Maryland (under consideration) | NSW Environment & Heritage

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Heritage

Maryland (under consideration)

Item details

Name of item: Maryland (under consideration)
Other name/s: Nonorrah
Type of item: Complex / Group
Group/Collection: Farming and Grazing
Category: Farm
Property description
Lot/Volume CodeLot/Volume NumberSection NumberPlan/Folio CodePlan/Folio Number
LOT1 DP218779
LOT29 DP872135

Boundary:

Refer to Plan No. 1923

Owner/s

Organisation NameOwner CategoryDate Ownership Updated
Aitken LawyersPrivate 

Statement of significance:

Maryland may be of State significance as a highly intact major mid-19th century rural estate, built on an 1816 grant of 3000 acres within the Cumberland Plain which continues as a working estate.

It is closely associated with two families, that of prominent 19th century engineer, businessman and philanthropist Thomas Barker who established the estate from 1857, as well as his son and local identity, Thomas Charles Barker. The estate was then occupied by the Thomson family from 1910, particularly by Annie and Elizabeth Thomson, who were prominent in the local community and the dairy industry. The Barker and Thomson families owned Maryland until 2012, while members of the Thomson family continue to live in the homestead, a total of c.160 years of continuous occupation by two families.

It occupies a prominent hilltop location forming an important reference point in the local area, further emphasised by the conspicuous old Araucaria pine plantings and gate lodge along the Northern Road. The homestead and associated estate layout, gardens and plantings have characteristics of the Summit Model of homestead siting within an intact rural landscape setting fundamental to its interpretation. The traditional rural landscape character and its setting is largely uncompromised.

Maryland retains the nineteenth century estate layout and design by engineer Thomas Barker and his son Thomas Charles Barker. It contains an outstanding group of estate buildings including homestead, two gatehouses, winery buildings, a home farmhouse and associated stables and coach house, store building, several dairy buildings, a hay barn and many minor structures. The winery and store may be the oldest surviving winery buildings in Australia

Maryland is a rare example of mid-19th century garden design and remains an historical resource in its remnant gardens and vineyards. Other historically related rural landscape elements beyond the homestead may still be appreciated in relation to it, including the driveways, home farm, creek lines, fence lines, in a considered arrangement. It retains important traditional historic views to and from The Northern Road.

The potential archaeological remains at Maryland are likely to include material associated with domestic occupation of the Barker and Thomson families, their household staff/servants, the archaeology of the workers and their families, notably those of German heritage, the nature and use of the winery and farm buildings and the landscaping of the garden and extensive remnant vineyard fields. This has created a complex and layered landscape: much of which is visible but there are also buried and disused aspects of the place which archaeological analytical and spatial approaches could allow for further definition and understanding.

The potential archaeological remains have historic significance through their association with larger themes including the development of wine growing and dairy farming in the local are, German migration to NSW and everyday life on a large farm and 'gentleman's estate'. They also have archaeological research significance through their ability to address various research questions related to rural domestic life, farm and winery practices and technology, and the rural landscape.

The potential archaeological remains could provide material for comparisons both within different houses on the site, and with other sites.

It offers an outstanding landscape archaeological resource with its extensive remnant vineyard fields and other remnant functional and ornamental plantings. It has high potential to yield information about the technology of nineteenth century building construction and the function of farm buildings.

The estate is highly representative of a nineteenth century estate, being complete, integrated in design and intact
(Source: Hector Abrahams Architects, 2018, 18).
Date significance updated: 12 Oct 18
Note: The State Heritage Inventory provides information about heritage items listed by local and State government agencies. The State Heritage Inventory is continually being updated by local and State agencies as new information becomes available. Read the OEH copyright and disclaimer.

Description

Designer/Maker: unknown
Builder/Maker: unknown
Construction years: 1820-1859
Physical description: Landscape / gardens:
Maryland's draft curtilage includes:
- the homestead group and the rise on which it is located;
- the extensive garden and pleasure ground of the homestead, including the slopes where former vineyards were cultivated;
- the winery and store buildings complex west of the homestead;
- the upper gatehouse near the homestead group and one (of two) surviving lower gatehouses facing The Northern Road;
- two early estate drives out to The Northern Road;
- the home farm paddocks and one paddock dam complex;
- the dairy complex, including coach house, stables, sheds and home farm accommodation cottage.

Siting and notable plantings on a hilltop ridge:
The main homestead, outbuildings and remnant landscapes are scattered along the main ridgeline and slopes set back from (west of) The Northern Road and clearly visible from it. The main cultural plantings fomring the prominent element in the views to the homestead group occur near and around the homestead, loop road and the eastern slopes. The house is sited on a knoll typical of the "summit" model of homestead landscaping, and has extensive views to the north over Lowes Creek catchment (Camden Significant Tree and Vegetated Landscape Study. 1993. pp131-132).

Signature estate, pleasure ground and garden plantings:
The estate forms one of the most important clusters of colonial plantings in the municipality and is dominated by massed plantings of emergent Araucarias which form one of the major visual components of this hilltop landscape. Bunya Pines (Araucaria bidwillii) dominate the horizon on approach. These Bunya pines, due to the drier climate and colder winter nights have been co-planted with hardy Aleppo pines ( Pinus halepensis), Loblolly (P.taeda), Himalayan chir (P.roxburghii) pines, native Port Jackson cypress pines (Callitris rhomboidea), Chinese elms (Ulmus parvifolia) and Peruvian pepper(corn) trees (Schinus molle var.areira) and a dense understorey of African olive (Olea europaea var.cuspidata). Araucarias ranging between 18-22 metres in height are concentrated over the northern grassy slope, along the upper eastern loop of the driveway and down the old track to the lower gate. In the lower parts of the slope is a scattered plantation of Aleppo (Pinus halepensis), Loblolly (P.taeda) and stone pines (P.pinea) and English oaks (Quercus robur). Port Jackson cypress pines (Callitris rhomboidea) are scattered throughout the hilltop area and mainly on the lower eastern slopes and could be a remnant of the original woodland (ibid, 1993, amended by Stuart Read, 20/2/2018).

A single Morton Bay Fig (Ficus macrophylla) has been planted on the northern lawn to the house and is a rare planting to the Camden area. A large Carob bean (Ceratonia siliqua) tree is growing under this tree. Rainforest tree plantings of two large Queensland lacebarks (Brachychiton discolor) 15 and 18 metres in height can be found in the fork near the driveway and silky oak (Grevillea robusta) planted nearby (ibid, 1993, 2018).

Former Picking Garden:
On the eastern side of the footslope of the ridgeline / hillock

Pleasure Ground:
Typical of many larger estate plantings is a wilderness area located close to the homestead which contains a variety of wild hedgerow plants and vines. These create a dense canopy and tangled understorey dominated by species that are now considered weeds. Wild or African olives (Olea europaea var. cuspidata) dominate the understorey throughout the eastern slope and continuing down to the lower road. These interconnect to create a canopy over the drive giving the appearance of a Gothic landscape. Beneath this canopy is a clipped Cape plumbago (Plumbago auriculata) hedge which competes with weed species and naturalised remnant Mauritius hemp plants (Furcaea foetida) and Kaffir lilies (Clivia miniata)(ibid, 1993, 2018).

The garden entry to this area is dominated by a single large Loblolly Pine, African olives and clipped hedges of Cape plumbago and Cape honeysuckle (Tecomaria capensis). Other historic species within this wilderness area include the Chinese elm, jacaranda (Jacaranda mimosifolia), Peruvian pepper(corn) tree, native white cedar (Melia azedarach var. australasica), lemon-scented gums (Eucalyptus citriodora), Chinese funeral cypress (Cupressus funebris), cotoneaster (Cotoneaster sp.), Chinese hawthorn (Photinia x serrulata), and oleander (Nerium oleander). These are common to many 19th century landscape schemes in the Camden area. Camelot (formerly Kirkham) at Narellan in particular has almost identical major tree species to Maryland (ibid, 1993, 2018).

Drives (2) and driveway plantings:
Two estate drives leave The Northern Road and go through paddocks west to approach the ridgeline on which the homestead complex sits, from the south and north.

