Raby | NSW Environment, Energy and Science

Culture and heritage

Heritage

Raby

Item details

Name of item: Raby
Type of item: Landscape
Group/Collection: Landscape - Cultural
Category: Historic Landscape
Location: Lat: -33.9940525070 Long: 150.7837174990
Primary address: 1025 Camden Valley Way, Catherine Field, NSW 2171
Parish: Cook
County: Cumberland
Local govt. area: Camden
Local Aboriginal Land Council: Tharawal
Property description
Lot/Volume CodeLot/Volume NumberSection NumberPlan/Folio CodePlan/Folio Number
LOTF DP401548
All addresses
Street AddressSuburb/townLGAParishCountyType
1025 Camden Valley WayCatherine FieldCamdenCookCumberlandPrimary Address

Owner/s

Organisation NameOwner CategoryDate Ownership Updated
 Private 

Statement of significance:

Raby is a rare surviving element of an early colonial estate and is significant at state level for its associations with the pioneering of the Australian fine merino wool industry. Raby is part of an important group of extant early colonial farming estates along the former Cowpastures Road, and is representative of early colonial farming estates. The homestead group is sited on the remains of the original 1816 land grant. Raby has associations with the Riley and Moore families and throughout its history was the subject of illustration and literature produced by prominent people, notably Joseph Lycett & W. Mason (c.1820), Baron Von Hugel and Dr John Lhotsky (c.1834) and by William Hardy Wilson (c.1920).
Date significance updated: 31 Mar 04
Note: The State Heritage Inventory provides information about heritage items listed by local and State government agencies. The State Heritage Inventory is continually being updated by local and State agencies as new information becomes available. Read the OEH copyright and disclaimer.

Description

Designer/Maker: Unknown
Builder/Maker: Unknown
Construction years: 1820-1834
Physical description: Farm:
Raby retains farmland adjoining a tributary of South Creek and Camden Valley Way. The house is well set back from Camden Valley Way up a slight rise to the west, along a curving drive, across a small bridge and splayed entrance gates and fences to Camden Valley Way (the east).

Farm elements that remain include a small burial ground/cemetery/grave on a small knoll visible from Camden Valley Way, the c.1875 homestead, outbuildings, paddocks, entrance gate and layout and early fencing which defines part of the eastern boundary of the original grant.

The original grant boundary (to the east/Cow Pasture Road/Camden Valley Way) is still identifiable and is marked with old post and rail fencing. The southern boundary appears to be largely intact from the original grant.

Old fence lines / estate layout is discernible within the paddocks and the current farm layout.

Tall she oak trees (Casuarina cunninghamiana) line Riley's Creek (a tributary of South Creek to its west) just north of the house. Pockets of remnant / regenerating Cumberland Plain Woodland (an endangered ecological community) are elsewhere on the farm, for instance along the southern boundary. Some large remnant trees are along the Camden Valley Way eastern boundary, and road reserve.

There is a fine view of the estate and homestead group from the north (across Riley's Creek) similar to early (archival) view(s). Other views to the homestead group are available travelling south along Camden Valley Way from high up the next ridge to the north, and once Riley's Creek is crossed, travelling south, looking west. A fine view is available from the vicinity of the gates to Camden Valley Way where old gate posts and fencing remain.

A century plant (Agave americana) clump is along Camden Valley Way south of the main Raby driveway entrance. Some mature forest red gums (Eucalyptus tereticornis) line Raby's (western) side of Camden Valley Way. Nearer the house mature honey locusts (Gleditsia triacanthos) and nettle trees (Celtis australis) may reflect earlier lines of shelter belts from the farm or specimen planting (Stuart Read, visit, 6/12/12).

Outbuildings:
Outbuildings remain on the property, although some such as the watchman's bark hut, two storey barn (illustrated by William Hardy Wilson in 1920) and the original Raby homestead are gone (at least, above ground remains are gone).
A brick cottage, extended at its rear (west) as a car port, dates to the original 1820s homestead complex and later served as the house's kitchen. Further north of it was a separate oven. Further west another cottage is clad in ripple iron (Stuart Read, visit, 6/12/12).

Garden:
The garden surrounds the house and comprises a number of remnant plantings. In 1990 it was characterised by tall trees and some remnant garden beds. Significant trees some dating to the mid Victorian period included native cypress pine(Callitris sp., possibly C.columellaris), stone pine (Pinus pinea), Brazilian pepper corn (Schinus molle var areira), Canary Island palm (Phoenix canariensis), Monterey pines (Pinus radiata), hedges of privet (Ligustrum sp.)(one remains south-west of the house) and Chinese trumpet creeper (Campsis grandiflora), as well as Cape plumbago (P.capensis), kaffir lilies (Clivia sp.) and red hot pokers (Knifofia uvaria). Colocasia sp. taro plants line the southern edge of the house along with Cape plumbago (ibid, 6/12/12).

