Endrim | NSW Environment & Heritage

Culture and heritage

Heritage

Endrim

Item details

Name of item: Endrim
Type of item: Complex / Group
Group/Collection: Religion
Category: Presbytery/Rectory/ Vicarage/Manse
Location: Lat: -33.8044714787 Long: 151.0082050090
Primary address: 54 Sorrell Street, Parramatta, NSW 2150
Parish: Field of Mars
County: Cumberland
Local govt. area: Parramatta
Local Aboriginal Land Council: Deerubbin
Property description
Lot/Volume CodeLot/Volume NumberSection NumberPlan/Folio CodePlan/Folio Number
LOT1 DP218172
LOT2 DP218172
LOT3 DP218172
LOT4 DP218172
All addresses
Street AddressSuburb/townLGAParishCountyType
54 Sorrell StreetParramattaParramattaField of MarsCumberlandPrimary Address
Harold StreetParramattaParramattaField of MarsCumberlandAlternate Address

Statement of significance:

Professional, trade and manufacturing practice - example of the work of notable architect and builder, James Houison. Evidence of the major regional role of institutions in history of Parramatta. It is the finest example of the many Victorian surburban villas which once surrounded the town of Parramatta (NSW Heritage Office, Branch Managers Report 1985).
Date significance updated: 26 Sep 03
Note: The State Heritage Inventory provides information about heritage items listed by local and State government agencies. The State Heritage Inventory is continually being updated by local and State agencies as new information becomes available. Read the OEH copyright and disclaimer.

Description

Designer/Maker: James Houison
Builder/Maker: James Houison and Nathaniel Payton
Construction years: 1854-1856
Physical description: Garden and grounds:
Endrim is located on the north-eastern corner of Sorrell and Harold Streets.

Its house is situated well back from Sorell Street in a mature garden and screened by a high timber paling fence on a brick base. The rear of the house faces Sorrell Street, the front of the house faces into the site. Several steps extend up to the entry, which is symetrically flanked by two Mediterranean cypresses (Cupressus sempervirens).

Two stone gate posts are located near the south-western corner of the site and timber gates open onto a pebbled driveway which curves from the corner and sweeps around to the front of the house.

The driveway extends past the house to the former stables/garage and carport, located close to the northern site boundary.

A sandstone block wall with an arched opening extends from the north-western section of the house connecting to the former stables building to its north. A detached carport has been constructed to the east of the former stables building. Both of these are located close to the northern site boundary and neighbouring house, 56 Sorrell Street.

The driveway is bounded by open lawn and garden beds and a number of large trees, including two very tall hoop pines (Araucaria cunninghamii) and large camphor laurel (Cinnamommum camphora), Chinese elm (Ulmus parvifolia), gums, palm and other plantings. The garden also features a number of garden and landscape elements of various ages. Brick steps and piers directly in front of the house connect to overgrown rock and brick-paved pathways which extend over part of the eastern section of the site (Perumal Alessi Murphy, 2013).

House:
A well constructed symmetrical 3 bay house of two storeys with a Tuscan porch to the main door and a cantilevered balcony at first floor level on the garden elevation. A glassed-in conservatory is located beneath. Some stone ground floor extensions have been added to the north side. The house is well detailed with good plaster work, four panelled doors and a geometric staircase. It is the finest example of the many Victorian surburban villas which once surrounded the town of Parramatta. It still evokes the quality of the Victorian age (NSW Heritage Office, Branch Managers Report 1985).

One and two storey wings extend from the north-west corner of the building.
Date condition updated:12 Feb 14
Modifications and dates: Alterations and additions made in the 1940's and 50's.
Further information: CPS, NTL
Current use: offices
Former use: rectory, residence

History

Historical notes: Parramatta was first occupied by the soldiers and convicts who worked the Government Farm established there by Governor Phillip in November 1788. The town 'Rose Hill' was laid out two years later, in November 1790 and was renamed Parramatta in 1791.

Phillip was determined to have a 'planned' town, occupied not just by convicts but also by free settlers. By 1800 a total of 19 town leases had been granted to individuals, the majority were members of the NSW Corps, prominent civil servants or churchmen. With the exceptio of 5 leases, these were all located away from the main streets of the town on larger acreages. The town itself consisted mainly of prisoners' huts, however, over the next few years another 55 leases were granted within the town. Most were located along the main streets: Church, High (later George) and Macquarie Streets. It was, however, the arrival of Governor Macquarie in 1810 that brought around change in relation to town leases and the planning and development of the colony and its towns. In Parramatta he laid out several new streets, continued to relocate the convicts and set out controls and standards for buildings. He required plans to be submitted and leases were conditional on the proposed development.