The southern drive (installed by Thomas Barker in c1860s) has lost its flanking gate house on The Northern Road and entry fences and retains one large timber gate post (c1900) on its southern side (with painted no. 773 on it) and other smaller gate posts - NB: this drive is still in use today) approaches the ridge from the south of the homestead. It passes through a picturesque pastoral landscape, past the large dam (Dam 4), over a small creek and modern bridge (the remains of an older bridge are still along the creek) then climbing the ridge and swinging north to pass through an inner fence with timber gates and inner gate lodge (or house, c1860, stone, Gothic Revival gabled roof) on its west, into the separately-fenced pleasure ground. Inside this pleasure ground the drive splits in two: its ('front') eastern drive climbing the knoll to give a glimpse of the approaching homestead, then to pass its eastern verandah, turning and address its northern verandah (and join the northern drive there). Its ('rear') western drive climbs the western side of the knoll passing the winery, store and outbuildings to join the northern drive at the north-west of the homestead, near its northern verandah.

Before the southern drive climbs the ridgeline to do all this, it passes a smaller farm dam with adjacent timber shelter outbuilding and tree plantings (i.e. further west from the large eastern Farm Dam (Dam 4). It then splits with one fork to the north, leading past the pleasure grounds' tennis court and various plantings along to the Coach house and stables, Dairy complex and home farm precinct.

The other north-running 'fork' off this southern drive passes along the foot of the eastern flank of the ridgeline on which the homestead sits, passes its pleasure ground and joins the northern drive, where that turns west to climb and approach the homestead from the north.

This southern drive entry has probably been realigned a number of times as physical evidence of three bridges have been found south of the current bridge and track.

The northern drive (installed in 1842 by Sarah Lowe was associated with the northern gatehouse). It retains its flanking timber gate posts (c1900) and fences) passes the gatehouse (c1842, with some modifications in a southern wing and dormer windows) surviving on The Northern Road (to its north), leads directly to the Dairy complex and home farm precinct ('village') and through it to turn south and join the 'fork' connecting north-south to the southern drive.

Along this fork, the northern drive peels west at the base of the hillock, climbing the northern and western sides of the knoll to reach the homestead and meet the southern drive just north-west of the homestead complex, appraching a gravel area bordering its northern verandah. This drive appears to have been stopped being used with construction of the large eastern dam (Dam 4) over the eastern drainage line (creek) in c1960. Aerial photos show that by the 1980s, use of this drive had ceased.

The eastern driveway is dominated by by the emergent plantings of two Bunya pines and a large spreading lemon scented gum. The western part of the loop road to the outbuildings and barn continues through the African olive grove and a remnant of the endangered ecological community, Cumberland Plain Woodland. An enormous eucalypt, possibly a Manna gum (Eucalyptus viminalis) is located on the steep embankment adjacent to the road. On top of the hill beside the outbuildings, forest red gum (E.tereticornis) remnants of the original woodland compete with a dense understorey of exotics dominated by African olives. A Monterey pine is the dominant ornamental tree in this area and a large leafed mulberry (Morus alba) is also growing in this area (ibid, 1993, 2018).

Throughout the ridge area to the south of the homestead associated with outbuildings are further cultural plantings forming important clusters of vegetation. Another Morton Bay fig is located in a paddock adjacent to the entry roadway in association with other remnants of cultural plantings. The Lower Road, located above the dam and adjacent to a derelict farm building, contains a significant grove of cultural plantings which includes hoop pines, a Monterey pine, Peruvian pepper(corn) trees and Chinese elms (ibid. 1993, 2018).

A re-sprouting stump of a Port Jackson fig (Ficus rubiginosa) is immediately south-east of the winery building (Stuart Read, pers.comm., 20/2/2018).

Paddocks:
Maryland's ridgeline hilltop homestead and home farm, Stables, Coach house complexes are surrounded by home farm paddocks, several dams (including two major dams created in the 1960s, and two smaller dams. Two creeklines cross the property, one east of the ridgeline, one to its north (Lowe's Creek).

The property includes four farm dams, one very old, two (the largest, east and west of the ridgeline / hillock) are c1960.

Immediate Homestead Garden:
There is a large rambling garden of oaks, olives, Auracarias, plumbago hedges, geraniums, and oxalis planted by Thomas Barker Snr. There is also further landscaping on an extensive scale executed by Thomas Barker Jnr.

A finely-made stone paved path weaves from the rear (west) of the homestead group down the bank to the drive and winery (ibid, 20/2/2018).

Unusual today but typical colonial and Victorian era shrubs in Maryland's garden include Malabar nut or vasika (Adhatoda vasica / Justicia adhatoda) near the winery building and Kaffir plum (Carissa bispinosa) on the bank above this towards the homestead. These are also found at Camden Park estate,. Brownlow Hill in Orangeville and at Horsley Park in Fairfield. Two dramatic climbing cactus species dominate on some trees near the homestead, namely dragon fruit (Hylocereus undatus) from central America (prominent on a forest red gum north-west of the homestead group) and Queen of the night (Selenicereus grandiflorus) on the bank north of the winery. The latter is also found at Varroville, in St. Andrews and at Brownlow Hill at Orangeville. A shrubby (cf climbing) succulent is also on the bank west of the homestead group and near the winery, being orchid cactus, (Disocactus ackermannii). Also on the hilltop ridge south and west of the homestead group is an unusual upright-growing fiercely-spiny cactus (Harrisia sp.) that is a noxious weed in Western NSW. A yellow Italian jasmine (Jasminium humile) climbs a tree west of the homestead group (Stuart Read, pers.comm., 20/2/2018).

Homestead complex:
The house has been extant on site since c. 1820. The present building was completed by 1859. The colonial estate consists of a large single-storey brick and stone-rubble homestead with cellars, built with two fronts. It includes associated outbuildings, such as an octagonal meat house and kitchen store.

Exterior
The exterior is plastered in imitation of ashlar and sandstone quoins (painted). There are flagged verandahs with turned timber posts to north and east fronts, separate galvanised iron roofs to the house and verandahs, and sandstone Gothic chimney shafts. The shuttered French doors to the east-facing reception rooms have single panes of glass above and panels below. There are also margin bars glazed to the floor in the bedrooms on the north or entrance faade.

Interiors
There is a large vestibule with a flagged floor of exceptional quality and a flagged central corridor with skylights. The joinery has been painted throughout. Other details include four panel doors, black/grey marble and painted timber with paterae in bedrooms.

Outbuildings
Two clusters of outbulidings are on Maryland, including one near (west of) the homestead; and one to the ridgeline or hilltop's north-east, centred on the coach house and stables and dairy ('home farm').

Homestead complex of outbuildings (on ridgeline/hilltop or on its western side):
The Kitchen and offices are traditionally believed to predate the house. There are also an octagonal meat house (c1890), kitchen store (c1856), laundry (c1856), workshop (c1860, two storey timber board structure south of the kitchen on the northern side of the courtyard) a stone rubble winery (c1860, two-storey sandstone with double gabled corrugated sheet iron roof built into the slope of the land west of the homestead and south of the Guest House), stone Winery Store (c1870, long now-single storey building with gable roof, south of the homestead and lower down the hill. This is likely to have been initially larger (e.g. two-storeyed) and reduced to its single-storey size due to a fire. Rectangular vent spaces are in the tops of its existing walls. A sandstone retaining wall abuts its eastern (uphill) elevation. Its northern elevation is built up against the landform. A grand arched entry structure opening with timber gates is in its southern (main) elevation.

An in-ground swimming pool (c1960) is south of the homestead.
A stone guest house (c1880) is to the north-west of the homestead complex, with extensions added c1970.
An in-ground early cistern is beneath concrete to the south-west of the homestead, in front of the Meat House.

Another complex of Poultry Sheds and Farm Cottage (c1860, 1970) is south-west of the homestead and winery complex. This comprises four large, low corrugated iron clad c.1960 poultry (duck) sheds and an amenity shed (c1960) and a modern farm cottage (c1970).

