you find any errors or omissions please send your comments to the Database Manager.

All information and pictures on this page are the copyright of the Heritage Division or respective copyright owners.