On the south-eastern corner of the house lot where the drive enters a stone pine (Pinus pinea) and native cypress pine (Callitris sp., possibly C.columellaris) frame that entry.

North of the house are some remnant hedges of Cape honeysuckle (Tecomaria capensis), oleander (Nerium oleander) a mature mulberry (Morus sp.), and more honey locust trees and suckers. A bulb patch contains what appears to be Crinum x powellii, with large fat bulbs. Evidence of glazed terracotta garden bed edging tiles and drainage tiles is still evident in the garden. A beehive well sunk into the lawn north of the house remains but has been rendered on its top (ibid, 6/12/12).

North-west of the house a trumpet creeper (Pandorea ricasoliana) grows near a gate leading to home paddocks and outbuildings.

West of the house a belt of mature plantings comprise mainly Monterey pines (Pinus radiata), some Canary Island date palms (Phoenix canariensis), Brazilian pepper trees (Schinus molle var areira) and African box thorn (possibly used as hedging in the past)(Lycium ferocissimum)(ibid, 6/12/12).

House:
The imposing two storey mid Victorian painted brick house (c.1875) is characterised by a low pitched hipped, slate roof with several prominent brick chimneys. It formerly possessed double verandahs with lacework balustrading, flat cast iron columns and concave corrugated iron roofing. Some of the original cast iron fabric survives on site. The homestead retains multi-paned double hung windows and an impressive front door.

A two story service wing is attached to the south-west corner of the house.
Physical condition and/or
Archaeological potential:
12/2003: At the time of writing (December 2003) the house and other built structures were in a poor state of repair.

Raby has archaeological potential in regards to the remains of the original Riley house c.1820. The immediate vicinity of the site may also contain domestic day to day relics and/or scatter deposits that may relate to the Riley period of occupation. The Superintendent's House mentioned by Joseph Lycett in 1824 is likely to be the original main house, which is thought to be on or very near the site of the existing house. Whilst much of the extant house structure remains sound, some sections do have major defects.
Date condition updated:21 Feb 02
Modifications and dates: 1816 - land grant of 3,000 acres to Alexander Riley.
C.1820 - 0riginal House Built.
Raby retained by Riley family until 1866.
1866 Moore family become owners of Raby.
Extant main house is thought to date from c.1875. Further research is required to specify the construction dates.
1905 - Much of original grant subdivided by Moore family and sold. A. B. Moore retains part of the original grant (containing homestead) until 1935.
In 1935 A.B. Moore transferred the property to Florence Mitchell (Mitchell family retains ownership until 2003).
The iron and lace double verandahs demolished (late 20th century).

2009/10: new owner has replaced roof (second hand Scotch tiles) as water was entering the house and rotting the ceilings, fixed up a bathroom for the tenant/caretaker, replaced power poles and electricity supply to the house, covered up smashed windows and restored the septic tank on site, stocked the paddocks with cattle, replaced fences and gates three times (after vandalism/unauthorised access), installed a tenant/caretaker who's living upstairs (South West Rural Adviser, 31/3/10; amended after talking to owner 2/11/10).
Further information: Although Raby is an immensely important element in the establishment of NSW"s and Australia's sheep industry, Raby has been largely overlooked.
Current use: Private rural residence
Former use: Aboriginal land, farm (sheep, cattle)

History

Historical notes: The area is home to the Tharawal and Gundungurra people (Robinson, 2008).

Camden & the Cow Pastures:
The area is associated with the early history of the colony of New South Wales. Governor Hunter named it The Cowpastures after cattle which had strayed from the Farm Cove settlement were discovered there in 1795. Due to the early European settlers, namely the Macarthurs, who established flourishing wool, wine and wheat industries here, the area is said to be 'the birthplace of the nation's wealth' (ibid, 2008).

When the first fleet arrived in Sydney Cove in 1788 they found the soil unsuitable for farming and soon looked towards the heavy clay and loam soils of the Cumberland Plain (to the west) to sustain the colony. Early agricultural settlements were located on the rich alluvial soils of the Nepean, Hawkesbury and Georges River areas, as well as South Creek near St.Marys and at the head of the Parramatta River where the settlement of Rose Hill (later Parramatta) was established about six months after the fleet lan.ded. A settlement at the Hawkesbury was established in 1794.

