Hill End Historic Site | NSW Environment & Heritage

Culture and heritage

Heritage

Hill End Historic Site

Item details

Name of item: Hill End Historic Site
Type of item: Conservation Area
Group/Collection: Urban Area
Category: Townscape
Location: Lat: -33.0334121411 Long: 149.4166682800
Primary address: , Hill End, NSW 2850
Local govt. area: Bathurst Regional
Local Aboriginal Land Council: Orange
All addresses
Street AddressSuburb/townLGAParishCountyType
 Hill EndBathurst Regional  Primary Address

Owner/s

Organisation NameOwner CategoryDate Ownership Updated
Office of Environment and HeritageState Government26 Nov 98

Statement of significance:

Hill End is a place of national cultural significance due to its aesthetic, historic, scientific and social value to past, present and future generations of Australians. From the period of its settlement and principal development in the 1870s, Hill End retains a unique collection of buildings, relics, artefacts, structures, archaeological sites and landscape elements which are, individually and collectively, of outstanding architectural, aesthetic and research value. The village is set along a gold bearing quartz seam within a tablelands landscape of rolling hills, accentuating the feelings of peaceful isolation. From the hectic goldrush era and subsequent years of decline, to the period of NPWS intervention, the village, buildings, vacant sites and gardens continue to reflect the social and economic forces which continue its survival (NPWS, 1988: 13)
Date significance updated: 08 May 02
Note: The State Heritage Inventory provides information about heritage items listed by local and State government agencies. The State Heritage Inventory is continually being updated by local and State agencies as new information becomes available. Read the OEH copyright and disclaimer.

Description

Designer/Maker: Various
Builder/Maker: Various
Construction years: 1851-
Physical description: Hill End Historic Site is situated approximately 300km north-west of Sydney and 80km north of Bathurst. It lies mostly within Evans Shire near its northern boundary with Mudgee Shire.

The historic site consists of approximately 130ha of land within the village of Hill End, including two outlying areas of land: Valentine's Mine and the Roasting Pits.

Hill End Historic Site [3902007] contains the following elements: English Group, Bennett House, District Hospital, Jeffree/Warry House, Craigmoor, Murray House, CWA House, Royal Hall, Royal Hotel, General Store, General Store Sheds, Piesley House, Bakehouse, Rose Cottage, Rectory buildings, Heap/Adler House, Woolard House, Krohmann-Ackerman Cottage, Northey's Store, Lyle House, Risby House, Hosie's House, Telegram Office, Hocking House, Holtermann's House, Beyer House, Mobb House, Great Western Store, Fry's Hut, Bryant's Butchery, Assay Office, Haefliger House, Post Office, Bleak House, Fairfax House, Denman House, Denman House shed, Catholic Church, the Manse, Carver House, Bald Hill Mine, Pullen's Battery, Chappell's Battery , Quartz Roasting Pits and Valentine's Mine.

The Valentine Mine comprises a series of shafts, a large tailings dump, trolley way, boiler block, battery house, ten head battery, explosives shed, battery sand flow, cyanide tanks, water tank stand, blacksmiths shop, managers residence, horse paddock and large dam. There are also building mounds and a rubbish dump.

The Quartz Roasting Pits are located approximately 10 km north of Hill End and comprises a pair of inverted bell shaped kilns, a battery building, a dam and the remains of two houses. It represents one of the oldest surviving gold extraction sites surviving in Australia.
Physical condition and/or
Archaeological potential:
Physical Condition and Archaeological Potential vary.
Date condition updated:02 Oct 97
Modifications and dates: Modification dates vary.
Current use: rural township, tourism
Former use: Aboriginal land, farm, Gold rush mines and township

History

Historical notes: Prior to c. 1820, when the country around Hill End was settled by pastoralists such as George Suttor and Cummings who ran sheep and cattle, it was the home of the Wiradjuri Aboriginal people.

Payable gold was discovered in the Tambaroora and Hill End goldfields by mid 1851, following discoveries in the region in previous months. Shortly afterwards the population exploded and, for a while, the area exceeded the Victorian fields in size and prosperity. Early efforts were focussed on alluvial gold and the towns of Hill End and Tambaroora grew up around the creeks and dams worked for that purpose. In 1859, with the imposition of an urban plan for Hill End, the town grew in a more orderly fashion and by the height of the second, larger rush in 1872, it was the largest inland settlement in the colony of New South Wales.