Stables and Coach House, Dairy complex and home farm/farm manager's cottage:
Northeast of the homestead (and not counting the northern gate house is the other complex, which includes (at its eastern-most point):
- a stone and brick farm manager's cottage (c1855, c1860) single storey sandstone, with four rooms and a steeper roof in its eastern, original form, and a wing extension (c.1860) to its rear (west); and, further west of the cottage:
- a fine stone Stables and Coach House with loft (c1860, two-storied) (re-roofed and recently extensively repaired and conserved);
- Early Timber Slab Stables (c1945);
- Early Shed and Feed Stalls (c.1956);
- a Shelter attached tot he west of the Early Shed and Feed Stalls (c1956);
- Early and Later Milking Sheds (c1961), Machinery Shed (c1900) and Tool Sheds (c1965); and, further south:
- Step Up Dairy (c1970), Hay Shed (c1970) and Tack Room/Shed (c1970) and steel-fenced cattle yards on their east.

Outer Gate Lodges:
One of an original two Gothic Revival style sandstone gate lodges survives on the outer (eastern) driveway entries onto The Northern Road (the surviving northern lodge on the northern drive was altered c.1960. The southern gatehouse has been demolished some time ago).

Farm Building/Barn:
Located on the southern drive's 'swing' north towards the front (east) of the homestead group, but outside its pleasure garrden, i.e. south-east of Homestead group, near the oldest dam on the farm, is a part-one, part-two storey high roofed barn structure. Nearby are tree plantings of some maturity and age.

Inner Gate lodge:
Sited on the western upper drive on the ridgeline south-west of (behind) the homestead group is a single storey stone gate lodge, with more recent extension to its west (rear). The original building has a steep pitched gabled roof with elaborate scalloped barge boards (ibid, 20/2/2018).

Gates:
Two sets of gates mark the driveways' entries into the pleasure ground around the homestead group. The gates have white-painted timber decorative gate posts and gate wings (ibid, 20/2/2018).

Winery:
Stone three storey structure on the western side of the driveway west of the homestead group. Box gutter between double gabled rooves (ibid, 20/2/2018).

Wine Store:
A large rectangular 'barn' of a building downslope west of the winery, built of sandstone with an impressive stone arch over the main doorway, timber gates on this and side doors, vents and windows in the walls. Apparently originally two or three storeys tall and lost its top storeys in a fire, being rebuilt from surviving materials as a one storey building. From changes in fenestration (central section with arch) to southern end with no windows but with high vents, it appears the rebuilding included, or later this building was extended further to the south. Various items of machinery and building materials are stored in this building at present, including 1984 Royal Easter Show Maryland sign (noting Friesian cows) and a box full of penant ribbons (prizes) from this or other shows (ibid, 20/2/2018).

Poultry production sheds:
South west of the homestead group, winery and inner gate lodge (west of this) are three huge poultry sheds where ducks are raised for market. These buildings date to the late 20th century (ibid, 20/2/2018).

Dairy Cluster:
North-east of the homestead group and directly west/north-west of the northern driveway is a cluster of farm buildings including a two storey stables/coach house (including chimney and small domestic quarters), a large timber 'barn' building north of it, a more-recent workshop/garage between these two latter buildings, another large timber barn east of the drive and others (ibid, 20/2/2018).

Manager's House:
also west of the northern drive and east of the Dairy Cluster, a mid-19th century stone cottage for the farm manager, with rear extensions. The front verandah directly faces The Northern Road, although set well back from it (ibid, 20/2/2018).
Physical condition and/or
Archaeological potential:
The estate is prominent in the local area, has a number of significant outbuildings and although overgrown, the garden remains in recoverable form (ibid, 2000, 57).

The general layout is well maintained but some overgrown areas need attention. Some thinning and replanting is necessary. The archaeological potential is high regarding remnants of the previous house on the site, thought to be dated c.1820.
Date condition updated:29 Jul 03
Modifications and dates: During 1859 , major developments were undertaken when Thomas Barker converted 280 hectares of the original 1,200 hectares to grazing and agricultural land. Between 1920 and 1940, Thomas Barker Jnr undertook major works to extend the original gardens and made 10 hectares of the original grant into a grass-like park land.

One of the two Gothic sandstone lodges was altered c.1960

It is uncertain when the present house at Maryland was built. The farm would have supported some form of dwelling from at least the 1820s, possibly similar to its neighbour Denbigh, which was built of framed construction with brick nogged and weatherboard. The only record of building activity on the property so far found is contained in a letter to Thomas Barker from his agent/manager, Clements Lestir, c. 1849. Listir’s letter indicated a small verandahed house, with a detached kitchen and small shed, and noted that it was being rented out. The letter also mentioned costs for repairs, including an order for 3000 bricks. It is unclear whether this letter implies that the original house Nonorrah was of full brick construction or whether the bricks were to be used only for paving or chimneys. If this little house mentioned here was on the hill-top, it must have been demolished and replaced by the present house. Some of the rear sections of the present house are believed to be part of an earlier dwelling.
Further information: The architectural quality of the house and outbuildings in association with the quality of the surrounding countryside/landscape justifies the inclusion of a large curtilage with this classification.
Current use: Working farm, duck production
Former use: Aboriginal land, farm, dairy

History

Historical notes: Europeans first entered the district known as 'the Cow Pastures' in 1795 when Aboriginals reported finding a herd of wild cattle there. These animals bred from the five that escaped from Farm Cove in 1788. By the time they were located, the herd had grown to 61 animals grazing on the south-west bank of the Nepean River. Aboriginal people knew the place as Baragil or Baragal but Governor Hunter called it the Cowpastures.

The area appealed to Europeans because there was little undergrowth to discourage the lush grasses that made it ideal for grazing cattle on the flats and possibly sheep on the hills towards the Razorback Range. Governors Hunter, King and Bligh ruled against European settlement on the Cowpastures, which was outside the County of Cumberland. Even the north-eastern bank of the Nepean, opposite Cowpastures was deliberatelyh kept from aspiring settlers, perhaps because of its remoteness.

Having withdrawn a number of grants by Lt. Governors Foveaux and Paterson when he restored order after the NSW Corps coup against Governor Bligh, Governor Macquarie had James Meehan survey the Cook district (later Cook Parish) in the County of Cumberland opposite the Cowpastures to prepare it for settlement. Some of the grants he made there were of modest size but most were generous.

From 1814 a drought led to serious violence in the more remote southern parts of the County of Cumberland. Lack of their traditional food brought Aboriginals from the South Coast and Gandangara from the mountains to raid the settlers' crops. In Appin, three members of the Veteran Company milita fired on natives who were taking corn. The Aborigines retaliated. Too wounded to flee from their spears, one militia man was abandoned and his body was found later without one of its hands. The Europeans avenged this death with unmitigated violence, murdering a woman and two children in their sleep and mutilating their bodies. These acts brought more Aboriginal retaliation and this cycle continued into 1816.

Maryland is situated west of the Northern Road on land granted to Scottish migrant John Dickson, a prominent Sydney engineer, manufacturer,flour miller and grazier (Wrigley, 2006) in 1815. John Dickson named this 1,200 hectare grant, "Nonorrah". It is thought that Dickson built a hill-top house on the property by the 1820s that was later demolished to make way for the present residence.

Dickson in England had been very interested in the use of steam in industry and when he migrated he decided to bring one of the new steam engines to New South Wales in the hope of making a fortune with it. He arrived on the Earl Spencer in Sydney in 1813. Another ship brought him a complete saw milling plant. On arrival he received his grant on which to erect his mills and steam engine. His grant of nearly 16 acres included nearly all the land bounded by Hay, George and Goulburn Streets to Sussex Street in Sydney (ibid, 2006).

Thomas Barker (then aged 16 (ibid, 2006)) was apprenticed to John Dickson and in 1823 married Dickson's niece, Joanna, daughter of James and Helen Dickson of Bringelly. The newlyweds were given Dickson's Sydney property (ibid, 2006).

Both John Dickson and Thomas Barker established profitable milling businesses but in 1833 Dickson sold his business and returned to England, instructing his agent Matthew Dysart Hunter to sell his holdings in 1838. These were Nonorrah, Netherbyres, Orielton, Moorefield and Eastwood.

