Callan Park Conservation Area & Buildings | NSW Environment & Heritage

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Callan Park Conservation Area & Buildings

Item details

Name of item: Callan Park Conservation Area & Buildings
Other name/s: Rozelle Hospital Precinct, Kirkbride, Rozelle Hospital
Type of item: Landscape
Group/Collection: Landscape - Cultural
Category: Historic Landscape
Location: Lat: -33.8667691483 Long: 151.1608531760
Primary address: Balmain Road, Lilyfield, NSW 2039
Parish: Petersham
County: Cumberland
Local govt. area: Leichhardt
Local Aboriginal Land Council: Metropolitan
Property description
Lot/Volume CodeLot/Volume NumberSection NumberPlan/Folio CodePlan/Folio Number
LOT1 DP1043540
LOT2 DP1043540
All addresses
Street AddressSuburb/townLGAParishCountyType
Balmain RoadLilyfieldLeichhardtPetershamCumberlandPrimary Address

Owner/s

Organisation NameOwner CategoryDate Ownership Updated
NSW Department of HealthState Government 

Statement of significance:

Rozelle Hospital site, created as one unit in 1976, comprises two major mental health facilities, each of which was developed using an existing mansion house set within expansive landscaping. As a whole, and as two component parts, Rozelle Hospital can demonstrate it has heritage significance to the people of NSW.

The Rozelle Hospital site contains the fabric of two grand Victorian gentlemen's estates, and is able to demonstrate the pastoral character of the period. The original relationship between Callan Park Conservation Area and Buildings' Garry Owen House (later Callan Park) and Broughton Hall has been retained and their grounds are still interpretable and intact. These grounds became the sites of the mental health institutions that adopted their respective names.

Rozelle Hospital demonstrates two major changes in mental health in NSW. It contains original architecture and landscaping of both hospitals. The buildings associated with the former Callan Park mental hospital are of exceptional significance, in particular the Kirkbride Block.

Its landscaped spaces and landmark buildings have contributed visually and socially to the local area for over 100 years. The foreshore areas of the site are significant as rare open space elements. Callan Point is considered to be the most important Aboriginal archaeological site remaining on the southern shores of Sydney Harbour. Callan Point also contains rare examples of pre-European vegetation and unique European rock carvings.

The site as a whole has very high levels of social significance and has special associations for the local and broader community both as an open space resource and for its cultural and aesthetic value. (Tanner & Associates, 2002)

Kirkbride Block is significant as the collaborative work of three prominent figures in the late 19th century, James Barnet, Charles Moore and Frederick Norton Manning, as the largest remaining mental institution in NSW and as the first to be designed as a curative and therapeutic environment. The landscape design and setting of Kirkbride is vital and paramount to the design and philosophy of 'moral therapy' treatment evidenced in the intimate design of courtyards through to the long vistas over the hospital grounds and surrounding country. The landscape cannot be separated from the buildings and performs an equal and active function in the creation of the therapeutic environment. It is highly significant that much of the original fabric, character and setting for this major Victorian period design remain intact within a highly developed inner city locality.

Callan Park House (former Garry Owen House), as an impressive early and mid-Victorian residence is one of the oldest remaining houses in the district. It has strong associations with the early history of the Rozelle area. It is an important visual landmark element within the hospital. (State Heritage Inventory)

Rozelle Hospital grounds are of historic and social significance at a state level in their association with the establishment of two hospitals, Callan Park and Broughton Hall, demonstrating two major changes in mental health in NSW. These changes, and changing ideas in garden design, are reflected in the grounds. The grounds are of historic and social significance in their evidence of patient involvement.

The grounds of the former Callan Park area of Rozelle Hospital are of historic significance on a national level as an integral element of the first hospital for the insane which was designed based on moral therapy principles and built in the one campaign. They are a direct application of the moral therapy principles of psychiatric care in the landscape. They are associated with: Dr Frederick Norton Manning, Inspector General for the Insane; James Barnet, Colonial Architect; and Charles Moore, Director of the then Botanic Gardens, Sydney. (now the Royal Botanic Gardens, Sydney)(Read, S., pers.comm., 2004)

Broughton Hall Psychiatric Clinic gardens are of historic significance on a regional level in their demonstration of the views of Dr Sydney Evan Jones on the value of gardens in the care of the mentally ill. The form and character of the original garden setting for Broughton Hall, noted in its time, is still evident.

Rozelle Hospital is of historic significance on a regional level in that it contains rare surviving 19th century gentlemen's estates, associated with the development of the area. Garryowen House and surrounds demonstrate, in part, the pastoral character of the estate period.

Rozelle Hospital grounds are of aesthetic significance on a regional level in that they demonstrate a high level of creative achievement. The former Callan Park Mental Hospital is an accomplished work of architecture and landscape design. Broughton Hall grounds exhibit a combination of structures of oriental inspiration with horticultural richness, and some rare plant species such as rose apple, durobby or watermelon tree, Syzygium moorei.

Rozelle Hospital grounds are of aesthetic significance in that they reflect the natural landform which was the setting for the original development of the site and surrounding suburbs and contain rare examples on a local level of remnant natural areas and Aboriginal cultural sites. It is of both aesthetic and social significance because it contributes visually and socially to the local identity and sense of place.