Macquarie's policies had limited success and the following administration under Governor Brisbane sought to remedy the problems and implemented new policies. These alloweed potential lessees to gain secure title to almost the whole town from 30 June 1823. A total of 342 leases and 16 grants of town allotments were made on that day. The leases extended for 21 years and in 1844 a new town plan was prepared to primarily show the status of each portion and which had been built on. At this time much of the town remained vacant and concentrated in the area to the river's south. It wasn't until the gold discoveries of the 1850s and the establishment of the railways in the 1860s that further development occurred.

The decade from 1870 to 1880 signalled the first growth for Parramatta since the end of the convict system in the early 1840s. Whilst the population grrew steadily in the 1860s, numbers jumped significantly over the next ten years mainly due to the development of rail and road links and subdivision of large estates. A number of land speculators and builders moved in and established families and business owners also developed rental properties in North Parramatta to cater for those who worked at the gaol and lunatic asylum and increasing number of trades people coming to the area.

The site on which Endrim would be built is in Section 40 of the Town of Parramatta, which had been subdivided into regular allotments by this time and was formally proclaimed in 1893. Most of the block, an area of over two areas was officially granted to Reverend William F.Gore in November 1853. Gore had arrived in the colony in 1841 with his widowed mother and two elder brothers who became pastoralists in Queensland. William followed in the footsteps of his father who was a Protestant Irish clergyman. William completed his studies in Sydney and was ordained as an Anglican clergyman in 1844. He married in the same year and was appointed rector of All Saints, Parramatta, in 1849. He and his family rented a two storey brick house which was near the Female Factory. He started planning his new house in 1852.

The foundation stone in Sorrell Street was laid in November 1854. The first storey was completed in June 1855 and his family moved into 'Endrim' in APril 1856 (Perumal Murphy Alessi, 2013, 2).

The house was built by local builder, James (Perumal Murphy Alessi say 'John') Houison, a Scottish carpenter who had arrived in Sydney in 1832 and soon earned a reputation as a skilled craftsman, in partnership with Nathaniel Payten. The partnership worked on the Parramatta Gaol and the Court House in the 1830s, then turned to churches in the 1840s and also completed a number of domestic projects including Endrim in this period (ibid, 3).

Gore, who is attributed with planting a number of trees on the property, remained at All Saints until 1862, when he returned to England. He resigned his incumbency in 1867. The house was used as a rectory until (c.1876) a new building was built (closer to the church, to the south) in 1876 and Endrim continued to be rented out as a residence until 1882 when it was conveyed to J.E. Bowden, a soliticitor of Parramatta. The Bowden family was known in Parramatta and had long occupied the area (ibid, 3) (Ref: : Gore letters in National Library, Canberra).

a 1900 Photograph of Endrim's southern (side) facade shows the gravel drive sweeping by to the eastern (front) facade and front door, a large area of lawn, a large 'century plant' (Agave americana) in front of the house's southern facade, trees and shrubs. A bed of flowers and smaller shrubs is in the foreground. Taller trees and shrubs form a backdrop (Stuart Read, interpreting Figure 3.3, p.4 in Perumal Murphy Alessi).

A Sydney Water Board plan dated 1894 and revised in 1912 shows the stone building, attached wings and detached stable building to its north. The building is located close to the Sorrell Street frontage and approximately mid-block. The wings extend toward Sorrell Street and to the north of the main building with a stair extending from the eastern facade, facing the large site. In 1902 the land was conveyed to E.K.Bowden, second son of Ebenezer John Bowden and also a solicitor and politician (Federal Member for Nepean and later Parramatta in the 1920s).

Early plans and a photograph c.1900 indicate that changes and additions were undertaken to the house between 1900 and 1912 (ibid, 23).

The Sands Directory (SD below) indicates that the house continued to be occupied by various family members until its final listing in the 1930s.

E.K.Bowden lost his seat in 1929 and his last years were shadowed by financial difficulties. The land was subdivided and an auction selling the residential sized allotments was held on site on 2/12/1927. E.K.Bowden died in February 1931. Lot 6 of the subdivision had been transferred to his wife and daughters in 1928 and after his death the mortgagees continued to sell the various allotments (ibid, 3).