Thomas Barker built Roslyn Hall at Woolloomooloo Hill (now Kings Cross) in 1833 and had a keen interest in gardening. A list of plants despatched to Barker from the Botanic Gardens in 1832 indicates a more than usual interest in ornamental plants including 50 vine cuttings and he was trustee of (Sydney's first) nurseryman Thomas Shepherd's will (ibid, 2000, 56). He was one of the richest flour millers in Sydney, with a splendid house in Sussex Street next to his mils and later (in 1835) a place called 'Roslyn Hall' in Darlinghurst "more like a palace than a private home", near the present Roslyn Avenue (now Roslyn Gardens)(Fox, 1978, 47).

Just when Barker came to control Nonorrah is unclear. There is an unsubstantiated story that Nonorrah was a wedding gift to Thomas and Joanna. However recent research indicates that Thomas Barker purchased the homestead part of the Nonorrah estates in 1854 (Don Gapes, Land Titles Office, June 1999)(ibid, 2000, 56).

Either way, Thomas Barker was certainly managing both Nonorrah and Orielton in 1834 and his name is marked on an old parish map on both the Netherbyres grant (App 1833) and Oran Park (App 1834).

Joanna Barker (nee Dickson) died in 1851(1853, and childless and some years later (Wrigley, 2006)). Joanna was the daugter of James Dickson and niece of John Dickson. During the 1850s, Barker had a brief foray into legislative office. He was an unelected member of the NSW Legislative Council between April 1853 and February 1856 and an elected member of the Legislative Council between April 1856 and December 1857, for the district of Gloucester and Macquarie on the NSW North Coast. He was also involved in a wide range of commercial and philanthropic boards and associations at this time. After purchasing Maryland, Barker began work on both the homestead and the vineyard. The earliest known reference to 'Maryland Farm, New Camden' dates to October 1857, when Robert Vicary placed and advertisement regarding a horse which had been left with him a year previously. Vicary appears to have been some knid of farm manager for Barker, and remained associated with the property until his death in 1876 (Casey & Lowe, 2016, 31).

Thomas married Katherine Heath Grey in 1857 (and they came to live at Nonorrah / 'Maryland' (ibid, 2006): Casey & Lowe, 2016, 31 say the marriage was in 1858, adding that Katherine came to live at Maryland the same year. The first identified contemporary reference to the Barkers living at Maryland dates to May 1862, when Katherine advertised to employ a cook. In September 1863, Thomas and Katherine's son Thomas Charles was born at Maryland. By December 1864 Barker's vineyard was in full production, when some wine was served at a dinner in honour of James Macarthur's return from England. From January 1865, Barker's wine was readily available for sale in Sydney. In May 1865, Barker was first-licensed to distil brandy from wine on his own vineyard. Maryland's wine was fairly well regarded and appears to have consistently won some prizes from the late 1860s to at least the 1880s. There is some evidence that it was also consumed elsewhere in Australia, as 1 1/2 dozen bottles of 'New South Wales Maryland wine' of c.1867 vintage were auctioned at a house contents sale in Hobart in 1876 (ibid, 2016, 31-32).

By 1870 Thomas Barker was known as "one of the chief patrons of gardening". After the 1859 sale of his Sydney property Roslyn Hall he shifted his gardening efforts to Nonorrah, which he renamed "Maryland". Authors of an 1870 article in "The Horticultural Magazine and Gardeners' and Amateurs' Calendar" describe Maryland as covering an area of seven hundred acres of "fine grazing and agricultural land" (Britton & Morris, 2000).

The major development of the estate was undertaken after Barker took up residence there. There were entrance lodges to the property, both on the Bringelly and the Cobbitty sides of the estate. The main house stood on a hill, "for it is entirely on its slopes that the garden and vineyards are situated - is surrounded by a strong fence, having two sets of gates" (Horticultural Magazine & Gardeners & Amateur's Calendar, 1870).

The prospect was admired for its pool of water, its "peacefully browsing" cattle and its enclosures planted with pines. Gardens and 8.5 hectares of vineyards are situated on (about three parts /21 acres of) the slopes surrounding the house. The orchards and kitchen gardens are both on the eastern slope and there are also plantations of ornamental trees. Katherine Barker was responsible for many of the decorative gardens that were located close to the house, including margins of the whole of the carriage drive and other walkways between the vineyards and pleasure grounds. This was described in 1870 (ibid, 1870) as:
..." a neat border under the verandah, plentifully planted with choice dwarf plants of all kinds. On a wall on the northern side of the house, Bougainvillea splendens and (B.)spectabilis, Quisquales (sic: Quisqualis) indica, Mandevillea (sic: Mandevilla), cloth of gold roses, Bignonia cheree etc, etc, were exerting their powers to please the eye. A well-formed flower garden is made on the platform forming the terrace on the eastern and southern sides of the house. These are planted with roses, carnations, fuchsias, verbenas etc, - all the leading kinds in cultivation. Then, as a breakwind, a tolerably dense belt of pines, cypresses, araucaria Bidwellis (sic: Araucaria bidwillii, Bunya Bunya pine), camphor (laurel), lophostemons, etc are planted. This is also applicaable to the margins of the whole of the carriage driver, and other walks between the vineyards and pleasure grounds...We might state that a neat greenhouse is erected, and was resplendent with bignonias, azaleas, tydias, Russellia, eranthemums, alamandas etc etc."

Thomas Barker died in 1875 (ibid, 2006). Katherine Barker and her son Thomas Charles continued to live on the property. A substantial number of other people also lived on the property at the time, in the various houses and cottages. The 1891 NSW census recorded three households with a total of 18 people living at Maryland, which provides some idea of the complexity of the community on the site. The 1876 property description (when the property was offered for sale) states that the dairy farm was leased out at that time, and this practice appears to have continued for most of the Barkers' ownership of the property, although explicit records of the lease arrangements have not been found (Casey & Lowe, 2016, 32).

After Thomas Barker's death, winemaking initially continued on the property, with the wines winning awards during the 1880s. In 1899 winemaking at Maryland faced a major setback when a fire occurred in the wine cellar, which appears to have been a two storey building. The fire destroyed casks of wine and brandy kept on site, the on-site cooperage and a collection of Australian woods which was considered valuable at the time. Parts of the building were able to be saved from the fire and nearby buildings including the 'presshouse' and some stables avoided damage (ibid, 2016, 32).

Sometime around the late 19th or early 20th century, large-scale wine making on the property appears to have wound down. There is some evidence that wine making on the site might have not taken place in the late 1890s, since when the 1899 fire occurred, one report stated that 'Mrs Barker ... has not for some seasons devoted the results of her vineyards to wine making'. The 'cellarman' Heinrich Schmitz was still living at Maryland in 1903 but perhaps his duties were already diminished. No mention was made to the vineyard or winemaking facilities in Thomas Charles Barker's will,d ated 28/3/1928, or its subsequent codicils. The end of winemaking might also have been associated with the pest Phylloxera. This small insect devastated the winemaking industry in the counties of Cumberland and Camden during the late 19th century (ibid, 2016, 32-33).

Maryland was inherited by the Barkers' only son, Thomas Charles Barker (1860 - 1940), who extended its gardens. The impressive park-like landscape seen from the Northern Road is attributed to his stewardship. Thomas Barker Jnr's wife, Emily Macarthur Chisholm (m. 1887: Casey & Lowe, 2016, 33), also grew up on a property known for its prominent garden, 'Gledswood', at Narellan. Both gardens were romanticised by architect William Hardy Wilson. The Maryland garden has been directly linked to Hardy Wilson's description in "On the Cowpasture Road" (ibid, 2000, 56-7). Thomas Charles and Emily Barker lived at Maryland until Thomas' death, aged 80, in 1940 (ibid, 2006).

Thomas Charles and Emily Barker had no children and appear to have lived at Maryland until he died in 1940. He was active in the local community. He was a member of Nepean Shire Council from its foundation in 1906 until 1913 and again from 1920-40. He was a warden at St. Paul's Cobbitty Church of England for 50 years from 1890, and a member of the Camden Show Society. Emily was active in community life, particularly the local branch of the Red Cross Society. In 1906 Thomas Charles Barker acquired the neighbouring properties of 'Moorfield' and lots 1-5 of the 1840 subdivision of "Nonorrah' from T. C.Burnell, and lot 8 of the 1840 subdivision from Charles Smith. This can be understood as part of rebuilding Dickson's original ('Nonorrah') property. After Thomas Charles Barker's death, the combined property of 'Nonorrah', Moorfield and Maryland was sold to Henry John and Olive Annie Andrews in August 1940. They then sold Maryland to Ninian Alan Thomson in September 1940. Ninian was the chairman of directors of Mauri Brothers and Thomson, a diversified company with interests in food flavourings, yeast, equipment and machinery manufacturing and wholesaling. According to a 1965 article on the house and grounds the Thomsons were responsible for installing electricity on the site and connecting hot and cold running water (ibid, 2016, 33).