Rozelle Hospital grounds are of social significance on a regional level in that they provide public recreational and open space within an intensively developed urban environment.

Rozelle Hospital grounds are of scientific significance on a regional level for their horticultural significance. They are of scientific significance for their archaeological value of their rock engravings and Aboriginal middens. (National Trust, 1994)
Date significance updated: 02 May 17
Note: The State Heritage Inventory provides information about heritage items listed by local and State government agencies. The State Heritage Inventory is continually being updated by local and State agencies as new information becomes available. Read the OEH copyright and disclaimer.

Description

Designer/Maker: various: Mortimer Lewis; James Barnet (buildings); Charles Moore (plantings)
Construction years: 1839-1880
Physical description: Rozelle Hospital site is 61 hectares of undulating waterfront parkland site, with complexes of buildings clustered across it, and diverse landscape elements and plantings. The site incorporates many layers of archaeological, Aboriginal, historic, cultural, aesthetic and environmental heritage.

It contains many heritage buildings, including two of the original houses (1839 and 1842) of the three original estates on which it is based: and the magnificent Kirkbride Block, completed in 1885 for the Callan Park Psychiatric Hospital, and now the campus of the Sydney College of the Arts.

Garryowen Estate and House (later, Callan Park Estate and House, the latter now called the NSW Writer's Centre):
This, the first building on the site, c.1840, was built on a curved earth terrace projecting from the slope (the edge of the sandstone ridge where the land begins to fall away at the top of the slopes) with commanding views over Iron Cove. It was originally a grand private residence and prominent in Leichhardt society (1991 Heritage Study of Rozelle Hospital).

It retains some early estate and garden layout, showing the influence of English pattern books on laying out a garden - with axial approach to the front door with a carriage loop. Garryowen also retains some early plantings, such as an old (1.5m trunk girth) evergreen or Southern magnolia /bull bay, (M.grandiflora) and a Camellia japonica cv. (double red with a fleck of white) west of the house's main garden front (western side) in front of Garry Owen Cottage (1880s, designed by Government Architect James Barnet for male convalescent patients (Griffin, R., pers.comm, 2013). Four mature jacarandas (J.mimosifolia) and 3 cabbage tree palms (Livistona australis) and a cedar wattle (Acacia elata) are to Garryowen's north. A rainforest Cordyline stricta, Western Australian peppermint (Agonis flexuosa) and a hedge of Cape plumbago (P.capensis) are to the house's north-east. To the north are a Bunya pine (Araucaria bidwillii), 3 Bhutan cypresses (Cupressus torulosa) and a Norfolk Island hibiscus tree (Lagunaria patersonia. To the west are more jacaranda trees (Stuart Read, pers.comm., 6/2017).

The house has two main front rooms (drawing room and dining room) accessed through sliding doors from a central hall, enabling the opening of both right up into a large single ballroom, similar to that of Government House (which Mortimer Lewis had implemented, overseeing the plans prepared by English architect, Edmund Blore. It shows Lewis' architectural trademarks, such as reeded, rather than fluted mouldings in the tops of window cases, floor skirtings are panelled, French doors onto the verandahs (onto the entrance front (north) and garden front (west) sides of the house (these doors were later changed by James Barnet to hung windows). The octagonal asphalt paving blocks on the verandah floors are a trademark of James Barnet, also seen at his Police & Justice Museum near Circular Quay and South West Rocks Lighthouse. The Library and another room are divided by sliding doors (Griffin, pers.comm., 2013).

The original small cottage has been incorporated into the present mid-Victorian two storey building. Additions have been made to the east and south. The stair hall has a fine Neoclasical interior and domed ceiling, with stained glass inserts. There is a centrally placed entrance on the north elevation with elegant fanlight and classically detailed moulded entablature. It is constructed of rendered brick ashlar coursed single-storey verandah with timber supports and posts, corrugated iron roofed. The main roof is of galvanised iron, hidden behind the parapet. Extensive brick additions to the east which have been rendered and painted (1992, Preliminary Heritage & Conservation Register - Central District Area Health Service).

Garry Owen Cottage (1880s)
This was designed by Government Architect James Barnet for male convalescent patients (Griffin, R., pers.comm, 2013) is of sandstone, sited on the edge (west) of Garryowen's earth platform, and together with the group of Convalescent Cottages (zone 5) forms part of the deliberately composed picturesque setting for the Kirkbride Block. Also there is a small male attendent's cottage designed by Government Architect Walter Liberty Vernon in the zone.

Gardener's Cottage
A gardener's cottage has 6 rooms (Griffin, ibid).

Broughton Hall & setting: (NB: See separate SHR item)

Callan Park Grounds - plantings:
Key features of Callan Park's grounds include an array of NSW/Qld. rainforest species, such as giant Moreton Bay figs (Ficus macrophylla), Port Jackson or rusty figs (F.rubiginosa) and Hill's figs (F.microcarpa 'Hillii'), brush box trees (Lophostemon confertus), native rainforest conifers such as Bunya Bunya pines (Araucaria bidwillii), hoop pines (A.cunninghamii), Norfolk Island pines (A.heterophylla), Cook's pines (A.columnaris). Other conifers include Chinese funeral cypresses (Cupressus funebris), Chinese junipers (Juniperus chinensis) and Mediterranean cypresses (Cupressus sempervirens).Native conifers, the white cypress pines (Callitris glaucophylla, (syn.C.columellaris) are scattered through Callan Park's grounds (Stuart Read, pers.comm., 12/8/2015).

