Kunderang East Pastoral Station | NSW Environment & Heritage

Culture and heritage

Heritage

Kunderang East Pastoral Station

Item details

Name of item: Kunderang East Pastoral Station
Other name/s: Cunderang / Kunderang station (fmr.); Apsley Gorges
Type of item: Landscape
Group/Collection: Farming and Grazing
Category: Farm
Location: Lat: -30.903556 Long: 152.159584
Primary address: 80km north-west Oxley Wild Rivers National Park, Jeogla, NSW 2440
Local govt. area: Armidale Dumaresq
Local Aboriginal Land Council: Kempsey
All addresses
Street AddressSuburb/townLGAParishCountyType
80km north-west Oxley Wild Rivers National ParkJeoglaArmidale Dumaresq  Primary Address

Owner/s

Organisation NameOwner CategoryDate Ownership Updated
Office of Environment and HeritageState Government14 Aug 97

Statement of significance:

The cultural significance of Kunderang East, lies in the way its frontier environment made clear the tragic processes of early European settlement and intensified and sharpened the nature of pastoral processes and experiences. It was this frontier where Aboriginies were forced from the coast and tablelands and where their resistance resulted in massacres on Cunderang. It was also the steep, isolation of the country which earned a reputation for stock and created bush legends of the abilities of stockmen and their abilities. The isolation meant that nineteenth century ways of doing things were carried on well into the twentieth century. It also protected the area from large scale clearing, leaving a landscape largely unchanged in 150 years.

The tragedy of early conflicts; the bush legends created out of adversity; and the preservation of a landscape that captures a sense of history and isolation are the legacy of frontier experience that is perhaps more uniquely Australian than more comfortable properties elsewhere. In this way Kunderang East is significant as a symbol for the Australian bush experience (Ashley, 1991: 14).
Date significance updated: 26 Jul 06
Note: The State Heritage Inventory provides information about heritage items listed by local and State government agencies. The State Heritage Inventory is continually being updated by local and State agencies as new information becomes available. Read the OEH copyright and disclaimer.

Description

Builder/Maker: Joe Small
Construction years: 1892-1893
Physical description: Station:
Kunderang East Pastoral Station forms part of the Oxley Rivers National Park, part of a serial World Heritage Area listing of Gondwana Rainforests. Oxley Rivers NP is one of the largest of the national parks in this listing, particularly important for the extensive areas of dry rainforest that it contains (Thomas & Lawrance, 2016, 6).

Between about 1920 and 1969 Kunderang East pastoral station varied in size, but hovered around 100,000 acres as various leases and permissive occupancies were added or forfeited (ibid, 2016, 6).

Kunderang Station is located in the middle reaches of the Macleay River Valley between Armidale and Kempsey. Although downstream of the spectacular cliffed Macleay Gorges, it is nevertheless scenically impressive. The most extensive vegetation is open woodland and dry rainforest in the Top Creek catchment of the north side of the river. The vegetation ranges from typically New England plateau species in higher parts to coastal or lowland species along the valleys. Wildlife is abundant in the area. Kunderdang Station Nature Reserve was incorporated into Oxley Wild Rivers National Park in 1989 (RNE, 1978).

Kunderang is representative of an area supporting a diversity in vegetation and scenic gorges. The rugged nature of the topography has left the area in a pristine condition. It marks the eastern border of the New England flora and the western extremity of the coastal vegetation (RNE, 1978: Kunderang proposed Nature Reserve (fmr.)).

The Pastoral Station remains comprise a cleared area west of the Macleay River and otherwise surrounded by forest. Fences skirt the clearing and frame paddocks and the central homestead complex (ibid, 2016, 8).

Edward Fitzgerald's grave is on the station south of the homestead complex. The possible site of Jack Crawford's hut is nearby to this grave (ibid, 2016, 8).