By 1804 much of the Cumberland Plain had been settled and Governor King began to look for other regions in the colony for favourable arable land. The only suitable land within the Cumberland Plain was the area known as the Cowpastures, located in the southwestern corner. This area was named after the discovery in 1795 of cows from the first fleet which had wandered off into the bush. The Cowpastures had remained unoccupied due to the official decree that reserved the land for the wild cattle (to encourage their increase).

In December 1803 Governor and Mrs King visited the Cowpastures for themselves and the Sydney Gazette reported that Mrs King was the first 'white lady' to have crossed the Nepean River. The track to the Cowpastures led from Prospect and on 17/9/1805 James Meehan, under instructions from Governor King, commenced a survey of the track from Prospect to the Nepean Crossing and a rough road followed the marked line. This became known as Cowpasture Road, later the Hume Highway, most of which is today part of the Camden Valley Way.

Several visits to the area by the colonial gentry took place at this time, which resulted in their desire to acquire some of this rich land for themselves. They saw the area as containing very good grazing land. Captain Henry Waterhouse described the area in a letter to John Macarthur in 1804 as follows: " I am at a loss to describe the face of the country other than as a beautiful park, totally divested of underwood, interspersed with plains, with rich luxuriant grass".

Earlier Europeans had described 'large ponds covered with ducks and the black swan, the margins of which were fringed with shrubs of the most delightful tints'. The Europeans thought the flats were perfect for cattle and the hills would carry sheep. They admired the absence of underbush - probably achieved through Aboriginal burning off - and felt comfortable with a landscape that reminded them of an English gentleman's park.

John Macarthur received the first land grant in the Cowpastures region in 1805 for his role in the early wool industry in the colony. Lord Camden rewarded him with 10,000 acres and Macarthur chose the highly coveted Cowpastures for his grant, though Governor King tried to prevent him taking it. Macarthur also organised a 2000 grant for his friend Walter Davidson, who allowed Macarthur to use his land freely after Davidson returned to England. In this manner Macarthur controlled 12 miles of riverbank on the site where the wild cattle had first discovered the best pasture near Sydney. Later purchases and exchanges increased the Macarthur land there to over 27,000 acres, an endowment that Governor Macquarie greatly resented.

Other early grants were in the Parishes of Minto and in adjoining Evan, Bringelly, Narellan and Cook. These all lay west of Parramatta (Godden Mackay Logan, 2012, 20-21).

Govenor Macquarie drew up plans in 1820 for establishment of a town in the area, to be named Campbelltown after his wife Elizabeth's maiden name. With their forced return to England in 1822 these plans never came to fruition and it was not until the arrival of Governor Darling in 1827 that plans were again reinstated and the first settlers were allowed to take posession of their town land in 1831. In the early 1850s the railway line from Sydney to Goulburn was completed, with a station opening at Campbelltown in 1858. When Leppington House was offered for lease in 1865, one of its selling points was that it was near a railway. Campbelltown now provided easy access to Sydney and its markets and grew as the centre of the district. Although Camden was established in 1836, with no railway line it remained a small town.

The large estates that flanked Cowpasture Road (later Camden Valley Way) and the Northern Road were run largely as sheep and cattle farms, with wheat and other grain crops being grown as well until the 1850s. The houses were often built on surrounding ridges or hills, providing sweeping views of the countryside and ensuring that any passing traveller could appreciate the owner's status by viewing their impressive country mansions from the road. This land use pattern of large farm estates and small towns, established in the nineteenth century, remained largely the pattern of development of the area up until the late 1990s. Aerial photographs of the area in 1947 show a rural landscape with some limited urban development on either side of (then) Camden Valley Way (ibid, 22-23).

In the early 1840s, Camden farmers turned their attention to wheat growing. Many sowed large areas to cash in on the high prices paid for the local flour which had a good reputation in the Sydney market. Unfortunately rust appeared in the crops in 1861 and 1863 and the industry was ruined along with many farmers (ibid, 2008).

In the 1880s dairy farming became the main industry in the area. GA Porter was the first farmer to send milk to Sydney, from his property Corstorphine, on 6 March 1883. Farms have started to disappear however, due to the pressures of high production costs, milk quotas and competition with dairy companies, and also attractive offers from land developers (ibid, 2008).