Another theme in plantings are palms, with a rich array including locally-native cabbage tree palms (Livistona australis), bangalow or piccabeen palms (Archontophoenix cunninghamiana), Californian desert palms (Washingtonia robusta), Canary Island date palms (Phoenix canariensis), Senegalese palms (P.), pygmy date palms (P.roebelinii)(ibid, 2016)

Other prominent features are giant bamboo groves (in the Pleasure Ground east of Kirkbride Block and another in Broughton Hall's rainforest gully), the rare maidenhair tree, (Ginkgo biloba), remnant native species such as local forest red gum trees, (Eucalyptus tereticornis), Sydney red gums (Angophora costata), tallowwoods (E.microcorys), spotted gums (Corymbia maculata) and other decorative eucalypt species such as lemon-scented gums (Corymbia citriodora), turpentines, (Syncarpia glomulifera), wattles etc. (ibid., 12/8/2015). Other notable trees includecadagi/cadaghi (Corymbia torelliana) from North Queensland, rare pink siris (Pararchidendron pruinosum), hybrid or London plane trees (Platanus x hybrida)(ibid, 2016).

Kirkbride Complex:
The Kirkbride complex sits proud on a high ridge on the site to the north east of Garryowen's grounds. It is a magnificent sandstone complex of buildings and courtyards, surrounded by walls and ha has (hidden boundary lines behind 'sunk fences'). The complex was completed in 1885 for the government-run Callan Park Psychiatric Hospital. This complex has more recently been used by Sydney University as a campus of the Sydney College of the Arts.

Kirkbride Block's landscape setting including its 'Pleasure Grounds' to the east, includes a number of plantings and elements dating from the site's long involvement with the Director of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Sydney, Charles Moore. Moore's legacy can be seen at Callan Park/Broughton House in the mature Moreton Bay fig, (Ficus macrophylla), Port Jackson fig, (F.rubiginosa), Bunya pines, (Araucaria bidwillii), hoop pines, (A.cunninghamiana), kauri pines, (Agathis spp., e.g. Queensland kauri, Agathis robusta) and South Pacific kauri, A.moorei or possibly A.lanceolata), diverse palms such as the very tall Californian desert and cotton palms/ Washingtonias, (W.robusta and W.filifera), Canary Island date palms, (Phoenix canariensis) and pygmy date palms, (P. roebellinii), Bangalow palms (Archontophoenix cunninghamiana), Lord Howe Island palms (Howea fosteriana) and other rainforest trees (Stuart Read, pers.comm., 7/12/2016).

Shrubs and ground cover plantings display similar diversity of palette, reflecting popular choices of both the 19th and 20th centuries, often uncommon or rarely seen today. An example is the South-east Asian rose apple (Syzygium jambos) several of which grace the Kirkbride Block's eastern courtyards and entry points. Another is the Chinese fringe flower, Loropetalum chinense in Broughton Hall's grounds (Stuart Read, via Roslyn Burge, pers.comm., 9/9/2015).

Notable Pleasure Ground specimens include giant bamboo groves (Bambusa balcooa), rainforest trees such as brush box (Lophostemon confertus) and figs (ibid, 2016).

The site displays quite a collection of conifers, such as various Araucaria species, Himalayan cedar (Cedrus deodara), Chinese and Bermudan juniper (Juniperus chinensis and J.bermudiana), the rare and primitive maidenhair tree, (Ginkgo biloba) to Kirkbride Block's north-east (ibid, 2016). A Sawarra false cypress (Chamaecyparis pisifera) is near the north-west of the Balmain Road oval and two funeral cypress (Cupressus funebris) are alongside the entrance to Kirkbride Block's south-eastern courtyard (Stuart Read, pers.comm., 7/2017). Alongside building 210 is a single specimen of native white cypress pines (Callitris glaucophylla, (syn.C.columellaris). Other native white cypress pines are scattered through Callan Park's grounds (Stuart Read, pers.comm., 12/8/2015).

The site retains some remnant native trees and shrubs, such as local gum trees, (Eucalyptus tereticornis), turpentines, (Syncarpia glomulifera), wattles etc - e.g. on the bank north-west of Kirkbride Block. A bush care group of volunteers has been weeding, planting and encouraging regeneration of these old trees (ibid, 2016).

Elsewhere in the grounds are groves and specimen plantings of other decorative eucalypt species such as lemon-scented gums (Corymbia citriodora). Alongside building 210 is a single specimen of, and elsewhere a grove of native white cypress pines (Callitris glaucophylla, (syn.C.columellaris) is in the lower western part of Broughton Hall near the Japanese bridge and water course. Other white cypress pines are scattered through Callan Park's grounds (Stuart Read, pers.comm., 12/8/2015).