After German prospector Bernhardt Holtermann discovered a 286kg gold mass in Hawkins Hill, on the edge of town, the largest sample of reef gold ever found, his huge 'nugget' attracted fortune hunters from Europe, the USA and Australia to the then small town. The influx of tens of thousands to Hill End and its surrounds turned the town into a thriving settlement, complete with 28 hotels, stock exchange, an opium den and an oyster bar. Hill End became home to what was thought to be the richest quarter mile in the world. Quartz veins thick with gold were followed up to 600m across, and alluvial gold initially seemed easy pickings for miners heading to the banks of the Turon River (Russo, 2016, 86).

The discovery of alluvial gold, readily recoverable from the clay beds of creeks and dams, brought large numbers of individual, inexperienced prospectors to the Tambaroora area. The inexpensive and often simplistic equipment needed to extract the gold was well suited to both the skills and capital such individuals possessed. A good living could be made by the self-employed miner. This ensured an ever-changing stream of immigrants and locals moving in and out of the goldfields from the cities. Few miners remained to settle in the areas where they made their fortune, a tendency indicated by the small percentage of families present on many of the major fields and the sharp falls in population during times of drought or when the gold supply itself began to run out . By the late 1860s reef exploitation had emerged as the most popular and profitable method of mining, acting as the catalyst for the second, larger gold rush of the 1870s, when Hill End reached its peak in size and prosperity (NPWS 1997: 13-15).

The heady years were short-lived. Just two years later (1874), the major mines closed down and those who stayed were hunting for alluvial gold or working in old reefs. At the turn of the century (1900), only 500 people remained, hanging on by panning for gold and living off the land (ibid, 2016, 86).

By 1947 the town had been all but forgotten, when an article appeared in the 'Sydney Morning Herald'. Sydney-born artist Donald Friend spotted the piece, reading 'the country is pitted with diggings that twist and burrow like the trenches of some old battlefield'. He was intrigued and convinced his friend, painter Russell Drysdale to drive the untamed roads west. They were both enamoured by the decaying town and its neighbour Sofala, 25km to the east, with Drysdale working on emotionally charged landscapes with a frenzied energy. Friend's was a slower process of art-making - but it was he who bought a cottage in the town that same year. He lived there with his partner, Donald Murray, for whom the cottage is now named. Other painters soon followed, lured by the richness of the history and landscape and the unique Australia they saw in their colleagues' work. By the late 1950s Hill End was revered as a central force in Australian art, with John Olsen, Brett Whiteley, Jean Bellette, Margaret Olley and JOhn Firth-Smith all making the pilgrimmage west (ibid, 2016, 86-87).

Public interest in Hill End resumed in the 1940s due largely to the work of artists including Friend and Drysdale. The discovery in the 1950s of hundreds of photographic plates depicting scenes and buildings in the Hill End in the early 1870s captured by Beufoy Merlin, further boosted interest along with the extensive Holtermann photographic collection.

The town was gazetted as an historic site under the National Parks and Wildlife Act in 1967.

Today the population stands at about one hundred and twenty, a stark contrast from the estimated 8,000 during its peak.

Today the contemporary art scene in Hill End is just as strong (as the 1950s). Luke Sciberras, an acclaimed landscape painter who has lived in the village for more than a decade, attributes this to a 'tremendous momentum that has been found here'. The list of artists he cites as regular visitors sounds like a roll-call of some of Australia's best contemporary painters: Euan Macleod, Guy Maestri, Ben Quilty and Laura Jones, to name a few (ibid, 2016, 87).

Bathurst Regional Art Gallery has a one-month artist's residency at Hill End, a programme they have run since 1995, which has meant that hundreds of artists from all over the world have lived here, even if just for a short while (ibid, 2016, 87).