Raby:
Raby, consisting of 1214 hectares of land, was granted to Alexander Riley in 1816, whose principal place of residence was at Burwood. Riley came to NSW in 1804 and, after serving as storekeeper and magistrate in Tasmania and Secretary to the colony in Sydney, he resigned. In addition to farming (particularly sheep farming), he became a prosperous trader, his Sydney partnership with Richard Jones aided by links with Alexander's brother Edward Riley in Calcutta and W. S. Davidson in Canton.

In 1816 Edward Riley joined Alexander in NSW and the following year Alexander returned to England where he became an agent for colonial trade. Through his knowledge as a British agent for the colonial wool trade Riley recognised the importance of the quality of wool and decided to invest in 200 Saxon merinos. His nephew, also named Edward, helped select the stock in Germany and accompanied them to the Colony in the 'George Osborne' in 1825. Although the farm buildings at Raby had been neglected by his brother during the intervening period and there was a period of severe drought, Edward Riley jnr was able to foster the herd. In 1827 and for the following three years Raby's Saxons eclipsed all others at the Australian Agricultural Society's Annual Shows.

In December 1817 Raby was leased to George Cribb of Sydney, butcher. There are two renditions of Raby from the 1820s - Joseph Lycett produced an idealised view of Raby for his 'Views in Australia' (1824) and a pencil drawing by W. Mason. Both views show a house on the property - a single storey farmhouse set in a cleared paddock surrounded by eucalypt forest. It is thought that this was built in c1820. Lycett's romanticised view of Raby mentions the farm upon the Cowpasture Road leading to the Nepean, at the distance of 51 kilometres from Sydney. Helen Proudfoot quotes the following description:
"The three thousand acre [1214 ha] property forms a striking contrast between forests and the vast openings of land which have been cleared to accommodate livestock. The Estate on its southern boundary is dominated by a piece of water that, in a connecting chain of small ponds, forms the head of the South Creek, one of the principal and most important branches of the Hawkesbury River. The Pasture at Raby is most fertile and principally devoted to the grazing of fine-woolled sheep: from fifteen hundred to two thousand of which are herded every night on a fresh site. On a hill where the Superintendent's House is seen, flocks containing about 350 sheep each, formed around the bark-hut and fire of a Watchman, who protects livestock from native dogs". (Proudfoot: 33).

According to Murphy (August 1990: 37) the house was one of the best and most substantial of the early houses in the district. It is thought to have been located in approximately the same position as the present house (Biosys, 2008).

One hundred sheep were brought out from Germany by Alexander's son William Riley and by 1830 the family venture had proved successful. A further 4000 hectares was granted to them by the Colonial Secretary and they applied for land near Yass, naming the property Cavan. William Riley was an astute stud breeder and wrote a paper with W. H. Dutton. In 1834 Baron Von Hugel, while overlooking the success of the sheep-farming, referred to Raby in his New Holland Journal as "The large property of a young man named W.E.Riley Esq., whose father introduced Tibetan goats here which, as I hear, thrive well but have not been profitable (Clarke: 298) That same year, Dr Lhotsky referred to Raby as one of the most famous farms in the colony (Lhotsky: 72).

By 1830, William Edward Riley, Alexander Riley's son, had taken over the management of the property (Kass, 2002: 10). In 1833 Alexander Riley died, leaving his property to his son. W.E. Riley married Honoria Rose Brooks, a daughter of Richard Brooks of Denham Court. The couple had two children. The family lived principally at Raby, but was also at times based at Cavan, the Riley property at Yass (Kass February 2002: 10). Notes in the Riley papers refer to the painting of a paling entrance at the White gate, and to spikes for the Bridge rails at the White gate (Kass February 2002: 31-32). The location of the gate and bridge is not specified (Biosys, 2008).

In 1836 William Riley was killed in a riding accident and it appears that his father Alexander Riley largely withdrew from his Australian interests, as indicated by the selling his sheep. However, the Riley family retained ownership of Raby until 1866. The farm was leased to a number of people over this time.

Edward Moore and his descendants were the next owners of Raby. A.R. Riley had mortgaged the property, and in 1866 it was sold on behalf of the mortgagors. It was bought by William Moore, grazier, of Booligal, Lachlan River (Kass February 2002: 14). It is possible that the Moore family was in occupation of the property before the purchase (Biosys, 2008).

Edward Moore was a weaver from Manchester, indicted as a convict for possessing one forged bank note. His wife Elizabeth (who he had married at St. George's church, Southwark, London, in 1814) was convicted at the Lancaster Assizes of possessing three forged bank notes. On 21 March 1818 she and husband were sentenced 'to be transported to some parts beyond the seas for the term of 14 years'.