Other notable trees include hybrid kurrajong/flame trees (Brachychiton x roseus), cadagi/cadaghi (Corymbia torelliana) from North Queensland, rare pink siris (Pararchidendron pruinosum), hybrid or London plane trees (Platanus x hybrida)(ibid, 2016).
Physical condition and/or
Archaeological potential:
The 2002 Tanner & Associates CMP (section 3.3 Historical Archaeological Assessment by Casey & Lowe) identifies (in figure 3.10) buildings considered to have potential. These all belong to the initial years of the hospital period (pre 1900) covering the original hospital buildings, initial additions and changes. Zone 4 is the Kirkbride Block & Garry Owen House precinct. Underground tanks occur in both areas. Garry Owen was known to have more outbuildings. The primary archaeological resource is seen as the standing buildings and sites of demolished buildings and outbuildings and their capacity to provide information about their original configuration and associated archaeological deposits such as underfloor and yard area deposits. Changing building configuration is particularly relevant to the changing nature of care for the mentally ill.
Date condition updated:07 Dec 16
Modifications and dates: 1839 Garry Owen House built.
1841/2 Broughton Hall built
1868 Main gates built to Balmain Road (Barnet)
1878 Gothic Revival Gate Lodge built near Balmain Road (Barnet)
1885 Kirkbride Complex built.

1912 Balmain Road was widened, requiring the moving of the perimeter wall and main Balmain Road gates, the latter from infront of the Gate Lodge to their current position.

1920s main entry drive realigned to its current layout.

1988 Major changes from the "Barclay Report" of 1988. Upgrading works at Rozelle Hospital, including restoration, refurbishment and selling of some land to fund the works.
late 1980s: Gate Lodge, Balmain Road: to facilitate its adaptation to a childcare centre, alterations and additions were designed, resulting in two elevations being enclosed by banded blonde brick wings, with imitation slate roofing

1991+ Construction of a new psychiatric complex located off the south-western corner of the Kirkbride block, and the use of the Kirkbride block for psychiatric care was subsequently phased out (Wayne McPhee & Associates, 2006).

1992 feasibility study to accomodate the Sydney College of the Arts (University of Sydney) in the Kirkbride block and subsequent rezoning and development of the facility. At the end of 1992 it was proposed to lease the Kirkbride block to the University for occupation by the College of the Arts. The University undertook extensive conservation and adaptive reuse works to accomodate the College within the Kirkbride buildings.

Garry Owen House has been restored for use by the NSW Writers' Centre. In May 1990 the Special Projects Section of the Public Works Department prepared a report on Garry Owen House for the Ministry for the Arts. This examined the cultural signficance and existing condition of the building and estimated cost of repairs. This was the basis for the restoration now complete. (Tanner & Associates, 2002).
Current use: Sydney College of the Arts; NSW Writers' Centre; NSW Ambulance Service; various
Former use: Mental Hospital

History

Historical notes: Before European settlement the Wangal clan or band lived at the site and their territory extended along the Parramatta River from about Petersham westward. The Wangal were part of the Eora or Dharug tribes. Due to a small pox epidemic between 1789 and 1790 and European land development, only about 50 people from Dharug families were living in the Sydney area by 1900. (Wayne McPhee, 2006).

Rozelle Hospital site forms part of Leichhardt Municipality, a district formed by 15 land grants between 1789 and 1821. The areas west of the peninsular were slow to develop, however the later land grants were instrumental in developing Rozelle Hospital (Wayne McPhee, 2006).

There were 2 small grants to Francis Lloyd who received 50 acres in 1819 (Portion 112, Parish of Petersham) and Luke Ralph who received 50 acres in 1821 (Portion 113) which he named 'Fairlight' (Leong, 1984, 5). These adjoining grants stretched from Long or Iron Cove to Rozelle Bay. To their west, Lawrence Butler received 100 acres in 1819 (Portion 114). These grants by the 1840s were in common ownership and became Garry Owen estate, later known as Callan Park.

To the west of Butler's grant was John Austen's 100 acre grant which he received in 1819 (Portion 115, Parish of Petersham). This estate was initially called Spring Cove, but by the 1840s was known as Austenham. The two relevant houses on this estate were called Austenham or Kalouan and Brpughton House. The Garry Owen estate was separated from the Broughton House/Austenham estate by a line formed by the extension northward of Wharf Road. (Tanner & Associates, 2002).

The main gates to Balmain Road were designed by James Barnet were built in 1868 in front of the Gate Lodge, built in 1878, also designed by Barnet.

Callan Park estate was originally called Garry Owen and owned by Crown Solicitor and Police Magistrate John Joseph Ryan Brenan. Brenan's residence, Geraldine cottage / Garry Owen House, was built about 1839 and was likely designed by Colonial Architect Mortimer Lewis. A contemporary description of the estate noted its 'stately wrought iron gates, unequalled in the colony, supported on handsome pillars each one a block of stone with pedestal and cap, and a beautiful serpentine approach, the avenue lined with trees and choice shrubs, 1/8 of a mile long'. Brenan was born in Garry Owen in Ireland. He arrived in New South Wales in 1834 with his second wife. Brenan was known to Governor Bourke (who was also Irish). Bourke appointed Brenan as Coroner in 1835 and Police Magistrate in 1836 (Griffin, pers.comm., 2013).