SD 1932: Mrs E.K. Bowden and Miss A. Bowden
SD 1930: Miss A. Bowden and Eric Bowden KMHR
SD 1929: Miss A. Bowden | SD 1925: Mrs J. E. Bowden, "Endrim"
SD 1923: Mrs J. E. Bowden | SD 1920: J. E. Bowden JP., solicitor, "Endrim"
SD 1915: J. E. Bowden JP., solicitor, "Endrim"

PCC Rates Book (RB) 1915: N0. 756 Improv. Cp. Value 1,250 pounds E.K. Bowden
PCC RB 1914: N0. 756 Sec. 22, pt. lot 40. Eric Kendall Bowden, solicitor Parra
SD 1909: J. E. Bowden JP., solicitor, "Endrim"
NSW PO 1904: J. E. Bowden JP., "Endrim"
PCC RB 1895: No. 593 Gore ward. J. E. Bowden JP., stone house
SD 1889: J. E. Bowden JP., solicitor, "Endrim"
PCC RB 1885: N0. 489 J.C. Bowden, stone house 125 pounds
PCC RB 1864: N0. 1130 George Barlow owner, house 75 pounds (LEP, 1997).

Endrim was surrounded by gardens and a driveway also swept around the building. The house continued to occupy a large site, and area of over 1 acre made up of Lots 3-5 and part of Lot 2 of the subdivision. In 1934 this was bought by Millicent Lydia Bryant, wife of Harold Leslie Bryant, medical practitioner of Parramatta. The property was again transferred to Dale Building P/L in 1963 and in the same year to Horwood Investments P/L of Canberra. H.V.Horwood had been Mayor of Parramatta in 1954-5.

A Sydney Water Board plan dating from the c.1930s shows the large site and house and that a number of detached houses, including a house on the corner allotment, Lot 1 (now 56 Sorrell Street) had been built on the subdivided allotments by this time.

In 1963 it would appear that the new owners of the site subdivided it again, creating a kinked line between lots 1 and 2, which were occupied by the stable and house respectively (now fronting Sorrell Street), and lots 3-5 which each had frontage to Harold Street.

The 1963 plan shows that a stone wall connected Endrim's main building and former stables to its north. The earlier plans also show that some change had been undertaken to the rear wings of the main building and a small wing had also been constructed to the northern facade (Perumal Murphy Alessi, 5).

The property was transferred in 1984 from which time the new owner, another solicitor, renovated the house and converted its ground floor for use as his office. A kitchen was also provided on the upper level with permission from the Heritage Council of NSW, and converted for use as his residence (ibid, 6). It would appear that the works from this period also included upgrade of the conservatories and overall building fabric and stonework, also addition of the boundary fence, plantings and garden elements including the brick steps and pathways around the eastern garden area (ibid, 23).

In May 1985 a permanent conservation order was gazetted over Endrim, covering Lots 1-4.

The site today shows further alterations and additions have been undertaken. A later, high timber fence on brick base surrounds the site, with stone gate posts near the south-western corner of the site. The sweeping driveway and garden including a number of mature trees and plantings also generally remain with some later brick paths and landscape elements.

Some alterations and additions to the house and stables have occurred. The front facade has a stone porch over the entry which is not present in the c.1900 photograph, and additions to the northern and southern sides of the main house. However the buildings retain a strong sense of their earlier character and face stone facades and details (ibid, 6).