Homestead complex:
In addition to the homestead, three remote mustering huts, a restored forge (south-west of the homestead) and hay or corn shed and reconstructed set of stockyards comprise the remaining infrastructure within the pastoral station precinct (ibid, 2016, 6). These are in the same area, south-west of the homestead complex (ibid, 2016, 8).

Orchard stables are north-west of the homestead complex (ibid, 2016, 8).

Duval's hut and yards are south of the homestead complex. An Aboriginal stockman's hut is south-west of the homestead complex.

Homestead (1893)
The main house is a four room vertical red cedar timber plank (locally-cut and sawn: ibid, 2016, 4) structure which originally had verandahs on all sides and two small rooms built into the south-east and south-west corners of the verandahs. This house replaced an earlier (1890) 3-roomed vertical timber plank hut, which was then converted into its kitchen block.
Iron roof (NTA (NSW), 1974).

Prior to 1900, a dining room was created by filling in the gap between the house and its original kitchen block (demolished in 1973) and making a breezeway of the verandah of the first kitchen section.

1973 electricity installed. At this time, the old kitchen section was demolished and a new one built in the same location.
Physical condition and/or
Archaeological potential:
Physical condition is good.
Date condition updated:15 Aug 97
Modifications and dates: 1893 - main cedar-plank four-roomed house built to replace earlier 3-roomed vertical timber plank hut which was converted into a kitchen.
c.1900 - verandahs between kitchen block and homestead removed, added an infill between kitchen and house to create the dining room and breezeway
1919 telephone installed

c.1960s - kitchen demolished and rebuilt.
1967 road access to the property created
1967-89 - Kellion Estates carried out major works, including replacing the kitchen wing and altering the roofscape between the dining room and kitchen wing (Thomas & Lawrance, 2016, 5, based on Ashley, draft Conservation Plan, 1989).
1973 electricity installed. At this time, the old kitchen section was demolished and a new one built in the same location.

1989: NPWS acquisition
1990s: major conservation and restoration works, restoring the roofscape to its c.1900 form. The Kellion Estates kitchen was demolished and the exterior shell of the kitchen wing substantially reconstructed based on available evidence, with a modern interior (ibid, 2016, 4).

2008: change in use of the old kitchen wing from a caretaker's cottage to a large eat-in kitchen (ibid, 2016, 4).
Current use: National Park, tourism/hospitality
Former use: Aboriginal land, pastoral Station

History

Historical notes: Kunderang East Pastoral Station is located at the eastern edge of the Great Dividing Range near the headwaters of the Manning, Hasting and Macleay Rivers. The land was originally occupied by Aboriginal tribes including the Birpai, Ngaku and the large Thungutti tribe. It seems that the station took its name from a clan of the Thungutti who occupied this area.

European invasion came from the fertile tablelands and coastal strip in the 1820s. Cunderang Station was established by Captain George Jobling by 1843, possibly as an outpost for Toorookoo, Jobling's first grant. During this early period a number of Aboriginal massacres occured on the Kunderang run, while Aboriginal people were staging a resistance to the invasion of their land.

Jobling sold his interest in the cattle run in 1854 and between then and 1889, several non-resident owners increased its size to 90,000 acres.

In 1889 Joe Fitzgerald and Alec McDonell from Cundletown, near Taree, purchased sections of the Kunderang Run, with the remainder staying with the Crawfords and becoming Kunderang West. At that point Kunderang East Station was established.

The existing Kunderang East pastoral station homestead was begun in 1890 with the construction of a three roomed vertical timber plank (locally-cut and sawn: Thomas & Lawrance, 2016, 4) building later used as a kitchen. In 1892, a larger four roomed solid cedar vertical plank house was built and the Fitzgerald family moved in. Soon after the gap between the earlier hut and the new house were infilled to form a dining room. The Fitzgeralds lived there until 1928. The experience of living at Kunderang East was profoundly influenced by its isolation. Although the telephone was installed in 1919, a road into the property was not put through until 1967 with electricity following in 1973. This isolation, while limiting the economic viability of the place as a cattle station, created an environment which gave unique aspects to its cultural history.