Historic themes

Australian theme (abbrev)New South Wales themeLocal theme
1. Environment-Tracing the evolution of a continent's special environments Environment - naturally evolved-Activities associated with the physical surroundings that support human life and influence or shape human cultures. Other open space-
1. Environment-Tracing the evolution of a continent's special environments Environment - naturally evolved-Activities associated with the physical surroundings that support human life and influence or shape human cultures. Changing the environment-
1. Environment-Tracing the evolution of a continent's special environments Environment - naturally evolved-Activities associated with the physical surroundings that support human life and influence or shape human cultures. Cultural: Conserving and protecting natural features-
1. Environment-Tracing the evolution of a continent's special environments Environment - naturally evolved-Activities associated with the physical surroundings that support human life and influence or shape human cultures. Cultural: Plains and plateaux supporting human activities-
1. Environment-Tracing the evolution of a continent's special environments Environment - naturally evolved-Activities associated with the physical surroundings that support human life and influence or shape human cultures. Cultural: Geological evidence of the history of the Earth-
1. Environment-Tracing the evolution of a continent's special environments Environment - naturally evolved-Activities associated with the physical surroundings that support human life and influence or shape human cultures. Modification of terrain-
1. Environment-Tracing the evolution of a continent's special environments Environment - naturally evolved-Activities associated with the physical surroundings that support human life and influence or shape human cultures. Introduce cultural planting-
2. Peopling-Peopling the continent Aboriginal cultures and interactions with other cultures-Activities associated with maintaining, developing, experiencing and remembering Aboriginal cultural identities and practices, past and present. All nations - places of battle or other early interactions between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal peoples-
2. Peopling-Peopling the continent Aboriginal cultures and interactions with other cultures-Activities associated with maintaining, developing, experiencing and remembering Aboriginal cultural identities and practices, past and present. Wiradjuri Nation - working for pastoralists-
2. Peopling-Peopling the continent Ethnic influences-Activities associated with common cultural traditions and peoples of shared descent, and with exchanges between such traditions and peoples. Segregating people on the basis of ethnicity-
2. Peopling-Peopling the continent Ethnic influences-Activities associated with common cultural traditions and peoples of shared descent, and with exchanges between such traditions and peoples. Cornish mining practises-
2. Peopling-Peopling the continent Migration-Activities and processes associated with the resettling of people from one place to another (international, interstate, intrastate) and the impacts of such movements Developing Greek settlements-
2. Peopling-Peopling the continent Migration-Activities and processes associated with the resettling of people from one place to another (international, interstate, intrastate) and the impacts of such movements Developing German settlements-
2. Peopling-Peopling the continent Migration-Activities and processes associated with the resettling of people from one place to another (international, interstate, intrastate) and the impacts of such movements Developing Chinese settlements-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Environment - cultural landscape-Activities associated with the interactions between humans, human societies and the shaping of their physical surroundings Significant Places How are significant places marked in the landscape by, or for, different groups-Monuments and Sites
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Environment - cultural landscape-Activities associated with the interactions between humans, human societies and the shaping of their physical surroundings Developing local, regional and national economies-National Theme 3
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Environment - cultural landscape-Activities associated with the interactions between humans, human societies and the shaping of their physical surroundings Landscapes of cultural and natural interaction-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Environment - cultural landscape-Activities associated with the interactions between humans, human societies and the shaping of their physical surroundings Landscapes of urban amenity-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Environment - cultural landscape-Activities associated with the interactions between humans, human societies and the shaping of their physical surroundings Landscapes of mining-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Environment - cultural landscape-Activities associated with the interactions between humans, human societies and the shaping of their physical surroundings Landscapes and gardens of domestic accommodation-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Environment - cultural landscape-Activities associated with the interactions between humans, human societies and the shaping of their physical surroundings Places important in developing conservation processes-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Environment - cultural landscape-Activities associated with the interactions between humans, human societies and the shaping of their physical surroundings Landscapes and countryside of rural charm-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Environment - cultural landscape-Activities associated with the interactions between humans, human societies and the shaping of their physical surroundings Landscapes demonstrating styles in landscape design-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Events-Activities and processes that mark the consequences of natural and cultural occurences Developing national landmarks-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Events-Activities and processes that mark the consequences of natural and cultural occurences Marking origins of major industries-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Mining-Activities associated with the identification, extraction, processing and distribution of mineral ores, precious stones and other such inorganic substances. miner's cottage-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Mining-Activities associated with the identification, extraction, processing and distribution of mineral ores, precious stones and other such inorganic substances. Mining for gold-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Mining-Activities associated with the identification, extraction, processing and distribution of mineral ores, precious stones and other such inorganic substances. Miners' accommodation and living conditions-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Accommodation-Activities associated with the provision of accommodation, and particular types of accommodation – does not include architectural styles – use the theme of Creative Endeavour for such activities. Worker's Dwellings-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Accommodation-Activities associated with the provision of accommodation, and particular types of accommodation – does not include architectural styles – use the theme of Creative Endeavour for such activities. Building settlements, towns and cities-National Theme 4
