Lennox Bridge | NSW Environment & Heritage

Culture and heritage

Heritage

Lennox Bridge

Item details

Name of item: Lennox Bridge
Type of item: Complex / Group
Group/Collection: Transport - Land
Category: Road Bridge
Location: Lat: -33.8107412716 Long: 151.0045927400
Primary address: 349-351 (adj) Church Street, Parramatta, NSW 2150
Parish: St John
County: Cumberland
Local govt. area: Parramatta
Local Aboriginal Land Council: Deerubbin

Boundary:

Refer to Heritage Council Plan No. 1813
All addresses
Street AddressSuburb/townLGAParishCountyType
349-351 (adj) Church StreetParramattaParramattaSt JohnCumberlandPrimary Address

Owner/s

Organisation NameOwner CategoryDate Ownership Updated
Roads and Maritime ServicesState Government 

Statement of significance:

Professional, trade and manufacturing practice - example of the work of notable engineer. David Lennox. Site possesses potential to contribute to an understanding early urban development in Parramatta.

One of Parramatta's most important historic structures, and one of the earliest bridges in New South Wales and Australia.
Date significance updated: 23 Feb 15
Note: The State Heritage Inventory provides information about heritage items listed by local and State government agencies. The State Heritage Inventory is continually being updated by local and State agencies as new information becomes available. Read the OEH copyright and disclaimer.

Description

Designer/Maker: David Lennox
Builder/Maker: David Lennox, Superintendent of Bridges
Construction years: 1836-1839
Physical description: A single sandstone arch bridge spanning 91 feet (27.73m), the clear span of the arch being 23.16 m across the Parramatta River with approaches on the line of Church St.

In 1901-2 a width of 10 feet of the stone arch was strengthened internally for the purposes of carrying the Parramatta-Castle Hill Tramway. The parapet on the western side was removed in 1912 and a continuous footway 5'3" wide was added.

The western pedestrian way was removed 1934-5 when Department of Main Roads further widened the western side in reinforced concrete faced with sandstone to take more traffic and replaced the original balustrading with an open concrete type. AZP Cross Reference: PN 100
Physical condition and/or
Archaeological potential:
In 1912, the parapet on the western side was removed to provide a cantilevered pedestrian way; this in turn being removed 1934-5 when Department of Main Roads further widened the western side in concrete faced with sandstone to take more traffic and replaced the original balustrading with an open concrete type.
Date condition updated:14 Jan 03
Modifications and dates: 1901-2 a width of 10' of the stone arch was internally strengthened for the purpose of carrying the Parramatta-Castle Hill Tramway.

1912 the parapet on the western side was removed to provide a cantilevered pedestrian way 5'3"wide.

1934-5 above parapet removed by Dept of Main Roads, further widened its western side to take more traffic. An extension was built in reinforced concrete faced with sandstone. The balustrade was replaced with an open concrete type.
Further information: CPS, NTL
Current use: transport
Former use: transport (trams have gone)

History

Historical notes: One of Australia's most historic bridges, Lennox Bridge is still used to cross the river at Church Street, Parramatta.

The first simple footbridge over the river was in a line with Pitt Row (later Pitt Street), which in the earliest days of the colony extended to the river.This was washed away in a flood in 1795. The second bridge crossed the river at Church Street. Erected in 1802, it was a wooden bridge on piers which remained until the 1830s.

About 1833, David Lennox, (then NSW Superintendent of Bridges for the Colony of NSW)* submitted plans for a new structure, and in 1835 the Governor instructed the surveyor-general to make arrangements to place a handsome stone bridge at Parramatta without delay. Lennox's plans were finally approved in May 1836 by Governor Bourke and the foundation stone was laid by hm on 23 November 1836. The bridge was completed in 1839 at a cost of 1797 pounds but was not named until 1867 (Parramatta & District Historical Society, 1970, 16).

Lennox Bridge is one of the earliest bridges in NSW and Australia (and the Commonwealth)*. In 1867 it was named Lennox Bridge by (the young) Parramatta Municipal Council in honour of its designer as it was the last bridge built by Lennox in NSW.

In 1888 Parramatta's first public baths were located just west of Lennox Bridge.

The bridge has been altered substantially since erection. In 1901-2 a width of 10 feet of the stone arch was strengthened internally for the purposes of carrying the Parramatta-Castle Hill Tramway.

The parapet on the western side was removed in 1912 and a continuous footway 5'3" wide was added.

In 1934-5 the bridge was widened under the direction of the Department of Main Roads. This included removing the western footway and erecting a new reinforced concrete structure. A brass plaque on the western side of the bridge (footway) records this work.*

Several other similar bridges are found near Goulburn and the Blue Mountains *(Source: 1935 plaque on bridge erected by HH Newwll, Commissioner for Main Roads).

In the 1990s Lennox Bridge was saved from demolition by campaigning by the National Trust of Australia (NSW)(Le Seuer, 2015, 7).