Maryland was sold in 1940 to Alan and Janet (Jetta) Ievers, parents of the current owners, Misses Elizabeth and Annette Thomson. The Ievers were living before then at Cuppacumbalong, a property on the Murrumbidgee River south of Canberra. In 1923 Alan took control of the family business, Mauri Brothers & Thomson, a merchant company in Sydney (taken over by Burns Philp & Co. in 1982) and moved the family to Double Bay, Sydney. In 1940 he bought Maryland, then a 400 hectare dairy farm, so he could run the business in the city and enjoy country life (Veitch, 2009)(ibid, 2000).

At that stage (1940) the view north of the house was blocked by a dense plantation of trees adjacent to the upper drive beside the house where the slope fell away rapidly. The Thomsons thinned the northerly plantation and extended with fill the platform upon which the homestead was situated. An aerial photograph from 1947 indicates that there were fenced plantations of trees along a drive which was now south of the earlier entrance marked with a gate lodge on Northern Road. The landscape surrounding the hilltop homestead still had clearly defined areas of pleasure grounds. The former kitchen garden, orchard and plantings of trees appear to define the perimeters of the vineyard areas (ibid, 2000, 57).

The Thomsons had four children including two daughters, Annie (1921-2009) and Elizabeth (19? - 2006). Annie & Elizabeth worked on the farm and supported the family during World War II and the hard times that followed.

N.A.Thomson suffered a stroke in 1942 which forced him to retire from business. He died in March 1952. Following his death, various members of the family continued to live on the property. Eventually, two of his daughters, Annie and Elizabeth, ended up running the property as a dairy farm (ibid, 2016, 33).

Annie & Elizabeth took over the farm because their brothers had gone into business in Sydney. In 1959 the sisters joined the Friesian Cattle Club, started building a stud herd of Holstein-Friesians and entered the animals in the Camden and other shows. "The Girls" were the mainstay of the local community, known to everyone as such, and raised prize-winning cattle, showing these all over NSW. "The Girls" were eventually rewarded with life membership of the Camden Show Society, and Maryland Farming Company still exhibits there.

The Thomsons first took their cattle to the Sydney Royal Easter Show in 1964. One of the most popular exhibits at Sydney's Royal Easter Show for many years was 'the Milky Way', a portable dairy where milkmaids dressed from the 1800s gave demonstrations. Annie Thomson provided the commentary, helping educate city people about country ways, milk production and processing. Their Milky Way also visited Perth, Adelaide, Melbourne and Canberra shows. When the Easter Show moved to Homebush Bay in 1998 a permanent Milky Way exhibit was built.

Annie's commitment to the dairy industry was recognised in 1988 when she was awarded life membership of the Holstein-Friesian Association of Australia. In 1993 she received a Dairy Industry Merit Award and life membership; in 1994, the Dairy Research Foundation's Tetra Pak award; in 1997, a Royal Agricultural Society contributor's award; and in 2001 she was named a Royal Easter Show Legend.

Thomson was also passionate about horses and riding. A founding member of the Cobbitty Pony Club in 1960, she taught generations of local children to ride. Maryland was the home ground for the club for many years. Thomson instructed beginners at the pony club until 1985. Giving this up, and later having to give up riding, were two of the hardest and saddest things she had ever faced. She never married or had children of her own.

In 2004 Annie and Elizabeth Thomson were each awarded the Medal of the Order of Australia for their contribution to shows, the dairy industry and the community. Even then, they were keeping 120 dairy cows and travelling throughout NSW to show their animals (in their 80s). Maryland will continue to be run by the family (Veitch, 2009). Elizabeth died in 2006, Annie in 2009 (ibid, 2016, 33).