Edward arrived in NSW in 1818, leaving behind his wife and their two children. Elizabeth arrived as a convict on the 'Lord Wellington' in January 1820, with the children. She was listed as a cook, aged 31, though she was really 37. She and 5 year old Joseph and Ellen, nearly 3 were in rude good health.

In March 1820 Edward petitioned Governor Macquarie for a ticket-of-leave, given for good behaviour and to encourage convicts to earn their own living by working for an employer. His employer, Robert Lowe, said he worked soberly, honestly and diligently. By the 1828 census, he had added Robert, Edward Lomas, James and William to the family. He also cleared 20 acres of land at Macquarie Fields, 14 of them under crop. In 1830 a second daughter, Elizabeth was born and Edward bought a farm, Drummondville, about 7 miles out of Liverpool, growing hay for the teamsters coming to and from Sydney.

By about 1835, when he leased Raby from the Riley estate near Campbelltown (now Catherine Fields), Edward was doing very well. The Moores entertained Governor FitzRoy on his hunting expeditions at Raby. The FitzRoys gave the Moores a French ormolu mantle clock in the shape of a lyre, in black and gold. It is today at Ellensville, Mt.Hunter (Alexander, 2004, 8,10,20-33).

Margaret Browne (nee Riley) grew up at Denham Court, Ingleburn, which had a prominent colonial garden. Browne was the first woman to write a book on gardening in Australia, under the name Mrs Rolf Boldrewood. She wrote letters to the much older Ellen Foreman (nee Moore), who lived with her parents at Raby, Catherine Field and later established Ellensville, Mt.Hunter. These letters survive and have been published as a book by Pacita Alexander, showing the ties between the colonial properties of the Cumberland Plain and hints of the influence of those places on the shared joys of gardening (Morris, 2014, 27).

A plan of Raby drawn up in 1866 shows that the property consisted of 3289 acres. A note on the plan mentions that 'The fences on this property are evidently very old indeed some portions especially on the NW boundary have been renewed but the stumps of the old posts are visible'. A structure may be shown in the location of the house. A gate is indicated in roughly the same location as the present entrance.

William Moore carried out improvements on the property, including clearing and fencing. It seems that he managed Raby as a mixed farm (Kass February 2002: 15).

The present house dates from c.1875, with the original house being retained for a time for use as a kitchen. An alternate view places the construction of the present house in the 1860s (Biosys, 2008).

William Hardy Wilson illustrated the barn and wrote about the "ancient house of Raby, which stood beside the barn has been replaced by one ornamented with florid ironwork in the style of the 1880s" (Wilson, 1920).

Photographs from the 1880s and 1890s show an alteration to the spacing of the ground floor verandah iron posts around the front door (to not match the alignment of posts above), two frames for climbing roses flanking the front verandah, and extensive garden beds with roses in them (Stuart Read, pers.comm., 6/12/12).

After the death of William Moore in 1905, the estate was subdivided and offered for sale (with part of it being retained by A. B. Moore). A.B. Moore retained ownership of the estate until 1935 when the property was transferred to Florence Mitchell. The Mitchell family restocked the property with Merino sheep and Hereford cattle. In 1957 Lot 1 was resubdivided; Lot F contained the main homestead farm, and comprised 186 acres 3 roods. The Mitchell family retained ownership of Raby until 2003, however, the property was not occupied during the 1990s (Biosys, 2008).

The extant Raby estate although much reduced from its original landholding, remains a notable pastoral landscape, with the homestead overlooking the creek, enclosed by surrounding hills and dales on part of the original 1816 land grant.

In c.2009 the property appears to have been sold to the current owners, Anna and Stephan Dwzonnik,