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Accommodation-Activities associated with the provision of accommodation, and particular types of accommodation – does not include architectural styles – use the theme of Creative Endeavour for such activities. Accommodating travellers and tourists-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Accommodation-Activities associated with the provision of accommodation, and particular types of accommodation – does not include architectural styles – use the theme of Creative Endeavour for such activities. Holidaying in shacks, huts and cabins-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Accommodation-Activities associated with the provision of accommodation, and particular types of accommodation – does not include architectural styles – use the theme of Creative Endeavour for such activities. Hotel accommodation-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Accommodation-Activities associated with the provision of accommodation, and particular types of accommodation – does not include architectural styles – use the theme of Creative Endeavour for such activities. early settlement or worker's cottage-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Accommodation-Activities associated with the provision of accommodation, and particular types of accommodation – does not include architectural styles – use the theme of Creative Endeavour for such activities. Adapted heritage building or structure-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Accommodation-Activities associated with the provision of accommodation, and particular types of accommodation – does not include architectural styles – use the theme of Creative Endeavour for such activities. Crude huts-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Land tenure-Activities and processes for identifying forms of ownership and occupancy of land and water, both Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Post and rail fencing-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Land tenure-Activities and processes for identifying forms of ownership and occupancy of land and water, both Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Fencing boundaries - wooden post and rail-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Land tenure-Activities and processes for identifying forms of ownership and occupancy of land and water, both Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Granting Crown lands for private farming-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Land tenure-Activities and processes for identifying forms of ownership and occupancy of land and water, both Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Changing land uses - from rural to tourist-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Land tenure-Activities and processes for identifying forms of ownership and occupancy of land and water, both Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Leasing land for pastoral purposes-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Land tenure-Activities and processes for identifying forms of ownership and occupancy of land and water, both Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Leasing land for mining-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Land tenure-Activities and processes for identifying forms of ownership and occupancy of land and water, both Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Townships-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Land tenure-Activities and processes for identifying forms of ownership and occupancy of land and water, both Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Fencing boundaries - wrought or cast iron fencing-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Towns, suburbs and villages-Activities associated with creating, planning and managing urban functions, landscapes and lifestyles in towns, suburbs and villages 19th century suburban developments-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Towns, suburbs and villages-Activities associated with creating, planning and managing urban functions, landscapes and lifestyles in towns, suburbs and villages Subdivision of rural estates-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Towns, suburbs and villages-Activities associated with creating, planning and managing urban functions, landscapes and lifestyles in towns, suburbs and villages 19th Century Infrastructure-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Towns, suburbs and villages-Activities associated with creating, planning and managing urban functions, landscapes and lifestyles in towns, suburbs and villages living in the country-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Towns, suburbs and villages-Activities associated with creating, planning and managing urban functions, landscapes and lifestyles in towns, suburbs and villages Garden-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Towns, suburbs and villages-Activities associated with creating, planning and managing urban functions, landscapes and lifestyles in towns, suburbs and villages A Picturesque Residential District-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Towns, suburbs and villages-Activities associated with creating, planning and managing urban functions, landscapes and lifestyles in towns, suburbs and villages Rural Estates-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Towns, suburbs and villages-Activities associated with creating, planning and managing urban functions, landscapes and lifestyles in towns, suburbs and villages Roadside Villages-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Towns, suburbs and villages-Activities associated with creating, planning and managing urban functions, landscapes and lifestyles in towns, suburbs and villages Artists settlement and networks-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Towns, suburbs and villages-Activities associated with creating, planning and managing urban functions, landscapes and lifestyles in towns, suburbs and villages A