In 1841 Brenan bought an additional three acres west of his estate and built Broughton House, which he then sold with its extensive grounds in 1845. From 1854-64 Brenan mortgaged the estate three times. Brenan had an orangery on the southern side of Balmain Road, a sawmill twards the cove, a summer house (now a greenhouse) and a bathing house on the estate. He built 'Maida' in c.1840 of brick (corner of Maida Avenue and Grove Streets) across Balmain Road. He won prizes for vegetables grown on his farm at Prospect, and for flowers at the Floral and Horticultural Society Show in 1841. He was a gregarious man, entertaining a lot at Garry Owen. Brenan had increasing difficulties with money, transferring Broughton House to James Hume. Brenan lost his job in the 1844 depression. In 1843 a sale was held at Garry Owen of all the household's furniture. In 1845 he gave up the rights to Garry Owen estate (ibid, 2013).

The construction of Pyrmont Bridge in 1857 and Glebe Island Bridge in 1862 and the Iron Cove Bridge in 1880 opened up land to the west of Rozelle and generated speculative subdivision. Although large estates were rapidly subdivided, the houses and original curtilage of Broughton House and Garry Owen House remained rare survivors within the grounds of Rozelle Hospital. (Wayne McPhee, 2006).

In 1864 (Griffin, 2013 says 1865) Brenan sold the estate (45 acres: ibid, 2013) to Sydney business man John Gordon. Brenan moved to Maitland (ibid, 2013). Gordon renamed the property Callan Park, and in 1873 subdivided the land for auction as a new waterfront suburb. The Callan Estate was purchased by the colonial government of New South Wales, led by Henry Parkes, and Charles Moore, then Director of the Botanic Gardens, was entrusted with (re-)designing the grounds.

Charles Moore travelled extensively during his long tenure as curator of the Botanic Gardens, and collected rainforest trees from Northern NSW and palms and kauris (Agathis spp.) from the Pacific Islands. Moore's legacy can be seen at Callan Park/Broughton House in the mature Moreton Bay fig, (Ficus macrophylla), Port Jackson fig, (F.rubiginosa), Bunya pines, (Araucaria bidwillii), hoop pines, (A.cunninghamii), kauri pines, (Agathis spp), palms such as the very tall cotton palms (Washingtonia filifera and W.robusta), Canary Island date palm, (Phoenix canariensis) and pygmy date palm, (P. roebellinii), giant bamboo clumps and other rainforest trees. A notable specimen is the rare Coolamon or rose apple, (Syzygium moorei), named after Charles Moore, growing east of Broughton Hall's rainforest gully plantings along the creek line (Stuart Read, pers.comm., 2013).

Garry Owen was adapted as an asylum in 1875/76 prior to the building of the Kirkbride Block and though altered and extended, it is substantially intact (Griffin, R., pers.comm, 2013).

The magnificent Kirkbride Block of sandstone and brick buildings and courtyards was completed in 1885 for the Callan Park Psychiatric Hospital. This complex is now the campus of the Sydney College of the Arts. Garry Owen House is now used as the NSW Writers' Centre.

Adjacent to Garry Owen House is a stone cottage designed by Government Architect, James Barnet as part of the 'Kirkbride Design' for male convalescent patients (Griffin, R., pers.comm., 2013).

In 1912 Balmain Road was widened, necessitating the relocation of the Balmain Road boundary wall, main gates and gateposts in addition to the removal of part of the original boundary plantation. Plants were sent to Callan Park between 1909 and 1912 but there is no indication where these were planted. The re-location of the entrance gates precipitated the need to reassess thealignment of the entry drive and by the 1920s the entry drive was relocated to its current position with plantings of Canary Island palms (Phoenix canariensis) defining its edge (Kate Napier Architecture, 2013, 6-7).

During the first world war changes to mental health care were instigated and in 1914 patients could only be treated if they were committed into one of the major institutions. Broughton Hall was resumed by the Government for repatriation care and this function became one of the main functions of Callan Park with additional facilities built in the grounds (Wayne McPhee & Associates, 2006). Broughton Hall's house and grounds was used as a convalescent home for returned soldiers from the First World War. A photograph of soldiers, nurses in the grounds was in 'The Mirror of Australia' 10/2/1918 (Leichhardt Council, 2015).

During the early years of the 20th century health professionals pushed for early intervention in mental illness. In 1921 Broughton Hall opened as a voluntary admission clinic, which, through later years under Sydney Evan Jones, became the largest such facility in Australia. The use of gardens was an integral part of the patients' treatment and paths, ponds and bridges were built throughout the grounds.

Rozelle Hospital site was created as one unit by a NSW Health Department amalgamation in 1976 of two major mental health facilities, Callan Park Mental Asylum (based on Callan Park or Garry Owen House) and the neighbouring Broughton Hall (based on Broughton House) Psychiatric Clinic to its west (Burge, 2001, 17).

For much of the twentieth century the complex has been managed by the Department of Health providing a range of health/ psychiatric care services, a centre for the NSW Ambulance Service. Towards the late twentieth century health services have been increasingly scaled back on the site, and many buildings have been left empty.