Historic themes

Australian theme (abbrev)New South Wales themeLocal theme
1. Environment-Tracing the evolution of a continent's special environments Environment - naturally evolved-Activities associated with the physical surroundings that support human life and influence or shape human cultures. Cultural: Plains and plateaux supporting human activities-
1. Environment-Tracing the evolution of a continent's special environments Environment - naturally evolved-Activities associated with the physical surroundings that support human life and influence or shape human cultures. Changing the environment-
2. Peopling-Peopling the continent Convict-Activities relating to incarceration, transport, reform, accommodation and working during the convict period in NSW (1788-1850) - does not include activities associated with the conviction of persons in NSW that are unrelated to the imperial 'convict system': use the theme of Law & Order for such activities Working on private assignment-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Agriculture-Activities relating to the cultivation and rearing of plant and animal species, usually for commercial purposes, can include aquaculture Private farming-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Agriculture-Activities relating to the cultivation and rearing of plant and animal species, usually for commercial purposes, can include aquaculture Clearing land for farming-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Agriculture-Activities relating to the cultivation and rearing of plant and animal species, usually for commercial purposes, can include aquaculture Agricultural Society activities - research, experimentation, acclimatisation --
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Agriculture-Activities relating to the cultivation and rearing of plant and animal species, usually for commercial purposes, can include aquaculture Attempting to transplant European farming practices to Australian environments-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Agriculture-Activities relating to the cultivation and rearing of plant and animal species, usually for commercial purposes, can include aquaculture Attempting to transplant European farming practices to Australian environments-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Agriculture-Activities relating to the cultivation and rearing of plant and animal species, usually for commercial purposes, can include aquaculture Ancillary structures - sheds, crop storage-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Agriculture-Activities relating to the cultivation and rearing of plant and animal species, usually for commercial purposes, can include aquaculture Cereal production-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Agriculture-Activities relating to the cultivation and rearing of plant and animal species, usually for commercial purposes, can include aquaculture Rural Estates-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Environment - cultural landscape-Activities associated with the interactions between humans, human societies and the shaping of their physical surroundings Developing local, regional and national economies-National Theme 3
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Environment - cultural landscape-Activities associated with the interactions between humans, human societies and the shaping of their physical surroundings Creating environments evocative of the 'old country'-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Environment - cultural landscape-Activities associated with the interactions between humans, human societies and the shaping of their physical surroundings Landscapes and parklands of distinctive styles-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Environment - cultural landscape-Activities associated with the interactions between humans, human societies and the shaping of their physical surroundings Landscapes of cultural and natural interaction-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Environment - cultural landscape-Activities associated with the interactions between humans, human societies and the shaping of their physical surroundings Landscapes of food production-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Environment - cultural landscape-Activities associated with the interactions between humans, human societies and the shaping of their physical surroundings Landscapes and countryside of rural charm-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Pastoralism-Activities associated with the breeding, raising, processing and distribution of livestock for human use Woolgrowing-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Pastoralism-Activities associated with the breeding, raising, processing and distribution of livestock for human use Developing stock blood lines - merino sheep-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Pastoralism-Activities associated with the breeding, raising, processing and distribution of livestock for human use Developing stock blood lines - merino sheep-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Pastoralism-Activities associated with the breeding, raising, processing and distribution of livestock for human use Agisting and fattening stock for slaughter-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Pastoralism-Activities associated with the breeding, raising, processing and distribution of livestock for human use Wool/shearing shed-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Pastoralism-Activities associated with the breeding, raising, processing and distribution of livestock for human use Modifying landscapes to increase productivity-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Pastoralism-Activities associated with the breeding, raising, processing and distribution of livestock for human use Livestock structures-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Pastoralism-Activities associated with the breeding, raising, processing and distribution of livestock for human use Experimenting with new breeds of stock-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Pastoralism-Activities associated with the breeding, raising, processing and distribution of livestock for human use Sheep breeding - running a stud-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Pastoralism-Activities associated with the breeding, raising, processing and distribution of livestock for human use Sheep farming for wool-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Accommodation-Activities associated with the provision of accommodation, and particular types of accommodation – does not include architectural styles – use the theme of Creative Endeavour for such activities. Country Homes-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Accommodation-Activities associated with the provision of accommodation, and particular types of accommodation – does not include architectural styles – use the theme of Creative Endeavour for such activities. Worker's