quiet Rural District-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Towns, suburbs and villages-Activities associated with creating, planning and managing urban functions, landscapes and lifestyles in towns, suburbs and villages Developing the social life of a rural community-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Towns, suburbs and villages-Activities associated with creating, planning and managing urban functions, landscapes and lifestyles in towns, suburbs and villages Developing private towns-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Towns, suburbs and villages-Activities associated with creating, planning and managing urban functions, landscapes and lifestyles in towns, suburbs and villages Decentralising metropolitan activities to provincial cities-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Towns, suburbs and villages-Activities associated with creating, planning and managing urban functions, landscapes and lifestyles in towns, suburbs and villages Vernacular towns serving a specific industry-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Towns, suburbs and villages-Activities associated with creating, planning and managing urban functions, landscapes and lifestyles in towns, suburbs and villages Vernacular towns serving a specific industry-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Towns, suburbs and villages-Activities associated with creating, planning and managing urban functions, landscapes and lifestyles in towns, suburbs and villages Vernacular hamlets and settlements-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Towns, suburbs and villages-Activities associated with creating, planning and managing urban functions, landscapes and lifestyles in towns, suburbs and villages Villages-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Towns, suburbs and villages-Activities associated with creating, planning and managing urban functions, landscapes and lifestyles in towns, suburbs and villages local government-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Towns, suburbs and villages-Activities associated with creating, planning and managing urban functions, landscapes and lifestyles in towns, suburbs and villages Shaping inland settlements-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Towns, suburbs and villages-Activities associated with creating, planning and managing urban functions, landscapes and lifestyles in towns, suburbs and villages Creating landmark structures and places in regional settings-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Towns, suburbs and villages-Activities associated with creating, planning and managing urban functions, landscapes and lifestyles in towns, suburbs and villages Urban landscapes inspiring creative responses-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Towns, suburbs and villages-Activities associated with creating, planning and managing urban functions, landscapes and lifestyles in towns, suburbs and villages Rural orchards-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Towns, suburbs and villages-Activities associated with creating, planning and managing urban functions, landscapes and lifestyles in towns, suburbs and villages Role of transport in settlement-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Utilities-Activities associated with the provision of services, especially on a communal basis Examples of early water and sanitation systems (wells and cess pits)-
5. Working-Working Labour-Activities associated with work practises and organised and unorganised labour Working in mines and quarries-
5. Working-Working Labour-Activities associated with work practises and organised and unorganised labour Working independently on the land-
7. Governing-Governing Government and Administration-Activities associated with the governance of local areas, regions, the State and the nation, and the administration of public programs - includes both principled and corrupt activities. State government-
7. Governing-Governing Government and Administration-Activities associated with the governance of local areas, regions, the State and the nation, and the administration of public programs - includes both principled and corrupt activities. Local government-
7. Governing-Governing Government and Administration-Activities associated with the governance of local areas, regions, the State and the nation, and the administration of public programs - includes both principled and corrupt activities. Developing roles for government - conserving cultural and natural heritage-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Creative endeavour-Activities associated with the production and performance of literary, artistic, architectural and other imaginative, interpretive or inventive works; and/or associated with the production and expression of cultural phenomena; and/or environments that have inspired such creative activities. Developing cultural institutions and ways of life-National Theme 8
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Creative endeavour-Activities associated with the production and performance of literary, artistic, architectural and other imaginative, interpretive or inventive works; and/or associated with the production and expression of cultural phenomena; and/or environments that have inspired such creative activities. Architectural styles and periods - colonial vernacular-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Creative endeavour-Activities associated with the production and performance of literary, artistic, architectural and other imaginative, interpretive or inventive works; and/or associated with the production and expression of cultural phenomena; and/or environments that have inspired such creative activities. Applying architectural design to utlilitarian structures-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Creative endeavour-Activities associated with the production and performance of literary, artistic, architectural and other imaginative, interpretive or inventive works; and/or associated with the production and expression of cultural phenomena; and/or environments that have inspired such creative activities. Capturing iconic landscapes in art-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Creative endeavour-Activities associated with the production and performance of literary, artistic, architectural and other imaginative, interpretive or inventive works; and/or associated with the production and expression of cultural phenomena; and/or environments that have inspired such creative activities. Architectural styles and periods - Victorian (early)-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Creative endeavour-Activities associated with the production and performance of literary, artistic, architectural and other imaginative, interpretive or inventive works; and/or associated with the production and expression