Historic themes

Australian theme (abbrev)New South Wales themeLocal theme
2. Peopling-Peopling the continent Convict-Activities relating to incarceration, transport, reform, accommodation and working during the convict period in NSW (1788-1850) - does not include activities associated with the conviction of persons in NSW that are unrelated to the imperial 'convict system': use the theme of Law & Order for such activities Working for the Crown-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Transport-Activities associated with the moving of people and goods from one place to another, and systems for the provision of such movements Bridge - road-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Transport-Activities associated with the moving of people and goods from one place to another, and systems for the provision of such movements Building and maintaining public roads-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Towns, suburbs and villages-Activities associated with creating, planning and managing urban functions, landscapes and lifestyles in towns, suburbs and villages Creating landmark structures and places in urban settings-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Towns, suburbs and villages-Activities associated with creating, planning and managing urban functions, landscapes and lifestyles in towns, suburbs and villages Role of transport in settlement-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Towns, suburbs and villages-Activities associated with creating, planning and managing urban functions, landscapes and lifestyles in towns, suburbs and villages Planning relationships between key structures and town plans-
5. Working-Working Labour-Activities associated with work practises and organised and unorganised labour Working at enforced labour-
9. Phases of Life-Marking the phases of life Persons-Activities of, and associations with, identifiable individuals, families and communal groups Associations with Governor Mjr.-Gen. (later Gen., Sir) Richard Bourke KCB, 1831-7-
9. Phases of Life-Marking the phases of life Persons-Activities of, and associations with, identifiable individuals, families and communal groups Associations with David Lennox, Superintendent of Bridges, engineer-

Assessment of significance

SHR Criteria a)
[Historical significance]
This item historically significant.
SHR Criteria e)
[Research potential]
This item is technically or scientifically significant.
SHR Criteria f)
[Rarity]
This item is rare.
Assessment criteria: Items are assessed against the PDF State Heritage Register (SHR) Criteria to determine the level of significance. Refer to the Listings below for the level of statutory protection.

Recommended management:


Procedures /Exemptions

Section of actDescriptionTitleCommentsAction date
57(2)Exemption to allow workHeritage Act
Order Under Section 57(2) to exempt the following activities from Section 57(1):
(a) Maintenance of the item, where maintenance means the continuous protective care of the existing bridge structure but excluding renovation, repairs (other than those of a minor nature and extent), restoration or repainting; and
(b) Minor repair, where minor repair means the repair of materials by patching, piercing-in, splicing and consolidating existing materials and including minor replacements of minor components such as cutstone where these have been damaged beyond reasonable repair or are missing. The replacement should be of the same material, colour, texture, form and design as the original it replaces and the number of components it replaced should be substantially less than existing.
Oct 11 1991
57(2)Exemption to allow workStandard Exemptions SCHEDULE OF STANDARD EXEMPTIONS
HERITAGE ACT 1977
Notice of Order Under Section 57 (2) of the Heritage Act 1977

I, the Minister for Planning, pursuant to subsection 57(2) of the Heritage Act 1977, on the recommendation of the Heritage Council of New South Wales, do by this Order:

1. revoke the Schedule of Exemptions to subsection 57(1) of the Heritage Act made under subsection 57(2) and published in the Government Gazette on 22 February 2008; and

2. grant standard exemptions from subsection 57(1) of the Heritage Act 1977, described in the Schedule attached.

FRANK SARTOR
Minister for Planning
Sydney, 11 July 2008

To view the schedule click on the Standard Exemptions for Works Requiring Heritage Council Approval link below.
Sep 5 2008

PDF Standard exemptions for works requiring Heritage Council approval

Listings

Heritage ListingListing TitleListing NumberGazette DateGazette NumberGazette Page
Heritage Act - State Heritage Register 0075002 Apr 99 271546
Heritage Act - Permanent Conservation Order - former 0075011 Oct 91 1428822
Local Environmental Plan 11927 Feb 97 20886
Local Environmental Plan  21 Jul 89 0844633
National Trust of Australia register      
Register of the National Estate  21 Mar 78   

Study details

TitleYearNumberAuthorInspected byGuidelines used
City of Parramatta Heritage Study1993119Meredith Walker  Yes

References, internet links & images

TypeAuthorYearTitleInternet Links
Tourism 2007Lennox Bridge View detail
TourismAttraction Homepage2007Lennox Bridge View detail
WrittenGail Knox1988(Lennox Bridge, in) Parramatta Walk
WrittenLe Seuer, Angela2015'National Trust celebrates its 70th anniversary'
WrittenParramatta & District Historical Society1970Tour of Parramatta
WrittenParramatta City Council2006Old Parramatta Town View detail

Note: internet links may be to web pages, documents or images.

rez rez rez rez rez rez
rez
(Click on thumbnail for full size image and image details)

Data source

The information for this entry comes from the following source:
Name: Heritage Office
Database number: 5051414
File number: S91/00389/001; 11/08483;


Every effort has been made to ensure that information contained in the State Heritage Inventory is correct. If you find any errors or omissions please send your comments to the Database Manager.

All information and pictures on this page are the copyright of the Heritage Division or respective copyright owners.