Major changes to the Rozelle Hospital site were an outcome of the "Barclay Report" of 1988, which emphasised the need for a balance of services between community and hospital-based services. Upgrading works at Rozelle Hospital, including restoration, refurbishment and selling of some land to fund the works, were a direct result. Construction of a new psychiatric complex located off the south-western corner of the Kirkbride block was commenced in 1991, and the use of the Kirkbride block for psychiatric care was subsequently phased out. The Central Sydney Area Health Service began to investigate alternative uses for buildings with heritage significance, in addition to assessing the future use of under used facilities throughout the hospital. (Wayne McPhee & Associates, 2006).

In 1990 the Historic Buildings Group of the NSW Dept. of Public Works prepared detailed conservation guidelines for the Kirkbride block to assist in assessing the feasibility of its use by the University of Sydney for the College of the Arts. In 1992 the Property Services Group undertook a feasibility study to accomodate the Sydney College of the Arts (University of Sydney) in the Kirkbride block and subsequent rezoning and development of the facility. At the end of 1992 it was proposed to lease the Kirkbride block to the University for occupation by the College of the Arts. The University undertook extensive conservation and adaptive reuse works to accomodate the College within the Kirkbride buildings.

Garry Owen House has been restored for use by the NSW Writers' Centre. In May 1990 the Special Projects Section of the Public Works Department prepared a report on Garry Owen House for the Ministry for the Arts. This examined the cultural signficance and existing condition of the building and estimated cost of repairs. This was the basis for the restoration now complete. (Tanner & Associates, 2002).

In the early 1990s Rozelle hospital vacated the complex and in 1994 the Sydney College of the Arts, part of Sydney University, took over (Greenland, 2015, 17).

Currently the site accomodates a number of mental health functions. Rozelle Hospital primarily operating from the Broughton Hall Psychiatric Clinic buildings, together with support functions, it occupies over 100 buildings on the site. A number of buildings on the site are leased to other organisations including Sydney College of the Arts, The NSW Writers' Centre, a child care facility and the headquarters of the NSW Ambulance located at the corner of Balmain & Wharf Roads. As a result of changing trends in mental health services, the hospital has contracted to a current 275 bed psychiatric teaching hospital serving, in the main, the centre and inner west areas of Sydney, together with accomodation for a group of war veterans (Tanner & Associates, 2002).

In July 2002 the NSW Goverment released a draft Master Plan for the site including residential development. Associated plans to build a multi-purpose mental health unit at Concord Hospital were released. High levels of support for Leichhardt Municipal Council's opposition to this master plan arose in August. In October the draft master plan was withdrawn and the Callan Park (Special Provisions) Act 2002 no. 139 was passed by the NSW Parliament. Over 2003 and 2004 Council, the Friends of Callan Park and others discussed with the NSW Government the importance of retaining a mental health facility at Rozelle Hospital. In April 2004 Council established and resourced a task force pursuing Government funding to establish a Callan Park Trust, and initiated a master plan for Callan Park. The Local Government Assocation of NSW supported Council for its vision that Callan Park remain a specialist mental health facility managed by a new Callan Park Trust.

In 2006 Leichhardt Council renewed its commitment to prepare a master plan and continued pressure on NSW Government to retain and upgrade its psychiatric hospital.

In July 2007 the NSW Government established a community reference panel to comment on the master plan and tenancy proposals including those by the University of Sydney. Sydney Harbour Foreshore Authority were appointed to prepare a master plan. A draft Callan Park Land Use Plan was placed on public exhibition in november 2007.

Rozelle Hospital closed in 2008 and a number of non-government organisations providing health care and community services moved onto the site.

In February 2008 Leichhardt Council lodged an objection to the Land Use Plan, based on a telephone survey of the community. In October 2008 the NSW Government announced it would grant care, control and management of 40 of Callan Park's 60 hectares to Leichhardt Council under a 99 year lease.

In 2009 Leichhard Council convened the Callan Park Taskforce and a variety of public meetings over the future of the site. In December Council prepared a master plan scoping document.

In March 2010 Council called for open tenders for the master planning. In May McGregor Coxall and team were appointed to develop a master plan (SOHI, 7/6/2013, Dominic Steele Consulting Archaeology, 29).

The Callan Park (Special Provisions) Act 2002 was allocated to the Minister for the Environment and is administered by OEH. The site has multiple uses such as the Sydney College of Arts, NSW Health, NSW Ambulance Service, various non-government organisations and open space which has been managed by the Sydney Harbour Foreshore Authority. It has been the subject of a master-planning process. OEH is liaising with the Department of Planning and Environment on the transition of resources that support the current management arrangements of Callan Park (OEH Chief Executive Officer memo, 29/5/15).

4/6/2015 unanimous agreement by the Legislative Assembly which called on the State Government to implement (i.e. establish and appoint) a Trust for Callan Park was received with applause (Burge, 2015). The Assembly called on the Government to work with a Trust to finalise the Callan Park Master Plan, noting the principles of the current draft, and to ensure the Master Plan includes a sustainable long-term funding model to secure the protection of Callan Park in perpetuity. Soon after June 2015 management of Callan Park was transferred from Sydney Harbour Foreshore Authority to the Office of Environment & Heritage (OEH). OEH is preparing a discussion paper on the future management of Callan Park for public consultation for three months, before it decides on its final recommendations for the site (Greenland, 2015, 16-17).