Between about 1920 and 1969 Kunderang East pastoral station varied in size, but hovered around 100,000 acres as various leases and permissive occupancies were added or forfeited. In addition to the homestead, three remote mustering huts, a restored forge and hayshed and reconstructed set of stockyards comprise the remaining infrastructure within the pastoral station precinct (ibid, 2016, 6).

From 1928 to 1967, Kunderang East was managed by Alec McDonell. In 1967, Kunderang East was sold to Kellion Estates Pty. Ltd. although McDonell remained as the manager until 1973. At this time, the old kitchen section was demolished and a new one built in the same location (Ashley, 1991: 3-5).

1967-89 - Kellion Estates carried out major works, including replacing the kitchen wing and altering the roofscape between the dining room and kitchen wing (Thomas & Lawrance, 2016, 5, based on Ashley, draft Conservation Plan, 1989).
1973 electricity installed. At this time, the old kitchen section was demolished and a new one built in the same location.

1989: NSW National Parks & Wildlife Service acquired the property.
1990s: major conservation and restoration works, restoring the roofscape to its c.1900 form. The Kellion Estates kitchen was demolished and the exterior shell of the kitchen wing substantially reconstructed based on available evidence, with a modern interior (ibid, 2016, 4). Since aquisition by the NPWS, the homestead has been subject of maintenance works and ongoing assessment of the structures and the historic features in outlying areas of the station (ibid, 1991: 3-5).

Although various leases changed, the overall size of Kunderang Station remained largely the same throughout its hundred year operation (ibid, 1991: 3-5).

2008: change in use of the old kitchen wing from a caretaker's cottage to a large eat-in kitchen. The homestead is currently rented out as a commercial accommodation facility where customers access it via a four wheel drive only access road. This adaptive reuse and associated revenue has assisted in offsetting the cost of site management over the last 20 years (ibid, 2016, 4, 6).