of cultural phenomena; and/or environments that have inspired such creative activities. Artists, bohemians and intellectuals squat or gathering point-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Creative endeavour-Activities associated with the production and performance of literary, artistic, architectural and other imaginative, interpretive or inventive works; and/or associated with the production and expression of cultural phenomena; and/or environments that have inspired such creative activities. Architectural styles and periods - colonial homestead-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Creative endeavour-Activities associated with the production and performance of literary, artistic, architectural and other imaginative, interpretive or inventive works; and/or associated with the production and expression of cultural phenomena; and/or environments that have inspired such creative activities. Building and using prefabricated structures-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Creative endeavour-Activities associated with the production and performance of literary, artistic, architectural and other imaginative, interpretive or inventive works; and/or associated with the production and expression of cultural phenomena; and/or environments that have inspired such creative activities. Interior design styles and periods - Victorian-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Creative endeavour-Activities associated with the production and performance of literary, artistic, architectural and other imaginative, interpretive or inventive works; and/or associated with the production and expression of cultural phenomena; and/or environments that have inspired such creative activities. Interior design styles and periods - Colonial-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Creative endeavour-Activities associated with the production and performance of literary, artistic, architectural and other imaginative, interpretive or inventive works; and/or associated with the production and expression of cultural phenomena; and/or environments that have inspired such creative activities. Landscaping - neglected, regenerating to bushland-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Creative endeavour-Activities associated with the production and performance of literary, artistic, architectural and other imaginative, interpretive or inventive works; and/or associated with the production and expression of cultural phenomena; and/or environments that have inspired such creative activities. Building in response to climate - verandahs-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Creative endeavour-Activities associated with the production and performance of literary, artistic, architectural and other imaginative, interpretive or inventive works; and/or associated with the production and expression of cultural phenomena; and/or environments that have inspired such creative activities. Creating works of art-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Domestic life-Activities associated with creating, maintaining, living in and working around houses and institutions. Ways of life 1850-1900-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Domestic life-Activities associated with creating, maintaining, living in and working around houses and institutions. Ways of life 1900-1950-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Domestic life-Activities associated with creating, maintaining, living in and working around houses and institutions. Ways of life 1950-2000-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Domestic life-Activities associated with creating, maintaining, living in and working around houses and institutions. Ornamental Garden-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Domestic life-Activities associated with creating, maintaining, living in and working around houses and institutions. Living in a bushland setting-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Domestic life-Activities associated with creating, maintaining, living in and working around houses and institutions. Living in make-shift accommodation-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Domestic life-Activities associated with creating, maintaining, living in and working around houses and institutions. Valuing women's contributions-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Domestic life-Activities associated with creating, maintaining, living in and working around houses and institutions. Living in a rural homestead-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Domestic life-Activities associated with creating, maintaining, living in and working around houses and institutions. Living and working at home-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Domestic life-Activities associated with creating, maintaining, living in and working around houses and institutions. Living in, adapting and renovating homes for changing conditions-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Leisure-Activities associated with recreation and relaxation Visiting heritage places-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Leisure-Activities associated with recreation and relaxation Gardening-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Leisure-Activities associated with recreation and relaxation Developing collections of items-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Leisure-Activities associated with recreation and relaxation Bush ballads-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Leisure-Activities associated with recreation and relaxation Gathering at landmark places to socialise-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Leisure-Activities associated with recreation and relaxation Going to the pub-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Leisure-Activities associated with recreation and relaxation Going to an art gallery-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Social institutions-Activities and organisational arrangements for the provision of social activities Community volunteering-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Social institutions-Activities and organisational arrangements for the provision of social activities Community enterprise-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Social institutions-Activities and organisational arrangements for the provision of social activities Places of informal community gatherings-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Social institutions-Activities and organisational arrangements for the provision of social activities Developing and maintaining a local art gallery-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Social institutions-Activities and organisational arrangements for the provision of social activities Belonging to an historical society or heritage organisation-