Sydney College of the Arts, faced with falling enrolments, is planning to abandon Kirkbride Block and move the college to their main campus in Paddington by the end of 2016 (ibid, 2015, 17). The University of NSW and University of Sydney have signed a Heads of Agreement for students at SCA, Callan Park, Rozelle to transfer to one of the courses offered by UNSW Art & Design, or continue to graduation with their SCA course at the SCA campus in Paddington. The University of Sydney had already flagged it would move the SCA from Callan Park at the end of 2016 and new arrangements will operate from Semester 1, 2017. A consultation and communication process is underway with SCA staff (Inner West Courier, 21/6/16).

In April 2017 Heritage Minister Gabrielle Upton announced $2m funding to upgrade the Waterfront Oval at Callan Park, noting the government would ban apartments or commercial development at Callan Park (Clennell, 2017).

Historic themes

Australian theme (abbrev)New South Wales themeLocal theme
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Environment - cultural landscape-Activities associated with the interactions between humans, human societies and the shaping of their physical surroundings Landscapes demonstrating styles in landscape design-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Health-Activities associated with preparing and providing medical assistance and/or promoting or maintaining the well being of humans Operating mental health facilities-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Health-Activities associated with preparing and providing medical assistance and/or promoting or maintaining the well being of humans Caring for the sick in hospitals-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Health-Activities associated with preparing and providing medical assistance and/or promoting or maintaining the well being of humans Operating public hospitals-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Accommodation-Activities associated with the provision of accommodation, and particular types of accommodation – does not include architectural styles – use the theme of Creative Endeavour for such activities. Adapted heritage building or structure-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Accommodation-Activities associated with the provision of accommodation, and particular types of accommodation – does not include architectural styles – use the theme of Creative Endeavour for such activities. gentlemen's residences-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Accommodation-Activities associated with the provision of accommodation, and particular types of accommodation – does not include architectural styles – use the theme of Creative Endeavour for such activities. Gentlemens Villas-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Accommodation-Activities associated with the provision of accommodation, and particular types of accommodation – does not include architectural styles – use the theme of Creative Endeavour for such activities. Country mansion-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Accommodation-Activities associated with the provision of accommodation, and particular types of accommodation – does not include architectural styles – use the theme of Creative Endeavour for such activities. Building for seclusion-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Towns, suburbs and villages-Activities associated with creating, planning and managing urban functions, landscapes and lifestyles in towns, suburbs and villages Creating landmark structures and places in urban settings-
7. Governing-Governing Government and Administration-Activities associated with the governance of local areas, regions, the State and the nation, and the administration of public programs - includes both principled and corrupt activities. Developing roles for government - administering a public health system-
9. Phases of Life-Marking the phases of life Persons-Activities of, and associations with, identifiable individuals, families and communal groups Associations with James Barnet, Colonial (government) Architect-
9. Phases of Life-Marking the phases of life Persons-Activities of, and associations with, identifiable individuals, families and communal groups Associations with James Jones, French-trained gardener, Sydney Botanic Garden staff-
9. Phases of Life-Marking the phases of life Persons-Activities of, and associations with, identifiable individuals, families and communal groups Associations with Charles Moore, Director Botanic Gardens and garden maker, 1848-96-
9. Phases of Life-Marking the phases of life Persons-Activities of, and associations with, identifiable individuals, families and communal groups Associations with John Ryan Brenan, Crown Solicitor and Police Magistrate-
9. Phases of Life-Marking the phases of life Persons-Activities of, and associations with, identifiable individuals, families and communal groups Associations with Francis Lloyd, land owner-
9. Phases of Life-Marking the phases of life Persons-Activities of, and associations with, identifiable individuals, families and communal groups Associations with Luke Ralph, land owner-
9. Phases of Life-Marking the phases of life Persons-Activities of, and associations with, identifiable individuals, families and communal groups Associations with Lawrence Butler, land owner-

Recommended management:

Recommendations

Management CategoryDescriptionDate Updated
Recommended ManagementReview a Conservation Management Plan (CMP) 
Recommended ManagementPrepare a maintenance schedule or guidelines 
Recommended ManagementCarry out interpretation, promotion and/or education 

Procedures /Exemptions

Section of actDescriptionTitleCommentsAction date
21(1)(b)Conservation Plan submitted for endorsementRozelle Hospital CMP, of 3 volumes. CMP endorsed by Heritage Council 6 March 2002 for a period of five years, expires 6 March 2007. Mar 6 2002
57(2)Exemption to allow workStandard Exemptions SCHEDULE OF STANDARD EXEMPTIONS
HERITAGE ACT 1977
Notice of Order Under Section 57 (2) of the Heritage Act 1977

I, the Minister for Planning, pursuant to subsection 57(2) of the Heritage Act 1977, on the recommendation of the Heritage Council of New South Wales, do by this Order:

1. revoke the Schedule of Exemptions to subsection 57(1) of the Heritage Act made under subsection 57(2) and published in the Government Gazette on 22 February 2008; and

2. grant standard exemptions from subsection 57(1) of the Heritage Act 1977, described in the Schedule attached.