Historic themes

Australian theme (abbrev)New South Wales themeLocal theme
1. Environment-Tracing the evolution of a continent's special environments Environment - naturally evolved-Activities associated with the physical surroundings that support human life and influence or shape human cultures. Cultural: Natural landscapes valued by humans-
1. Environment-Tracing the evolution of a continent's special environments Environment - naturally evolved-Activities associated with the physical surroundings that support human life and influence or shape human cultures. Cultural: Pre-invasion ecosystems illustrating changing human land uses-
1. Environment-Tracing the evolution of a continent's special environments Environment - naturally evolved-Activities associated with the physical surroundings that support human life and influence or shape human cultures. Cultural: Conserving and protecting natural features-
1. Environment-Tracing the evolution of a continent's special environments Environment - naturally evolved-Activities associated with the physical surroundings that support human life and influence or shape human cultures. Cultural: Plains and plateaux supporting human activities-
1. Environment-Tracing the evolution of a continent's special environments Environment - naturally evolved-Activities associated with the physical surroundings that support human life and influence or shape human cultures. Environments important to Aboriginal traditional and spiritual life-
1. Environment-Tracing the evolution of a continent's special environments Environment - naturally evolved-Activities associated with the physical surroundings that support human life and influence or shape human cultures. Cultural: Mountains and peaks providing landmarks for humans-
1. Environment-Tracing the evolution of a continent's special environments Environment - naturally evolved-Activities associated with the physical surroundings that support human life and influence or shape human cultures. Natural - pre European settlement vegetation-
1. Environment-Tracing the evolution of a continent's special environments Environment - naturally evolved-Activities associated with the physical surroundings that support human life and influence or shape human cultures. Natural - site important native fauna habitat or food source-
1. Environment-Tracing the evolution of a continent's special environments Environment - naturally evolved-Activities associated with the physical surroundings that support human life and influence or shape human cultures. Introduce cultural planting-
1. Environment-Tracing the evolution of a continent's special environments Environment - naturally evolved-Activities associated with the physical surroundings that support human life and influence or shape human cultures. Park reserve-
1. Environment-Tracing the evolution of a continent's special environments Environment - naturally evolved-Activities associated with the physical surroundings that support human life and influence or shape human cultures. Regional flora and fauna-
1. Environment-Tracing the evolution of a continent's special environments Environment - naturally evolved-Activities associated with the physical surroundings that support human life and influence or shape human cultures. remnant woodland and grasses-
1. Environment-Tracing the evolution of a continent's special environments Environment - naturally evolved-Activities associated with the physical surroundings that support human life and influence or shape human cultures. Changing the environment-
2. Peopling-Peopling the continent Aboriginal cultures and interactions with other cultures-Activities associated with maintaining, developing, experiencing and remembering Aboriginal cultural identities and practices, past and present. (none)-
2. Peopling-Peopling the continent Aboriginal cultures and interactions with other cultures-Activities associated with maintaining, developing, experiencing and remembering Aboriginal cultural identities and practices, past and present. All nations - place of first contact between Aboriginal and European peoples-
2. Peopling-Peopling the continent Aboriginal cultures and interactions with other cultures-Activities associated with maintaining, developing, experiencing and remembering Aboriginal cultural identities and practices, past and present. All nations - places of battle or other early interactions between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal peoples-
2. Peopling-Peopling the continent Aboriginal cultures and interactions with other cultures-Activities associated with maintaining, developing, experiencing and remembering Aboriginal cultural identities and practices, past and present. All nations - controlling dispossesed peoples-
2. Peopling-Peopling the continent Aboriginal cultures and interactions with other cultures-Activities associated with maintaining, developing, experiencing and remembering Aboriginal cultural identities and practices, past and present. All nations - sites evidencing occupation-
2. Peopling-Peopling the continent Aboriginal cultures and interactions with other cultures-Activities associated with maintaining, developing, experiencing and remembering Aboriginal cultural identities and practices, past and present. All Nations - Massacre Sites-
2. Peopling-Peopling the continent Aboriginal cultures and interactions with other cultures-Activities associated with maintaining, developing, experiencing and remembering Aboriginal cultural identities and practices, past and present. Aboriginal Culture-
2. Peopling-Peopling the continent Aboriginal cultures and interactions with other cultures-Activities associated with maintaining, developing, experiencing and remembering Aboriginal cultural identities and practices, past and present. Alll nations - Aboriginal people working on farms, vineyards, stations-
2. Peopling-Peopling the continent Aboriginal cultures and interactions with other cultures-Activities associated with maintaining, developing, experiencing and remembering Aboriginal cultural identities and practices, past and present. Birpai tribe - sites evidencing occupation-
2. Peopling-Peopling the continent Aboriginal cultures and interactions with other cultures-Activities associated with maintaining, developing, experiencing and remembering Aboriginal cultural identities and practices, past and present. Ngaku tribe - sites evidencing occupation-
2. Peopling-Peopling the continent Aboriginal cultures and interactions with other cultures-Activities associated with maintaining, developing, experiencing and remembering Aboriginal cultural identities and practices, past and present. Thungutti tribe - sites evidencing occupation-
2. Peopling-Peopling the continent Ethnic influences-Activities associated with common cultural traditions and peoples of shared descent, and with exchanges between such traditions and peoples. Irish migrants-
2. Peopling-Peopling the continent Ethnic influences-Activities associated with common cultural traditions and peoples of shared descent, and with exchanges between such traditions and peoples. Scottish building and design practises-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Agriculture-Activities relating to the cultivation and rearing of plant and animal species, usually for commercial purposes, can include aquaculture Private farming-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Agriculture-Activities relating to the cultivation and rearing of plant and animal species, usually for commercial purposes, can include aquaculture Orcharding-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Agriculture-Activities relating to the cultivation and rearing of plant and animal species, usually for commercial purposes, can include aquaculture Clearing land for farming-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Agriculture-Activities relating to the cultivation and rearing of plant and animal species, usually for commercial purposes, can include aquaculture Ancillary structures fencing-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Agriculture-Activities relating to the cultivation and rearing of plant and animal species, usually for commercial purposes, can include aquaculture Agroforesty-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Environment - cultural landscape-Activities associated with the interactions between humans, human societies and the shaping of their physical surroundings Developing local, regional and national economies-National Theme 3