Assessment of significance

SHR Criteria a)
[Historical significance]
Hill End is of outstanding historical value. It retains significant physical evidence of its history in its groups of early timber, earth and brick buildings within settings of remnant garden and orchard plantings. Surrounding the village core is an historic landscape full of the evidence of mining activity. The fabric of the village has been relatively undisturbed since the turn of the century. (NPWS 1988:11)
The township and surrounding goldfields were the site of the first reef mining in Australia.
SHR Criteria c)
[Aesthetic significance]
Hill End's elevated setting above the Turon Valley, combined with its ensemble of 19th century buildings and ruins, presents an environment of contained, peaceful isolation. Many landforms and features remain the same as they were when the gold rushes ceased and are all evocative of the frenzied activity and excitement of the rush period. Remnants of the gardens, orchards, and street plantings have survived and matured to picturesquely complement the remaining structures of the village. This combination of picket fences, ruins, surviving buildings etc., has been of continuing inspiration to many noted Australian artists. Many of the buildings contain original interior finishes, furnishings and artefacts which are of outstanding importance and together comprise a collection with few rivals. Other structures are of interest for the way in which they show the evolution in building conservation practice and philosophy in New South Wales (NPWS 1988: 11).
SHR Criteria d)
[Social significance]
Hill End is a dynamic, living entity. The history of the village and its current interpretation and management are of particular significance to the present Hill End community, many of whom proudly trace their ancestry to the original miners and villagers.

As social documents, the buildings, individually and collectively, reveal the life of the town. The often original interiors, artefacts and gardens suggest the daily life and aspirations of their inhabitants (NPWS 1988: 12).
SHR Criteria e)
[Research potential]
Hill End is a site of extraordinary scientific value to research in such fields as historical archaeology, architectural history, landscape history, social and engineering history. Virtually every site from Tambaroora in the north to Hawkins Hill in the south can yield valuable scientific information, in particular the evolution of mining techniques and building styles. The site provides a remarkable recreational, interpretative and educational resource for present and future generations. (NPWS 1988: 12).
SHR Criteria f)
[Rarity]
Hill End Historic Site is extremely rare in its historic, technical and aesthetic significance.
Integrity/Intactness: Many of the sturctures retain their original fabric and are in good condition. The archaeological resource is excellent.
Assessment criteria: Items are assessed against the PDF State Heritage Register (SHR) Criteria to determine the level of significance. Refer to the Listings below for the level of statutory protection.

Procedures /Exemptions

Section of actDescriptionTitleCommentsAction date
21(1)(b)Conservation Plan submitted for endorsementCraigmoor-Marshall House CMP CMP is for an element (Craigmoor) of the whole item (Hill End Historic Site) - CMP endorsed by Heritage Council 4 February 2000 for a period of five years, expires 4 February 2005. Feb 4 2000
21(1)(b)Conservation Plan submitted for endorsementEnglish Cottage CMP CMP is for an element (English Cottage) of the whole item item (Hill End Historic Site) - CMP endorsed by Heritage Council 21 November 2000 for a period of five years, expires 21 November 2005. Nov 21 2000
21(1)(b)Conservation Plan submitted for endorsementHoltermann's Corner Buildings CMP This CMP is for an element (Holtermann's Cnr Bld) of the item (Hill End Historic Site) - CMP endorsed by Heritage Council 5 June 2002 for a period of five years, expires 5 June 2007. Jun 5 2002
21(1)(b)Conservation Plan submitted for endorsementDenman's Cottage CMP This CMP is for an element (Denmans Cottage) of the whole item (Hill End Historic Site) - CMP endorsed by Heritage Council 5 June 2002 for a period of five years, expires 5 June 2007. Jun 5 2002
21(1)(b)Conservation Plan submitted for endorsementAthol CMP CMP is for an element (Athol) of the whole item item (Hill End Historic Site) - CMP endorsed by Heritage Council 27 June 2003 for a period of five years, expires 27 June 2008. Jun 27 2003
21(1)(b)Conservation Plan submitted for endorsementGeneral Store and Bakery CMP Hill End Historic Site CMP is for an element (General Store & Bakery) of the whole item item (Hill End Historic Site) - CMP endorsed by Heritage Council 27 June 2003 for a period of five years, expires 27 June 2008. Jun 27 2003
57(2)Exemption to allow workStandard Exemptions SCHEDULE OF STANDARD EXEMPTIONS
HERITAGE ACT 1977
Notice of Order Under Section 57 (2) of the Heritage Act 1977