Historic themes

Australian theme (abbrev)New South Wales themeLocal theme
1. Environment-Tracing the evolution of a continent's special environments Environment - naturally evolved-Activities associated with the physical surroundings that support human life and influence or shape human cultures. Cultural: Plains and plateaux supporting human activities-
1. Environment-Tracing the evolution of a continent's special environments Environment - naturally evolved-Activities associated with the physical surroundings that support human life and influence or shape human cultures. Changing the environment-
2. Peopling-Peopling the continent Aboriginal cultures and interactions with other cultures-Activities associated with maintaining, developing, experiencing and remembering Aboriginal cultural identities and practices, past and present. Daruk nation - sites of first contact or early interaction with colonisers-
2. Peopling-Peopling the continent Aboriginal cultures and interactions with other cultures-Activities associated with maintaining, developing, experiencing and remembering Aboriginal cultural identities and practices, past and present. Dharawal Nation - contact sites-
2. Peopling-Peopling the continent Convict-Activities relating to incarceration, transport, reform, accommodation and working during the convict period in NSW (1788-1850) - does not include activities associated with the conviction of persons in NSW that are unrelated to the imperial 'convict system': use the theme of Law & Order for such activities Convict labour-
2. Peopling-Peopling the continent Convict-Activities relating to incarceration, transport, reform, accommodation and working during the convict period in NSW (1788-1850) - does not include activities associated with the conviction of persons in NSW that are unrelated to the imperial 'convict system': use the theme of Law & Order for such activities Creating a gentleman's estate-
2. Peopling-Peopling the continent Convict-Activities relating to incarceration, transport, reform, accommodation and working during the convict period in NSW (1788-1850) - does not include activities associated with the conviction of persons in NSW that are unrelated to the imperial 'convict system': use the theme of Law & Order for such activities Demonstrating convicts' experiences and activities-
2. Peopling-Peopling the continent Convict-Activities relating to incarceration, transport, reform, accommodation and working during the convict period in NSW (1788-1850) - does not include activities associated with the conviction of persons in NSW that are unrelated to the imperial 'convict system': use the theme of Law & Order for such activities Working on private assignment-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Agriculture-Activities relating to the cultivation and rearing of plant and animal species, usually for commercial purposes, can include aquaculture Viticulture-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Agriculture-Activities relating to the cultivation and rearing of plant and animal species, usually for commercial purposes, can include aquaculture Private farming-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Agriculture-Activities relating to the cultivation and rearing of plant and animal species, usually for commercial purposes, can include aquaculture Growing vines and maintaining vineyards-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Agriculture-Activities relating to the cultivation and rearing of plant and animal species, usually for commercial purposes, can include aquaculture Clearing land for farming-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Agriculture-Activities relating to the cultivation and rearing of plant and animal species, usually for commercial purposes, can include aquaculture Orcharding-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Agriculture-Activities relating to the cultivation and rearing of plant and animal species, usually for commercial purposes, can include aquaculture Cereal production-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Agriculture-Activities relating to the cultivation and rearing of plant and animal species, usually for commercial purposes, can include aquaculture Farming barley-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Environment - cultural landscape-Activities associated with the interactions between humans, human societies and the shaping of their physical surroundings Developing local, regional and national economies-National Theme 3
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Environment - cultural landscape-Activities associated with the interactions between humans, human societies and the shaping of their physical surroundings Significant Places: How are significant places marked in the landscape of Parramatta by, or for, different groups?-Monuments and Sites
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Environment - cultural landscape-Activities associated with the interactions between humans, human societies and the shaping of their physical surroundings Landscapes and parklands of distinctive styles-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Environment - cultural landscape-Activities associated with the interactions between humans, human societies and the shaping of their physical surroundings Landscapes of scenic beauty-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Environment - cultural landscape-Activities associated with the interactions between humans, human societies and the shaping of their physical surroundings Landscapes of scenic beauty-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Environment - cultural landscape-Activities associated with the interactions between humans, human societies and the shaping of their physical surroundings Significant tree(s) providing rural amenity or character-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Environment - cultural landscape-Activities associated with the interactions between humans, human societies and the shaping of their physical surroundings Landscapes and countryside of rural charm-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Environment - cultural landscape-Activities associated with the interactions between humans, human societies and the shaping of their physical surroundings Landscapes and gardens of domestic accommodation-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Environment - cultural landscape-Activities associated with the interactions between humans, human societies and the shaping of their physical surroundings Landscapes of food production-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Environment - cultural landscape-Activities associated with the interactions between humans, human societies and the shaping of their physical surroundings Landscapes of cultural and natural interaction-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Environment - cultural landscape-Activities associated with the interactions between humans, human societies and the shaping of their physical surroundings Landscapes demonstrating styles in landscape design-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Pastoralism-Activities associated with the breeding, raising, processing and distribution of livestock for human use Beef cattle breeding and raising-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Pastoralism-Activities associated with the breeding, raising, processing and distribution of livestock for human use Sheep farming for lamb and mutton-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Pastoralism-Activities associated with the breeding, raising, processing and distribution of livestock for human use Dairying-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Pastoralism-Activities associated with the breeding, raising, processing and distribution of livestock for human use Modifying landscapes to increase productivity-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Pastoralism-Activities associated with the breeding, raising, processing and distribution of livestock for human use Agisting and fattening stock for slaughter-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Pastoralism-Activities associated with the breeding, raising, processing and distribution of livestock for human use Pig farming-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Pastoralism-Activities associated with the breeding, raising, processing and distribution of livestock for human use Livestock structures-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Accommodation-Activities associated with the provision of accommodation, and particular types of accommodation – does not include architectural styles – use the theme of Creative Endeavour for such activities. Country Homes-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Accommodation-Activities associated with the provision of accommodation, and particular types of accommodation – does not include architectural styles – use the theme of Creative Endeavour for such activities. gate-house-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Accommodation-Activities associated with the provision of accommodation, and particular types of accommodation – does not include architectural styles – use the theme of Creative Endeavour for such activities. Pastoral Homestead-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Accommodation-Activities associated with the provision of accommodation, and particular types of accommodation – does not include architectural styles – use the theme of Creative Endeavour for such activities. Living on the land-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Accommodation-Activities associated with the provision of accommodation, and particular types of accommodation – does not include architectural styles – use the theme of Creative Endeavour for such activities. Farm homestead-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Accommodation-Activities associated with the provision of accommodation, and particular types of accommodation – does not include architectural styles – use the theme of Creative Endeavour for such activities. Victorian era residence-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Accommodation-Activities associated with the provision of accommodation, and particular types of accommodation – does not include architectural styles – use the theme of Creative Endeavour for such activities. early settlement or worker's cottage-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Accommodation-Activities associated with the provision of accommodation, and particular types of accommodation – does not include architectural styles – use the theme of Creative Endeavour for such activities. Timber and iron vernacular-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Accommodation-Activities associated with the provision of accommodation, and particular types of accommodation – does not include architectural styles – use the theme of Creative Endeavour for such activities. Adapted heritage building or structure-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Accommodation-Activities associated with the provision of accommodation, and particular types of accommodation – does not include architectural styles – use the theme of Creative Endeavour for such activities. Bungalows-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Accommodation-Activities associated with the provision of accommodation, and particular types of accommodation – does not include architectural styles – use the theme of Creative Endeavour for such activities. Accommodating workers in workers' housing-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Accommodation-Activities associated with the provision of accommodation, and particular types of accommodation – does not include architectural styles – use the theme of Creative Endeavour for such activities. Housing farming families-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Accommodation-Activities associated with the provision of accommodation, and particular types of accommodation – does not include architectural styles – use the theme of Creative Endeavour for such activities. Housing for farm and station hands-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Accommodation-Activities associated with the provision of accommodation, and particular types of accommodation – does not include architectural styles – use the theme of Creative Endeavour for such activities. Country Villa-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Accommodation-Activities associated with the provision of accommodation, and particular types of accommodation – does not include architectural styles – use the theme of Creative Endeavour for such activities. Housing working animals-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Land tenure-Activities and processes for identifying forms of ownership and occupancy of land and water, both Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Early land grants-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Land tenure-Activities and processes for identifying forms of ownership and occupancy of land and water, both Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Early farming (Cattle grazing)-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Land tenure-Activities and processes for identifying forms of ownership and occupancy of land and water, both Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Changing land uses - from rural to suburban-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Land tenure-Activities and processes for identifying forms of ownership and occupancy of land and water, both Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Granting Crown lands for private farming-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Land tenure-Activities and processes for identifying forms of ownership and occupancy of land and water, both Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Sub-division of large estates-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Towns, suburbs and villages-Activities associated with creating, planning and managing urban functions, landscapes and lifestyles in towns, suburbs and villages Subdivision of rural estates-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Towns, suburbs and villages-Activities associated with creating, planning and managing urban functions, landscapes and lifestyles in towns, suburbs and villages Gentlemens Villas-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Towns, suburbs and villages-Activities associated with creating, planning and managing urban functions, landscapes and lifestyles in towns, suburbs and villages Rural Estates-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Towns, suburbs and villages-Activities associated with creating, planning and managing urban functions, landscapes and lifestyles in towns, suburbs and villages A quiet Rural District-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Towns, suburbs and villages-Activities associated with creating, planning and managing urban functions, landscapes and lifestyles in towns, suburbs and villages living in the country-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Towns, suburbs and villages-Activities associated with creating, planning and managing urban functions, landscapes and lifestyles in towns, suburbs and villages Developing the social life of a rural community-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Towns, suburbs and villages-Activities associated with creating, planning and managing urban functions, landscapes and lifestyles in towns, suburbs and villages Outlying settlements-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Towns, suburbs and villages-Activities associated with creating, planning and managing urban functions, landscapes and lifestyles in towns, suburbs and villages Creating landmark structures and places in regional settings-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Towns, suburbs and villages-Activities associated with creating, planning and managing urban functions, landscapes and lifestyles in towns, suburbs and villages Rural orchards-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Towns, suburbs and villages-Activities associated with creating, planning and managing urban functions, landscapes and lifestyles in towns, suburbs and villages Role of transport in settlement-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Towns, suburbs and villages-Activities associated with creating, planning and managing urban functions, landscapes and lifestyles in towns, suburbs and villages Vernacular hamlets and settlements-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Towns, suburbs and villages-Activities associated with creating, planning and managing urban functions, landscapes and lifestyles in towns, suburbs and villages Developing and operating manorial villages-
5. Working-Working Labour-Activities associated with work practises and organised and unorganised labour Working independently on the land-
5. Working-Working Labour-Activities associated with work practises and organised and unorganised labour Working in vineyards-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Creative endeavour-Activities associated with the production and performance of literary, artistic, architectural and other imaginative, interpretive or inventive works; and/or associated with the production and expression of cultural phenomena; and/or environments that have inspired such creative activities. Architectural styles and periods - Victorian (early)-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Creative endeavour-Activities associated with the production and performance of literary, artistic, architectural and other imaginative, interpretive or inventive works; and/or associated with the production and expression of cultural phenomena; and/or environments that have inspired such creative activities. Architectural styles and periods - colonial vernacular-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Creative endeavour-Activities associated with the production and performance of literary, artistic, architectural and other imaginative, interpretive or inventive works; and/or associated with the production and expression of cultural phenomena; and/or environments that have inspired such creative activities. Designing landscapes in an exemplary style-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Creative endeavour-Activities associated with the production and performance of literary, artistic, architectural and other imaginative, interpretive or inventive works; and/or associated with the production and expression of cultural phenomena; and/or environments that have inspired such creative activities. Building in response to climate - verandahs-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Creative endeavour-Activities associated with the production and performance of literary, artistic, architectural and other imaginative, interpretive or inventive works; and/or associated with the production and expression of cultural phenomena; and/or environments that have inspired such creative activities. Building in response to natural landscape features.-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Creative endeavour-Activities associated with the production and performance of literary, artistic, architectural and other imaginative, interpretive or inventive works; and/or associated with the production and expression of cultural phenomena; and/or environments that have inspired such creative activities. Architectural styles and periods - colonial homestead-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Creative endeavour-Activities associated with the production and performance of literary, artistic, architectural and other imaginative, interpretive or inventive works; and/or associated with the production and expression of cultural phenomena; and/or environments that have inspired such creative activities. Vernacular structures and building techniques-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Creative endeavour-Activities associated with the production and performance of literary, artistic, architectural and other imaginative, interpretive or inventive works; and/or associated with the production and expression of cultural phenomena; and/or environments that have inspired such creative activities. Landscaping - Federation period-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Creative endeavour-Activities associated with the production and performance of literary, artistic, architectural and other imaginative, interpretive or inventive works; and/or associated with the production and expression of cultural phenomena; and/or environments that have inspired such creative activities. Landscaping - colonial period-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Creative endeavour-Activities associated with the production and performance of literary, artistic, architectural and other imaginative, interpretive or inventive works; and/or associated with the production and expression of cultural phenomena; and/or environments that have inspired such creative activities. Landscaping - 20th century interwar-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Creative endeavour-Activities associated with the production and performance of literary, artistic, architectural and other imaginative, interpretive or inventive works; and/or associated with the production and expression of cultural phenomena; and/or environments that have inspired such creative activities. Landscaping - 20th century post WW2-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Creative endeavour-Activities associated with the production and performance of literary, artistic, architectural and other imaginative, interpretive or inventive works; and/or associated with the production and expression of cultural phenomena; and/or environments that have inspired such creative activities. Landscaping - Victorian gardenesque style-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Creative endeavour-Activities associated with the production and performance of literary, artistic, architectural and other imaginative, interpretive or inventive works; and/or associated with the production and expression of cultural phenomena; and/or environments that have inspired such creative activities. Interior design styles and periods - Victorian-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Creative endeavour-Activities associated with the production and performance of literary, artistic, architectural and other imaginative, interpretive or inventive works; and/or associated with the production and expression of cultural phenomena; and/or environments that have inspired such creative activities. Architectural styles and periods - Victorian (mid)-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Creative endeavour-Activities associated with the production and performance of literary, artistic, architectural and other imaginative, interpretive or inventive works; and/or associated with the production and expression of cultural phenomena; and/or environments that have inspired such creative activities. work of stonemasons-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Creative endeavour-Activities associated with the production and performance of literary, artistic, architectural and other imaginative, interpretive or inventive works; and/or associated with the production and expression of cultural phenomena; and/or environments that have inspired such creative activities. Applying architectural design to utlilitarian structures-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Domestic life-Activities associated with creating, maintaining, living in and working around houses and institutions. Country estates - visiting, enjoying-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Domestic life-Activities associated with creating, maintaining, living in and working around houses and institutions. Ways of life 1900-1950-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Domestic life-Activities associated with creating, maintaining, living in and working around houses and institutions. Ways of life 1950-2000-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Domestic life-Activities associated with creating, maintaining, living in and working around houses and institutions. Ways of life 1788-1850-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Domestic life-Activities associated with creating, maintaining, living in and working around houses and institutions. Ways of life 1850-1900-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Domestic life-Activities associated with creating, maintaining, living in and working around houses and institutions. Ornamental Garden-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Domestic life-Activities associated with creating, maintaining, living in and working around houses and institutions. Valuing women's contributions-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Domestic life-Activities associated with creating, maintaining, living in and working around houses and institutions. Physical evidence of creating, maintaining, living in and working around houses, through domestic artefacts scatters, ar-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Domestic life-Activities associated with creating, maintaining, living in and working around houses and institutions. Living on the urban fringe-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Domestic life-Activities associated with creating, maintaining, living in and working around houses and institutions. Living in a rural homestead-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Domestic life-Activities associated with creating, maintaining, living in and working around houses and institutions. Living in, adapting and renovating homes for changing conditions-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Domestic life-Activities associated with creating, maintaining, living in and working around houses and institutions. Kitchens and servants-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Leisure-Activities associated with recreation and relaxation Gathering at landmark places to socialise-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Leisure-Activities associated with recreation and relaxation Gardening-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Leisure-Activities associated with recreation and relaxation Activities associated with relaxation and recreation-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Leisure-Activities associated with recreation and relaxation Visiting heritage places-
9. Phases of Life-Marking the phases of life Persons-Activities of, and associations with, identifiable individuals, families and communal groups Associations with Thomas Barker MLA, pastoralist, miller, politician-
9. Phases of Life-Marking the phases of life Persons-Activities of, and associations with, identifiable individuals, families and communal groups Associations with William Hardy Wilson, architect, artist, writer, conservationist-
9. Phases of Life-Marking the phases of life Persons-Activities of, and associations with, identifiable individuals, families and communal groups Associations with Rowland Hassall, blacksmith, missionary, grazier-
9. Phases of Life-Marking the phases of life Persons-Activities of, and associations with, identifiable individuals, families and communal groups Associations with John Dickson, engineer, miller, grazier, dairy farmer-
9. Phases of Life-Marking the phases of life Persons-Activities of, and associations with, identifiable individuals, families and communal groups Associations with Robert Lowe (d.1832), gentleman, farmer-
9. Phases of Life-Marking the phases of life Persons-Activities of, and associations with, identifiable individuals, families and communal groups Associations with Michael Dowdell, emancipated Irish convict farmer-
9. Phases of Life-Marking the phases of life Persons-Activities of, and associations with, identifiable individuals, families and communal groups Associations with Eliza Walker (nee Hassall), gentlewoman-
9. Phases of Life-Marking the phases of life Persons-Activities of, and associations with, identifiable individuals, families and communal groups Associations with Rowland Thomas Brisbane Walker, farmer-
9. Phases of Life-Marking the phases of life Persons-Activities of, and associations with, identifiable individuals, families and communal groups Associations with Matthew Dysart Hunter, merchant-
9. Phases of Life-Marking the phases of life Persons-Activities of, and associations with, identifiable individuals, families and communal groups Associations with Sarah Lowe, gentlewoman-