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Environment - cultural landscape-Activities associated with the interactions between humans, human societies and the shaping of their physical surroundings Creating environments evocative of the 'old country'-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Environment - cultural landscape-Activities associated with the interactions between humans, human societies and the shaping of their physical surroundings Tourism-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Environment - cultural landscape-Activities associated with the interactions between humans, human societies and the shaping of their physical surroundings Landscapes of food production-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Environment - cultural landscape-Activities associated with the interactions between humans, human societies and the shaping of their physical surroundings Landscapes and gardens of domestic accommodation-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Environment - cultural landscape-Activities associated with the interactions between humans, human societies and the shaping of their physical surroundings Landscapes of cultural and natural interaction-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Environment - cultural landscape-Activities associated with the interactions between humans, human societies and the shaping of their physical surroundings Landscapes and countryside of rural charm-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Pastoralism-Activities associated with the breeding, raising, processing and distribution of livestock for human use (none)-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Pastoralism-Activities associated with the breeding, raising, processing and distribution of livestock for human use Working for pastoralists-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Pastoralism-Activities associated with the breeding, raising, processing and distribution of livestock for human use Beef cattle breeding and raising-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Pastoralism-Activities associated with the breeding, raising, processing and distribution of livestock for human use pastoral homestead-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Pastoralism-Activities associated with the breeding, raising, processing and distribution of livestock for human use Agisting and fattening stock for slaughter-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Pastoralism-Activities associated with the breeding, raising, processing and distribution of livestock for human use cattle-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Accommodation-Activities associated with the provision of accommodation, and particular types of accommodation – does not include architectural styles – use the theme of Creative Endeavour for such activities. Worker's Dwellings-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Accommodation-Activities associated with the provision of accommodation, and particular types of accommodation – does not include architectural styles – use the theme of Creative Endeavour for such activities. Farm homestead-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Accommodation-Activities associated with the provision of accommodation, and particular types of accommodation – does not include architectural styles – use the theme of Creative Endeavour for such activities. Housing farming families-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Accommodation-Activities associated with the provision of accommodation, and particular types of accommodation – does not include architectural styles – use the theme of Creative Endeavour for such activities. Living on the land-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Accommodation-Activities associated with the provision of accommodation, and particular types of accommodation – does not include architectural styles – use the theme of Creative Endeavour for such activities. Pastoral Homestead-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Land tenure-Activities and processes for identifying forms of ownership and occupancy of land and water, both Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal 1820s-1850s land grants-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Land tenure-Activities and processes for identifying forms of ownership and occupancy of land and water, both Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Leasing land for pastoral purposes-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Land tenure-Activities and processes for identifying forms of ownership and occupancy of land and water, both Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Living on the fringes without formal occupancy-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Land tenure-Activities and processes for identifying forms of ownership and occupancy of land and water, both Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Fencing boundaries - wooden post and rail-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Land tenure-Activities and processes for identifying forms of ownership and occupancy of land and water, both Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Resuming private lands for public purposes-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Land tenure-Activities and processes for identifying forms of ownership and occupancy of land and water, both Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Changing land uses - from rural to tourist-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Land tenure-Activities and processes for identifying forms of ownership and occupancy of land and water, both Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Selecting land for pastoral or agricultural purposes-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Land tenure-Activities and processes for identifying forms of ownership and occupancy of land and water, both Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Sub-division of large estates-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Land tenure-Activities and processes for identifying forms of ownership and occupancy of land and water, both Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Early farming (Cattle grazing)-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Towns, suburbs and villages-Activities associated with creating, planning and managing urban functions, landscapes and lifestyles in towns, suburbs and villages Subdivision of rural estates-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Towns, suburbs and villages-Activities associated with creating, planning and managing urban functions, landscapes and lifestyles in towns, suburbs and villages Outlying settlements-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Towns, suburbs and villages-Activities associated with creating, planning and managing urban functions, landscapes and lifestyles in towns, suburbs and villages living in the country-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Towns, suburbs and villages-Activities associated with creating, planning and managing urban functions, landscapes and lifestyles in towns, suburbs and villages Rural Estates-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Towns, suburbs and villages-Activities associated with creating, planning and managing urban functions, landscapes and lifestyles in towns, suburbs and villages A quiet Rural District-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Towns, suburbs and villages-Activities associated with creating, planning and managing urban functions, landscapes and lifestyles in towns, suburbs and villages Shaping inland settlements-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Towns, suburbs and villages-Activities associated with creating, planning and managing urban functions, landscapes and lifestyles in towns, suburbs and villages Vernacular hamlets and settlements-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Towns, suburbs and villages-Activities associated with creating, planning and managing urban functions, landscapes and lifestyles in towns, suburbs and villages Role of transport in settlement-