Historic themes

Australian theme (abbrev)New South Wales themeLocal theme
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Environment - cultural landscape-Activities associated with the interactions between humans, human societies and the shaping of their physical surroundings Landscapes and gardens of domestic accommodation-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Environment - cultural landscape-Activities associated with the interactions between humans, human societies and the shaping of their physical surroundings Landscapes demonstrating styles in landscape design-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Transport-Activities associated with the moving of people and goods from one place to another, and systems for the provision of such movements Development in response to railway lines-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Land tenure-Activities and processes for identifying forms of ownership and occupancy of land and water, both Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Housing-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Land tenure-Activities and processes for identifying forms of ownership and occupancy of land and water, both Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Changing land uses - from rural to suburban-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Land tenure-Activities and processes for identifying forms of ownership and occupancy of land and water, both Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Sub-division of large estates-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Towns, suburbs and villages-Activities associated with creating, planning and managing urban functions, landscapes and lifestyles in towns, suburbs and villages Developing suburbia-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Creative endeavour-Activities associated with the production and performance of literary, artistic, architectural and other imaginative, interpretive or inventive works; and/or associated with the production and expression of cultural phenomena; and/or environments that have inspired such creative activities. Landscaping - Victorian period-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Creative endeavour-Activities associated with the production and performance of literary, artistic, architectural and other imaginative, interpretive or inventive works; and/or associated with the production and expression of cultural phenomena; and/or environments that have inspired such creative activities. Landscaping - Victorian gardenesque style-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Creative endeavour-Activities associated with the production and performance of literary, artistic, architectural and other imaginative, interpretive or inventive works; and/or associated with the production and expression of cultural phenomena; and/or environments that have inspired such creative activities. Architectural styles and periods - Georgian revival-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Domestic life-Activities associated with creating, maintaining, living in and working around houses and institutions. Country estates - visiting, enjoying-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Domestic life-Activities associated with creating, maintaining, living in and working around houses and institutions. Ways of life 1900-1950-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Domestic life-Activities associated with creating, maintaining, living in and working around houses and institutions. Ways of life 1950-2000-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Domestic life-Activities associated with creating, maintaining, living in and working around houses and institutions. Convict housing near workplaces-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Domestic life-Activities associated with creating, maintaining, living in and working around houses and institutions. Living in, adapting and renovating homes for changing conditions-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Religion-Activities associated with particular systems of faith and worship Practising Anglicanism-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Religion-Activities associated with particular systems of faith and worship Anglican Community-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Religion-Activities associated with particular systems of faith and worship parsonage, manse, vicarage-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Religion-Activities associated with particular systems of faith and worship Gentlemen's Villas-

Assessment of significance

SHR Criteria a)
[Historical significance]
This item historically significant.
SHR Criteria g)
[Representativeness]
This item is representative.
Assessment criteria: Items are assessed against the PDF State Heritage Register (SHR) Criteria to determine the level of significance. Refer to the Listings below for the level of statutory protection.

Recommended management:


Procedures /Exemptions

Section of actDescriptionTitleCommentsAction date
57(2)Exemption to allow workStandard Exemptions SCHEDULE OF STANDARD EXEMPTIONS
HERITAGE ACT 1977
Notice of Order Under Section 57 (2) of the Heritage Act 1977

I, the Minister for Planning, pursuant to subsection 57(2) of the Heritage Act 1977, on the recommendation of the Heritage Council of New South Wales, do by this Order:

1. revoke the Schedule of Exemptions to subsection 57(1) of the Heritage Act made under subsection 57(2) and published in the Government Gazette on 22 February 2008; and

2. grant standard exemptions from subsection 57(1) of the Heritage Act 1977, described in the Schedule attached.

FRANK SARTOR
Minister for Planning
Sydney, 11 July 2008

To view the schedule click on the Standard Exemptions for Works Requiring Heritage Council Approval link below.
Sep 5 2008

PDF Standard exemptions for works requiring Heritage Council approval

Listings

Heritage ListingListing TitleListing NumberGazette DateGazette NumberGazette Page
Heritage Act - State Heritage Register 0037902 Apr 99 271546
Heritage Act - Permanent Conservation Order - former 0037903 May 85 781929
Local Environmental Plan 49927 Feb 97 20901
Local Environmental Plan 17328 Feb 92 301345
National Trust of Australia register   28 May 97   
Register of the National Estate  21 Mar 78   

Study details

TitleYearNumberAuthorInspected byGuidelines used
City of Parramatta Heritage Study1993499Meredith Walker  Yes
Colonial Landscapes of the Cumberland Plain and Camden, NSW2000 Morris, C., & Britton, G./NSW National Trust (for the Heritage Council of NSW)  Yes

References, internet links & images

TypeAuthorYearTitleInternet Links
WrittenNSW Heritage Office1985Branch Managers Report
WrittenPerumal Murphy Alessi P/L2013Statement of Heritage Impact, Lot 5, No. 54 Sorrell Street, North Parramatta

Note: internet links may be to web pages, documents or images.

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Data source

The information for this entry comes from the following source:
Name: Heritage Office
Database number: 5051411
File number: S90/05018 & HC 32958


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