Dwellings-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Accommodation-Activities associated with the provision of accommodation, and particular types of accommodation – does not include architectural styles – use the theme of Creative Endeavour for such activities. Farm homestead-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Accommodation-Activities associated with the provision of accommodation, and particular types of accommodation – does not include architectural styles – use the theme of Creative Endeavour for such activities. Country Villa-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Land tenure-Activities and processes for identifying forms of ownership and occupancy of land and water, both Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Early land grants-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Land tenure-Activities and processes for identifying forms of ownership and occupancy of land and water, both Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Early farming (Cattle grazing)-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Land tenure-Activities and processes for identifying forms of ownership and occupancy of land and water, both Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Demonstrating Governor Macquarie's town and landscape planning-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Land tenure-Activities and processes for identifying forms of ownership and occupancy of land and water, both Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Changing land uses - from rural to suburban-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Land tenure-Activities and processes for identifying forms of ownership and occupancy of land and water, both Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Naming places (toponymy)-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Land tenure-Activities and processes for identifying forms of ownership and occupancy of land and water, both Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Administering and alienating Crown lands-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Land tenure-Activities and processes for identifying forms of ownership and occupancy of land and water, both Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Surveying by James Meehan-Aboriginal and European; may include sub-divisions, fences, Survey marks etc.
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Towns, suburbs and villages-Activities associated with creating, planning and managing urban functions, landscapes and lifestyles in towns, suburbs and villages Subdivision of rural estates-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Creative endeavour-Activities associated with the production and performance of literary, artistic, architectural and other imaginative, interpretive or inventive works; and/or associated with the production and expression of cultural phenomena; and/or environments that have inspired such creative activities. Building in response to natural landscape features.-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Creative endeavour-Activities associated with the production and performance of literary, artistic, architectural and other imaginative, interpretive or inventive works; and/or associated with the production and expression of cultural phenomena; and/or environments that have inspired such creative activities. Creating works of art-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Creative endeavour-Activities associated with the production and performance of literary, artistic, architectural and other imaginative, interpretive or inventive works; and/or associated with the production and expression of cultural phenomena; and/or environments that have inspired such creative activities. Architectural styles and periods - Victorian (mid)-
9. Phases of Life-Marking the phases of life Persons-Activities of, and associations with, identifiable individuals, families and communal groups Associations with William Hardy Wilson, architect, artist, writer, conservationist-
9. Phases of Life-Marking the phases of life Persons-Activities of, and associations with, identifiable individuals, families and communal groups Associations with Governor (Captn.) Phillip Gidley King RN, 1800-1806-
9. Phases of Life-Marking the phases of life Persons-Activities of, and associations with, identifiable individuals, families and communal groups Associations with Governor Sir Charles Augustus FitzRoy, 1846-1865-
9. Phases of Life-Marking the phases of life Persons-Activities of, and associations with, identifiable individuals, families and communal groups Associations with Alexander Riley, businessman-
9. Phases of Life-Marking the phases of life Persons-Activities of, and associations with, identifiable individuals, families and communal groups Associations with Edward Riley, sheep breeder and grazier-
9. Phases of Life-Marking the phases of life Persons-Activities of, and associations with, identifiable individuals, families and communal groups Associations with William Rothery, pastoralist-
9. Phases of Life-Marking the phases of life Persons-Activities of, and associations with, identifiable individuals, families and communal groups Associations with Governor (later Maj-Gen.) Lachlan Macquarie, 1810-1821-
9. Phases of Life-Marking the phases of life Persons-Activities of, and associations with, identifiable individuals, families and communal groups Associations with Baron von Hugel, Austrian noble, naturalist, traveller-
9. Phases of Life-Marking the phases of life Persons-Activities of, and associations with, identifiable individuals, families and communal groups Associations with Edward Moore, emancipated convict, weaver, grazier-
9. Phases of Life-Marking the phases of life Persons-Activities of, and associations with, identifiable individuals, families and communal groups Associations with William Moore, grazier-
9. Phases of Life-Marking the phases of life Persons-Activities of, and associations with, identifiable individuals, families and communal groups Associations with A.B. Moore, grazier-
9. Phases of Life-Marking the phases of life Persons-Activities of, and associations with, identifiable individuals, families and communal groups Associations with Florence Mitchell, grazier-
9. Phases of Life-Marking the phases of life Persons-Activities of, and associations with, identifiable individuals, families and communal groups Associations with Ellen Foreman (nee Moore), gentlewoman-
9. Phases of Life-Marking the phases of life Persons-Activities of, and associations with, identifiable individuals, families and communal groups Associations with George Cribb, butcher, grazier-
9. Phases of Life-Marking the phases of life Persons-Activities of, and associations with, identifiable individuals, families and communal groups Associations with Joseph Lycett, painter and artist-
9. Phases of Life-Marking the phases of life Persons-Activities of, and associations with, identifiable individuals, families and communal groups Associations with William Riley, businessman, grazier-