5. Working-Working Labour-Activities associated with work practises and organised and unorganised labour Working on pastoral stations-
5. Working-Working Labour-Activities associated with work practises and organised and unorganised labour Working independently on the land-
7. Governing-Governing Government and Administration-Activities associated with the governance of local areas, regions, the State and the nation, and the administration of public programs - includes both principled and corrupt activities. State government-
7. Governing-Governing Government and Administration-Activities associated with the governance of local areas, regions, the State and the nation, and the administration of public programs - includes both principled and corrupt activities. Developing roles for government - public land administration-
7. Governing-Governing Government and Administration-Activities associated with the governance of local areas, regions, the State and the nation, and the administration of public programs - includes both principled and corrupt activities. Developing roles for government - conserving cultural and natural heritage-
7. Governing-Governing Government and Administration-Activities associated with the governance of local areas, regions, the State and the nation, and the administration of public programs - includes both principled and corrupt activities. Developing roles for government - facilitating pastoralism-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Creative endeavour-Activities associated with the production and performance of literary, artistic, architectural and other imaginative, interpretive or inventive works; and/or associated with the production and expression of cultural phenomena; and/or environments that have inspired such creative activities. Interior design styles and periods - Victorian-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Creative endeavour-Activities associated with the production and performance of literary, artistic, architectural and other imaginative, interpretive or inventive works; and/or associated with the production and expression of cultural phenomena; and/or environments that have inspired such creative activities. Landscaping - 20th century interwar-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Creative endeavour-Activities associated with the production and performance of literary, artistic, architectural and other imaginative, interpretive or inventive works; and/or associated with the production and expression of cultural phenomena; and/or environments that have inspired such creative activities. Interior design styles and periods - Edwardian-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Creative endeavour-Activities associated with the production and performance of literary, artistic, architectural and other imaginative, interpretive or inventive works; and/or associated with the production and expression of cultural phenomena; and/or environments that have inspired such creative activities. Applying architectural design to utlilitarian structures-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Creative endeavour-Activities associated with the production and performance of literary, artistic, architectural and other imaginative, interpretive or inventive works; and/or associated with the production and expression of cultural phenomena; and/or environments that have inspired such creative activities. Architectural styles and periods - colonial vernacular-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Creative endeavour-Activities associated with the production and performance of literary, artistic, architectural and other imaginative, interpretive or inventive works; and/or associated with the production and expression of cultural phenomena; and/or environments that have inspired such creative activities. Landscaping - Federation period-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Creative endeavour-Activities associated with the production and performance of literary, artistic, architectural and other imaginative, interpretive or inventive works; and/or associated with the production and expression of cultural phenomena; and/or environments that have inspired such creative activities. Architectural styles and periods - colonial homestead-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Creative endeavour-Activities associated with the production and performance of literary, artistic, architectural and other imaginative, interpretive or inventive works; and/or associated with the production and expression of cultural phenomena; and/or environments that have inspired such creative activities. Architectural styles and periods - Victorian (late)-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Creative endeavour-Activities associated with the production and performance of literary, artistic, architectural and other imaginative, interpretive or inventive works; and/or associated with the production and expression of cultural phenomena; and/or environments that have inspired such creative activities. Vernacular structures and building techniques-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Creative endeavour-Activities associated with the production and performance of literary, artistic, architectural and other imaginative, interpretive or inventive works; and/or associated with the production and expression of cultural phenomena; and/or environments that have inspired such creative activities. Building in response to climate - verandahs-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Domestic life-Activities associated with creating, maintaining, living in and working around houses and institutions. Ways of life 1788-1850-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Domestic life-Activities associated with creating, maintaining, living in and working around houses and institutions. Ways of life 1850-1900-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Domestic life-Activities associated with creating, maintaining, living in and working around houses and institutions. Ways of life 1900-1950-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Domestic life-Activities associated with creating, maintaining, living in and working around houses and institutions. Ways of life 1950-2000-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Domestic life-Activities associated with creating, maintaining, living in and working around houses and institutions. Living in a rural homestead-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Domestic life-Activities associated with creating, maintaining, living in and working around houses and institutions. Living in, adapting and renovating homes for changing conditions-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Domestic life-Activities associated with creating, maintaining, living in and working around houses and institutions. Living in a bushland setting-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Domestic life-Activities associated with creating, maintaining, living in and working around houses and institutions. Valuing women's contributions-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Domestic life-Activities associated with creating, maintaining, living in and working around houses and institutions. Physical evidence of creating, maintaining, living in and working around houses, through domestic artefacts scatters, ar-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Leisure-Activities associated with recreation and relaxation Gardening-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Leisure-Activities associated with recreation and relaxation Visiting heritage places-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Leisure-Activities associated with recreation and relaxation Tourism-
9. Phases of Life-Marking the phases of life Persons-Activities of, and associations with, identifiable individuals, families and communal groups Associations with Captain George Jobling, grazier-
9. Phases of Life-Marking the phases of life Persons-Activities of, and associations with, identifiable individuals, families and communal groups Associations with Joe Fitzgerald, grazier-
9. Phases of Life-Marking the phases of life Persons-Activities of, and associations with, identifiable individuals, families and communal groups Associations with Alec McDonell, grazier-