I, the Minister for Planning, pursuant to subsection 57(2) of the Heritage Act 1977, on the recommendation of the Heritage Council of New South Wales, do by this Order:

1. revoke the Schedule of Exemptions to subsection 57(1) of the Heritage Act made under subsection 57(2) and published in the Government Gazette on 22 February 2008; and

2. grant standard exemptions from subsection 57(1) of the Heritage Act 1977, described in the Schedule attached.

FRANK SARTOR
Minister for Planning
Sydney, 11 July 2008

To view the schedule click on the Standard Exemptions for Works Requiring Heritage Council Approval link below.
Sep 5 2008
21(1)(b)Conservation Plan submitted for commentSubmission of Hill End Conservation Management Plan (August 2012) by NPWS for endorsement by Heritage Council. Oct 8 2012
21(1)(b)Conservation Plan submitted for endorsementHill End Historic Site Conservation Management Plan dated November 2012 submitted by Office of Environment & Heritage (National Parks) to the Heritage Council for endorsement. Dec 5 2012

PDF Standard exemptions for works requiring Heritage Council approval

Listings

Heritage ListingListing TitleListing NumberGazette DateGazette NumberGazette Page
Heritage Act - State Heritage RegisterHill End historic site0099302 Apr 99 271546
Heritage Act - s.170 NSW State agency heritage register     
Local Environmental PlanHill End Conservation AreaC3   
National Parks and Wildlife Register  01 Jan 67   
Potential Heritage ItemA 24 Apr 02   
National Trust of Australia register Hill End Urban Conservation Area290531 May 76   

Study details

TitleYearNumberAuthorInspected byGuidelines used
National Parks & Wildlife Service Section 170 Register  National Parks & Wildlife Service  No

References, internet links & images

TypeAuthorYearTitleInternet Links
WrittenAllan Mayne2006Hill End: An Historic Australian Goldfields Landscape
WrittenDamaris Bairstow1999Hill End historic site : historical archaeological survey
WrittenDonald Friend Hillendiana
WrittenGavin Wilson The Artists of Hill End
WrittenGraham Brooks and Associates.;Rodney Jensen and Associates;Taylor Brammer Landscape Architects2003 NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service.; Hill End Historic Site: Draft Master Plan for public exhibition, September 2003
WrittenHarry Hodge1986Hill End story: a history of the Hill End-Tambaroora Goldfield. Book 1
WrittenLester Tropman & Associates Pty Ltd & Craig Burton1991Hill End historic landscapes and gardens study
TourismNational Parks and Wildlife Service2006Hill End Historic Site View detail
WrittenNSW National Parks and Wildlife Service1997Quartz Roasting Pits Complex: Conservation and Interpretation Plan
WrittenNSW National Parks and Wildlife Service1988Hill End historic site : draft plan of management
WrittenNSW National Parks and Wildlife Service1985Hill End Historic Site: Draft Plan of Management
WrittenRobert A. Moore Pty Ltd and Penelope Pike1990Draft development control plan for Hill End
WrittenRose Deco Planning & Design P/L2006Cross' Property Hill End: Conservation Management Strategy
WrittenRose Deco Planning & Design P/L2006Holman's Orchard, Hill End: Conservation Management Strategy
WrittenRose Deco Planning & Design P/L2006Wilard's Orchard, Hill End: Conservation Management Strategy
WrittenRusso, Naomi2016'Art of Gold'
TourismVisit NSW2007Hill End View detail

Note: internet links may be to web pages, documents or images.

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(Click on thumbnail for full size image and image details)

Data source

The information for this entry comes from the following source:
Name: Heritage Office
Database number: 5051460
File number: H00/00096, H00/00349


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