Assessment of significance

SHR Criteria a)
[Historical significance]
Raby is significant at State level for its associations with the pioneering of the Australian fine merino wool industry and for its relationship as part of an important group of extant early colonial farming estates along the former Cowpastures Road.
SHR Criteria b)
[Associative significance]
Raby is significant at State level for its association with the Riley and Moore families. Raby was the subject of illustration and literature produced by Joseph Lycett & W. Mason c.1820, Baron Von Hugel and Dr John Lhostsky c. 1834 and by Hardy Wilson c.1920.
SHR Criteria c)
[Aesthetic significance]
Raby has landmark qualities at the State level as the immediate landscape setting of the home group remains. The main farm group is visually prominent from the early roads and the original land grant boundary on the southern side is still extant.
SHR Criteria d)
[Social significance]
Raby is significant at the State level for its association with the growth of Australia’s fine merino wool industry.
SHR Criteria e)
[Research potential]
Raby has research significance at the State level in understanding our cultural history in regards to colonial agricultural practices and landscape design (including homesteads and farm structures).
SHR Criteria f)
[Rarity]
Raby is a rare surviving element of an early colonial estate on the Cumberland Plain.
SHR Criteria g)
[Representativeness]
Raby is representative at State level as an early colonial farming estate.
Integrity/Intactness: Although the original land grant has been subdivided, the homestead group is sited on what remains of the original 1816 land grant
Assessment criteria: Items are assessed against the PDF State Heritage Register (SHR) Criteria to determine the level of significance. Refer to the Listings below for the level of statutory protection.

Recommended management:

Recommendations

Management CategoryDescriptionDate Updated
Recommended ManagementReview a Conservation Management Plan (CMP) 
Recommended ManagementPrepare a maintenance schedule or guidelines 
Recommended ManagementCarry out interpretation, promotion and/or education 

Procedures /Exemptions

Section of actDescriptionTitleCommentsAction date
21(1)(b)Conservation Plan submitted for endorsementCMP: Raby, 1025 Camden Valley Way, Catherine Field (Perumal, Murphy Wu, June 2002)  
57(2)Exemption to allow workStandard Exemptions SCHEDULE OF STANDARD EXEMPTIONS
HERITAGE ACT 1977
Notice of Order Under Section 57 (2) of the Heritage Act 1977

I, the Minister for Planning, pursuant to subsection 57(2) of the Heritage Act 1977, on the recommendation of the Heritage Council of New South Wales, do by this Order:

1. revoke the Schedule of Exemptions to subsection 57(1) of the Heritage Act made under subsection 57(2) and published in the Government Gazette on 22 February 2008; and

2. grant standard exemptions from subsection 57(1) of the Heritage Act 1977, described in the Schedule attached.

FRANK SARTOR
Minister for Planning
Sydney, 11 July 2008

To view the schedule click on the Standard Exemptions for Works Requiring Heritage Council Approval link below.
Sep 5 2008

PDF Standard exemptions for works requiring Heritage Council approval

Listings

Heritage ListingListing TitleListing NumberGazette DateGazette NumberGazette Page
Heritage Act - State Heritage Register 0169401 Mar 10 351109
Local Environmental PlanRaby4821 Feb 92 26 
National Trust of Australia register Raby (recorded)941131 May 76   

Study details

TitleYearNumberAuthorInspected byGuidelines used
Colonial Landscapes of the Cumberland Plain and Camden, NSW20004.23Morris, C., & Britton, G./NSW National Trust (for the Heritage Council of NSW)  Yes
National Trust Suburban Register19869411National Trust of Australia (NSW)  No

References, internet links & images

TypeAuthorYearTitleInternet Links
WrittenAlexander, Pacita and Jenkins, Elizabeth2004A Love Affair with Australian Literature: the story of Tom Inglis Moore
WrittenBiosys Research2008Non-Aboriginal Heritage Significance Assessment, Proposed Camden Valley Way Upgrade, Entrance to Raby, 1025 Camden Valley Way, Catherine Field
WrittenClarke, Dymphna Baron Charles von Hugel's New Holland Journal 1833
WrittenGodden Mackay Logan2012East Leppington Rezoning Assessment - Heritage Management Strategy, draft report
WrittenLehany, Michael & Walker, Meredith2002Raby - a draft cultural landscape analysis
WrittenLhotsky, Dr John1834A Journey from Sydney to the Australian Alps
WrittenMorris, Colleen2014(book review) Pacita Alexander, "My Dearest Ellen: letters from 'Mrs Rolf Boldrewood' to Ellen Foreman 1861-1905", The Oaks Historical Society, Picton, NSW [2013] ISBN 97980975824047 View detail
WrittenPerumal Murphy Wu2002Raby, 1025 Camden Valley Way, Catherine Field: Conservation Management Plan
WrittenRobinson, Steve2008Camden West View detail
WrittenWilson, William Hardy1920The Cow Pastures Road

Note: internet links may be to web pages, documents or images.

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(Click on thumbnail for full size image and image details)

Data source

The information for this entry comes from the following source:
Name: Heritage Office
Database number: 5052613
File number: 09/3928; H00/00691


Every effort has been made to ensure that information contained in the State Heritage Inventory is correct. If you find any errors or omissions please send your comments to the Database Manager.

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