Assessment of significance

SHR Criteria a)
[Historical significance]
Kunderang East Station is historically significant because when established in c.1841 as Cunderang it was one of the earliest on the Macleay River. Its history demonstrates the major processes of early Eurpoean settlement. The existing cedar homestead provides tangible evidence of natural resource exploitation. By the 1840s, cedar had almost disappeared from the northern rivers, that the main house at Kunderang could have been built entirely of cedar in 1892 is testament to its remoteness and inaccessability. The number of massacres that occured in the area of Kunderang East were a tragic consequence of the dispossession experienced by Aboriginies. Kunderang East has an historical association with prominent persons involved in early settlement including Major A.C Innes, commandant of the penal colony of Port Maquarie who was a business associates of its first owner Captain George Jobling (Ashley 1988: 14).
SHR Criteria c)
[Aesthetic significance]
The historic landscape of cleared grassed paddocks surrounding the homestead, ringed by massive mountain ranges is significant because it has changed little since it was the site of the first station huts in c.1841and reflects the isolation that occured historically. The colour and warmth of large areas of red cedar and other unpainted timbers, create an internal ambiance of rare quality. The homestead is architecturally significant as the only known pit sawn Australian red cedar plank house constructed as late as 1892. It is the only one surviving on the coast of New South Wales.(Ashley 1991: 13-15).
SHR Criteria d)
[Social significance]
Kunderang East has special significance for Aboriginal people as the site of many massacres, a result of the dispossession experienced by Aboriginies. It also provides tangible evidence of the major contribution that Aboriginal men and women made to the pastoral industry and of the labour arrangements made between the property manager and particular Aboriginal families to supply labour. The homestead also has broader significance for what it demonstrates about changing social customs and multi functional use. (Ashley 1991: 15) Some aspects of Kunderang's history imbue it with cultural significance at least at a state level. The two Aboriginal massacres knowwn to have occured on Kunderang give this place special significance to Aboriginal people and can be considered therefore to have cultural significance on a state level. (Ashley 1991: 15)
SHR Criteria f)
[Rarity]
Kunderang East is rare in it aesthetic and historic values.
Integrity/Intactness: The homestead is largely intact. The cultural landscape in which the structures are situated remains an intact record of changing landuse, retaining many of its original features.
Assessment criteria: Items are assessed against the PDF State Heritage Register (SHR) Criteria to determine the level of significance. Refer to the Listings below for the level of statutory protection.