FRANK SARTOR
Minister for Planning
Sydney, 11 July 2008

To view the schedule click on the Standard Exemptions for Works Requiring Heritage Council Approval link below.
Sep 5 2008
57(2)Exemption to allow workStandard Exemptions SCHEDULE OF STANDARD EXEMPTIONS
HERITAGE ACT 1977
Notice of Order Under Section 57 (2) of the Heritage Act 1977

I, the Minister for Planning, pursuant to subsection 57(2) of the Heritage Act 1977, on the recommendation of the Heritage Council of New South Wales, do by this Order:

1. revoke the Schedule of Exemptions to subsection 57(1) of the Heritage Act made under subsection 57(2) and published in the Government Gazette on 22 February 2008; and

2. grant standard exemptions from subsection 57(1) of the Heritage Act 1977, described in the Schedule attached.

FRANK SARTOR
Minister for Planning
Sydney, 11 July 2008

To view the schedule click on the Standard Exemptions for Works Requiring Heritage Council Approval link below.
Sep 5 2008

PDF Standard exemptions for works requiring Heritage Council approval

Listings

Heritage ListingListing TitleListing NumberGazette DateGazette NumberGazette Page
Heritage Act - State Heritage Register 0081802 Apr 99 271546
Heritage Act - s.170 NSW State agency heritage register 16/5/4/100601 Feb 92   
Regional Environmental PlanSREP 22 Parramatta River 05 Jun 90   
Local Environmental PlanLEP 2000    
National Trust of Australia register Callan Park Conservation Area6912   
Register of the National EstateCallan Park Conservation Area167421 Mar 78   

Study details

TitleYearNumberAuthorInspected byGuidelines used
Department of Health - s170 Register199216/5/4/1000Schwager, Brooks & Partners Pty Ltd  Yes
New South Wales Fisheries Heritage and Conservation Register1997F0009; F00010; F00011; F00012; F00013Godden Mackay Logan/NSW Fisheries  Yes

References, internet links & images

TypeAuthorYearTitleInternet Links
WrittenBurge, R. (ed.)2015Callan Park: Compassion and Conflict in the Asylum - an exhibition presented at the Leichhardt & Balmain Libraries in April and May 2015 for the National Trust Heritage Festival
WrittenBurge, Roslyn2016'Callan Park in Transition' (Chapter 13)
WrittenBurge, Roslyn2009'Callan Park'
WrittenBurge, Roslyn2001Broughton Hall - Private gardens, Public Therapy
WrittenClennell, Andrew2017'Rozelle Park off limits to unit bids'
WrittenColleen Morris1993Callan Park Pleasure Gardens conservation plan
WrittenComber Associates (Jillian Comber)2006Research Design: Archaeological Excavation and Recording: Sandstone Path, Callan Point, Rozelle Hospital Precinct
WrittenContext P/L1998Callan Point Conservation Management Plan
WrittenEnvironmental Design Group, NSW Public Works Department1991A heritage study of Rozelle Hospital (draft)
WrittenEnvironmental Partnership (NSW) P/L, June 20102010Bay Run Upgrade – Callan Park Precinct – Statement of Environmental Effects
WrittenFriends of Callan Park2001Callan Park Information Pack
WrittenGreenland, Hall2015'Days of Hope at Callan Park'
WrittenGriffin, Robert2013'notes from Colonial Architects Tour: Mortimer Lewis'
WrittenHeritage Division OEH1991Hard copy paper file: Callan Park Conservation Area - No. S91/5974
WrittenHeritage Group, State Projects, NSW Public Works1993Kirkbride Block Rozelle Hospital : conservation plan : 2 volumes
WrittenInfrastructure Partnerships Unit, Client Service Division, Department of Public Works and Services1996Rozelle Hospital site asset management strategy : strategic development concept and implementation plan
WrittenJackson Teece Chesterman Willis Consultants Pty Ltd1989A Study of the fabric of existing buildings on the site of Rozelle Psychiatric Hospital
WrittenKate Napier Archtecture, 1/2/20132013Statement of Heritage Impact: Entry Garden & Playground - Rozelle Childcare CentreCallan Park, Balmain Road, Rozelle
WrittenLeichhardt Municipal Council2015War, Nationalism and Identity (exhibition on Broughton Hall in WW1 era)
WrittenNational Trust of Australia (NSW)1994Rozelle Hospital recording & assessment, in Heritage Gardens Study - Final Report NEP 94 752
Management Plan (HC endorsed)Tanner & Associates Pty Ltd2002Rozelle Hospital CMP, Vols 1, 2 and 3
WrittenTanner Architects2012Balmain Road Playing Field, Callan Park, Facility Upgrade - Statement of Heritage Impact
Writtentbc2017REUSE THIS REFERENCE
WrittenUrban Design Advisory Service2002Master Plan for the Rozelle Hospital Site
WrittenWayne McPhee & Associates2006Heritage Impact Statement: proposed subdivision for lease purposes, Rozelle Hospital

Note: internet links may be to web pages, documents or images.

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Data source

The information for this entry comes from the following source:
Name: Heritage Office
Database number: 5051544
File number: EF14/4846; 09/3201; H00/507


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