Assessment of significance

SHR Criteria a)
[Historical significance]
Maryland is of historic significance at a state level because it covers a large part of the early land granted to John Dickson in 1816 which he called 'Nonorrah' and part of land north of Lowes Creek granted to Robert Lowe in 1812 which he called 'Birling' and is a major surviving mid-19th century rural estate - the core of the original grant which continues as a working farm. It was associated with the 1816 frontier conflict between settlers and Aboriginal people. It contains substantial evidence of earlier estate layout and design by engineer Thomas Barker with an outstanding group of dairy and winery outbuildings and gatehouses. It contains a c1860 house and garden, both representative of that era of gentlemen's country estates which once dominated the Camden-Narellan area. It has generally always been used as a gentleman's country estate and working farm with its longest associated use for viticulture under the Barker family ownership (1854-1910) and dairy farming (under pioneers of that industry, the Thomson family ownershjip (1910-2010). The site has had an established winery from the 1860s and is representative of early garden design and European planning practices within NSW. Its garden was singled out by artist William Hardy Wilson in his studies of early Australian colonial homesteads.
SHR Criteria b)
[Associative significance]
Maryland has associative value at a state level with prominent and well-respected miller, engineer and business man, John Dickson, his brother James. It has associations with Dickson's apprentice, Thomas Barker, who purchased the farm in 1854 and constructed the house c.1860 and became a well-respected businessman and philanthropist. Barker was a patron of Sydney Botanic Gardens, had an avid interest in botany and established Maryland's homestead garden. It has associations with his son, Thomas Charles Barker Jnr who later redesigned its gardens to emulate architect, author and artist, William Hardy Wilson's ideal version of its garden, which Wilson included in his books of early colonial architecture along the Cow Pasture Road. It has associative value with the Thomson family, particularly Annie and Elizabeth Thomson, who were prominent in the NSW dairy industry and socially in the Camden district from 1940-2010.
SHR Criteria c)
[Aesthetic significance]
Maryland has aesthetic value of state significance for its high degree of creative landscape design in its access and home farm layout, vineyards and picturesque gardens in a sublime landscape setting. These have been consciously organised according to the particularities of its local climate. It is an example of a complete, well-preserved large rural estate and working farm of a kind that once characterised the area. It offers an important early example of the "summit" model of homestead landscaping, with homestead complex occupying a prominent hilltop forming an important local reference point, emphasised by conspicuous and densely-planted signal Araucaria pine plantings - making it readily visible from The Northern Road. Its early colonial era Georgian Revival homestead was designed as a single-storey colonnaded 'temple' or villa set on the edge of a mount, surrounded once by grape vines and accessed by a pine alley (avenue) leading from the home farm on alluvial flats or plains below rising up to the villa, in the style of an Italianate Arcadian landscape. It contains an outstanding group of estate buildings including homestead, two gatehouses, winery buildings, home farmhouse, stables and coach house, store, dairy buildings, hay barn and many minor structures. The winery and store may be the oldest surviving winery buildings in Australia.
SHR Criteria d)
[Social significance]
Maryland is not considered of state significance for its associations with a particular community or cultural group in NSW.
SHR Criteria e)
[Research potential]
Maryland has potential state-significance for its archaeological remains which cover a period from 1816 onwards. It also has at least six identified Aboriginal archaeological sites, and the eastern drainage line has zones of medium and high Aboriginal archaeological potential relating to contact and post-contact remains. Its historical archaeological resources are likely to include material associated with domestic occupation of the Barker and Thomson families, household staff/servants, workers and families, notably those of German heritage, the nature and use of winery and farm estate buildings, landscaping of the garden and extensive remnant vineyard fields. Archaeological analytical and spatial approaches could inform further definition and understanding of buried and disused aspects of a complex, layered landscape.