Recommended management:

Recommendations

Management CategoryDescriptionDate Updated
Recommended ManagementReview a Conservation Management Plan (CMP) 
Recommended ManagementCarry out an Archaeological Assessment 
Recommended ManagementPrepare a maintenance schedule or guidelines 
Recommended ManagementDocument and prepare an archival record 
Recommended ManagementCarry out interpretation, promotion and/or education 

Procedures /Exemptions

Section of actDescriptionTitleCommentsAction date
57(2)Exemption to allow workStandard Exemptions SCHEDULE OF STANDARD EXEMPTIONS
HERITAGE ACT 1977
Notice of Order Under Section 57 (2) of the Heritage Act 1977

I, the Minister for Planning, pursuant to subsection 57(2) of the Heritage Act 1977, on the recommendation of the Heritage Council of New South Wales, do by this Order:

1. revoke the Schedule of Exemptions to subsection 57(1) of the Heritage Act made under subsection 57(2) and published in the Government Gazette on 22 February 2008; and

2. grant standard exemptions from subsection 57(1) of the Heritage Act 1977, described in the Schedule attached.

FRANK SARTOR
Minister for Planning
Sydney, 11 July 2008

To view the schedule click on the Standard Exemptions for Works Requiring Heritage Council Approval link below.
Sep 5 2008

PDF Standard exemptions for works requiring Heritage Council approval

Listings

Heritage ListingListing TitleListing NumberGazette DateGazette NumberGazette Page
Heritage Act - State Heritage Register 0099602 Apr 99 271546
Heritage Act - s.170 NSW State agency heritage register     
National Parks and Wildlife Register  01 Mar 89   
National Trust of Australia register NTA (NSW) Country Register365411 Feb 74   
Register of the National EstateKunderang proposed Nature Reserve (fmr.)30221 Mar 78   

Study details

TitleYearNumberAuthorInspected byGuidelines used
National Parks & Wildlife Service Section 170 Register  National Parks & Wildlife Service  No

References, internet links & images

TypeAuthorYearTitleInternet Links
WrittenAshley, Geoff1991Oxley Wild Rivers National Park Kunderang East Pastoral Station: Draft Conservation Plan
TourismNPWS Kunderang East Pastoral Station View detail
WrittenNSW National Parks & Wildlife Service1993National Parks & Wildlife Service Kunderang Homestead, Oxley Wild Rivers National Park / Heritage Properties Restoration Program
WrittenShepperd, et al.2004Kunderang East Conservation Management Plan
WrittenThomas, Piers & Lawrance, Caroline2016Statement of Heritage Impact - Kunderang East Homestead - replacement of verandah boards, restoration of fence and extension of verandah, paving and roof line of kitchen
TourismTourism NSW2007East Kunderang Homestead View detail

Note: internet links may be to web pages, documents or images.

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(Click on thumbnail for full size image and image details)

Data source

The information for this entry comes from the following source:
Name: Heritage Office
Database number: 5051459
File number: EF14/4327


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