Its potential archaeological remains have high potential to inform knowledge of larger themes including development of wine growing and dairy farming in the area, German migration to NSW and everyday life on a large farm and 'gentleman's estate'. They have research significance through their ability to address various research questions related to rural domestic life, farm and winery construction, functioning, management practices and technology and the rural landscape.

Maryland offers an outstanding landscape archaeological resource with its extensive remnant vineyard fields, other remnant functional and ornamental plantings.
SHR Criteria f)
[Rarity]
Maryland has potential state-significance as a rare, intact rural estate on the Cumberland Plain with its mid-19th century estate layout, home farm, drives, remarkable group of buildings preserved in their intact rural setting dating from c1860, surviving to the present. These give clear evidence of the use of the property as a gentleman's country estate, working vineyard and dairy farm from c1810 until the present. Maryland is a rare example of mid-19th century gardenesque and picturesque landscape and garden design and retains a rare historical resource in its remnant gardens and vineyards. Other historically related rural landscape elements beyond the homestead may still be appreciated in relation to it, including the driveways, home farm paddocks, creek lines, fence lines, in a considered arrangement. It retains important traditional historic views to and from The Northern Road and to Birling to its north.
SHR Criteria g)
[Representativeness]
Maryland is potentially of state-significance as a representative example of a 19th century gentleman's rural estate and a working farm property with a substantial house, outbuildings, gardens, drives, gate houses, paddocks and dams. It is representative of early farming estates on the Cumberland Plain associated with early Australian viticulture, with layout in line with the English Landscape tradition, with support of early Australian amateur ornamental gardening and with pioneering in the dairy industry and German migration. Maryland may be of significance for its representative values at the state level.
Integrity/Intactness: Maryland's house and outbuildings retain much of their nineteenth century architectural integrity. Mayland's landscape qualities include a park-like setting and important remnants of nineteenth century gardens.
Assessment criteria: Items are assessed against the PDF State Heritage Register (SHR) Criteria to determine the level of significance. Refer to the Listings below for the level of statutory protection.

Recommended management:

Ensure immediate listing on State Heritage Register of whole remaining estate area. The whole remaining estate should be conserved as a cultural landscape including its historic fabric (including the outlying gatehouse and dairy group), layout (including the former entry drive to the north) and visual dominance of the hilltop homestead and garden composition from the Northern Road. Retain the existing zoning for the remaining estate. Consider providing appropriate incentives (at both local, State and Federal government levels) to assist in the responsible ongoing custodial management of the estate. --------------------------------------------------------------------- Maryland ? Any proposed development within the Maryland curtilage site should consider how to minimise impacts on the potential archaeological resource. ? Any impacts on archaeological sites listed in this report should be the subject of a S140 Archaeological Excavation application to the Heritage Division, Office of Environment and Heritage. ? The S140 documentation will need to consider mitigation of impacts on potential archaeological resources as well as methodologies to record and archaeological remains exposed during works. Methodologies might include clarification of strategies to minimise impacts including testing prior to the finalisation of impact design, which may lead to detailed archaeological recording and investigation. ? This report should be lodged as part of any S140 application. ? A S140 application requires the writing of an Archaeological Research Design (ARD) outlining the details of proposed design impacts and the excavation methodology and research questions. The ARD requires the nomination of an Excavation Director and key members of the archaeological team who will undertake the archaeological program. ? Demolition of existing structures at the site should be subject to archaeological input regarding mitigation of impacts on potential archaeological remains. ? The archaeological program will need to be undertaken in accordance with the S140 Conditions of Consent. ? Standard conditions attached to S140 approvals include the requirement for a final report in the results of any archaeological program and the cataloguing and archiving of any archaeological artefacts or relics recovered during the works. ? A repository, storage in perpetuity, for the artefacts recovered from the site will need to be provided by the proponents. A suitable storage solution may be the construction of a storage room within any new development (Casey & Lowe, 2016, iii).

Recommendations

Management CategoryDescriptionDate Updated
Statutory InstrumentNominate for State Heritage Register (SHR) 
Recommended ManagementReview a Conservation Management Plan (CMP) 
Recommended ManagementPrepare a maintenance schedule or guidelines 
Recommended ManagementCarry out interpretation, promotion and/or education 

Listings

Heritage ListingListing TitleListing NumberGazette DateGazette NumberGazette Page
Heritage Act - Under consideration for SHR/IHO listing  14 Mar 18   
Heritage Act - Under consideration for SHR/IHO listing  23 Aug 01   
Heritage Act - Listing Rejected by MinisterMinister returned unsigned-further work needed 31 Aug 05   
Local Environmental PlanCamden LEPI103 Sep 10   
National Trust of Australia register NTA (NSW) Suburban RegisterS889321 Oct 80   
Register of the National EstateMaryland and Outbuildings324621 Mar 78   
Register of the National EstateMaryland Garden and Setting324721 Mar 78   

Study details

TitleYearNumberAuthorInspected byGuidelines used
Macarthur Heritage Study1986 JRC Planning ServicesJocelyn Colleran No
Colonial Landscapes of the Cumberland Plain and Camden, NSW20004.12Morris, C., & Britton, G./NSW National Trust (for the Heritage Council of NSW)National Trust of Australia Yes
Survey and Report: 19th Century Buildings and Sites: Camden0 Helen Proudfoot  No
South Creek Valley Heritage Study1990 Perumal Murphy Ltd  No

References, internet links & images

TypeAuthorYearTitleInternet Links
Written 1870Horticultural Magazine and Gardeners' and Amateurs' Calendar - Vol. VII
WrittenCasey & Lowe2016Historical Archaeological Assessment: Lowes Creek Maryland Part (Precinct), Rezoning
WrittenCasey & Lowe Archaeology & Heritage2018'Birling', The Northern Road, Bringelly - Historical Research post-1935
WrittenColleen Morris & Geoffrey Britton2000Colonial Landscapes of the Cumberland Plain and Camden, NSW
WrittenFox, Len1978Old Sydney Windmills
WrittenHector Abrahams Architects2017Maryland and Birling - Conservation Management Plan - Grading of Significance & Policies
WrittenHeritage Division OEH2011Maryland File 11/20788
WrittenJames Broadbent1982"Maryland", in 'Historic Homesteads'
OtherRoyal Botanic Gardens, Sydney1832Royal Botanic Gardens 'Plants Sent Out'.
WrittenTropman & Tropman Architects2017Conservation Management Plan - Maryland
WrittenVeitch, Harriet2009Dairy's crème de la crème on city's edge (Obituary: Annie Thomson, 1921-2009)
WrittenWrigley, John2006Historic Sites make up the landscape, in 'Back Then' column

Note: internet links may be to web pages, documents or images.

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Data source

The information for this entry comes from the following source:
Name: Heritage Office
Database number: 5051539
File number: H02/80; EF14/11320; EF18/2350


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