Mount Gilead Estate (Under Consideration) | NSW Environment, Energy and Science

Culture and heritage

Heritage

Mount Gilead Estate (Under Consideration)

Item details

Name of item: Mount Gilead Estate (Under Consideration)
Other name/s: Gilead; Rose Farm
Type of item: Landscape
Group/Collection: Landscape - Cultural
Category: Historic Landscape
Property description
Lot/Volume CodeLot/Volume NumberSection NumberPlan/Folio CodePlan/Folio Number
LOT1 DP1218887

Statement of significance:

Mount Gilead is of state heritage significance as an early nineteenth century colonial estate with rare surviving features and outstanding picturesque qualities. It forms one of a continuum of notable colonial properties along Appin Road.

Mount Gilead provides intact evidence of the colonial expansion into the Camden and Campbelltown areas southwest of Sydney in the period 1810-1840 and its development throughout the nineteenth century, including changes in agricultural pursuits and approaches to estate planning. Extant structures and landscape features, such as the artificial lake, sandstone granaries and homestead group, sandstone mill tower, mature plantings and archaeological sites have the potential to reveal evidence of how colonial estates were planned and developed, as well as the domestic and working lives of its residents and workers, and Aboriginal occupation and use of the land prior to its colonial development. The estate's artificial lake and mill tower are rare and early examples of their type.

Mount Gilead is a colonial landscape with outstanding picturesque qualities, bestowed by its undulating topography, the conscious siting of the estate's various sandstone structures and cultural plantings along its central ridgeline, and the contrast of open paddocks with remnant stands of indigenous vegetation. Views within the estate, particularly over the artificial lake to the homestead group and mill tower and between the mill tower and One Tree Hill, capture its aesthetic highlights. The mill tower is a landmark in the local area, visible from considerable distances in the surrounding landscape. The beauty of Mount Gilead's archetypal rural landscape and built features have inspired celebrated artists and photographers of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries.

Mount Gilead is associated with three individuals of importance in the development of New South Wales: Reuben Uther, Thomas Rose and Edward Woodhouse, each of whom made a lasting contribution to the colony's agricultural development.
Date significance updated: 01 Aug 17
Note: The State Heritage Inventory provides information about heritage items listed by local and State government agencies. The State Heritage Inventory is continually being updated by local and State agencies as new information becomes available. Read the OEH copyright and disclaimer.

Description

Designer/Maker: Thomas Rose; Francis Greenway (attrib: Store - no documentary evidence)
Builder/Maker: Thomas Rose; Denzel Macarthur-Onslow
Construction years: 1812-1836
Physical description: Landscape/Farm (Area: c150ha)
Mount Gilead estate is located on the western side of Appin Road. It is bound by Nepean River to the west, Menangle Creek to the north and northwest, and Beulah (SHR no. 00368) and Meadowvale farms to the south. The property is split north-south by the Upper Canal, part of the Upper Canal System (SHR no. 01373), in turn part of the 1880-1888 Upper Nepean Scheme.

The estate is a pastoral landscape formed on the gently undulating topography that is characteristic of the largely shale-based landscapes of Campbelltown-Camden area of the Cumberland Plain. The landscape comprises open, cleared pasture across three ridgelines separated by wooded creeks (the Nepean, Woodhouse and Menangle Creeks) which drain into the Nepean River. The underlying geology is shale-based, with sandstone emerging along the waterways.

The main built elements of the landscape, comprising a homestead, outbuildings, former stable/store, granary and mill tower, all constructed of sandstone, are prominently sited on a long spur of land running parallel to (and on the western side of) the Appin Road.

The mill tower is located at the top of Mount Gilead, with the homestead and associated buildings located partway down the slope in the Loudon model of colonial estate planning. This central spur also connects the homestead group and mill to the estate's other prominent hill ('One Tree Hill') to the north.

The structures and surrounding mature plantings are prominent in views from Appin Road to the west and neighbouring colonial estates to the north and south. The view of the grouping from Appin Road is particularly fine, taking in a large artificial lake and overflow dam, curving carriage drive and expansive stands of mature sclerophyll woodlands.

The south-western areas of the estate feature swing pivot irrigation paddocks on the flats near the Nepean River. These paddocks are edged in stands of indigenous trees and form a visual barrier in views south-west and west from the homestead and mill tower.

The landscape also reveals evidence of the Dharawal people's past occupation and use of the land, with art sites, rock shelters, artefact scatters and potential archaeological deposits primarily concentrated along the vegetated gullies and waterways of Woodhouse and Menangle creeks.

Vegetation
Areas of the estate to the east of the homestead and north of the artificial lake retain mature Narrow-leafed Ironbark (Eucalyptus crebra), Forest Red Gum (E. tereticornis) and Spotted Gum (Corymbia maculata) woodland, with a mix of pasture grass and some locally indigenous grasses underneath. Woodhouse Creek, in the southern part of the estate features riparian vegetation of tall sclerophyll species as well as Brush cherry (Syzygium australe) and Prickly Paperbark (Melaleuca styphelioides). The property adjoins the Noorumba Reserve to the north (Mount Gilead is on its southern and south-western borders), which is significant for its natural heritage values (vegetation, habitat, fauna).

Cultural plantings
The homestead and outbuildings and northern garden are surrounded by mature trees, including Moreton Bay figs (Ficus macrophylla var. macrophylla) dating from before 1888 to the north of the homestead group along the carriage drive and loop, a mature Bunya pine (Araucaria bidwillii) to the north of the homestead, and some mature Kurrajong (Brachychiton populneum) dating from before 1888.

Two mature Moreton Bay figs are also located to the east and south of the mill tower. A single Moreton Bay fig tops 'One tree hill', and is a local landmark. The fig on one tree hill and those along the carriage drive may relate to an earlier entrance drive from the north that is evident in the 1861 plan of the estate. A willow (Salix sp) is the only evidence of the European plantings around the artificial lake that were mentioned in the 1888 sales brochure.
The homestead has a garden to its north, comprising an entry court, with c1950s swimming pool and pool pavilion to the north, drive past to the east and a further yard area for the working farm buildings to the south-east and south. A mature Chinese elm (Ulmus parvifolia) tree, Camellia japonica cv., Himalayan jasmine (Jasminium mesnyi), frangipani (Plumeria rubra cv.) and other shrubs and other smaller plantings form edges and screens within this area.

Another garden to the homestead's south comprises grassed yard, a group of English elms (Ulmus procera), some old, others suckers of older, lost trees. Other trees such as further Moreton Bay figs, silky oak (Grevillia robusta), Brazilian pepper tree (Schinus molle) are in this area, providing shelter and shade for yards and the homestead complex.
The vegetable garden, which was about one acre in size and located south-east of the homestead, is not extant.

Landscape features
Drive: The carriage drive shown in the 1888 sales brochure for the estate remains intact, and includes the carriage loop near the homestead and an unsealed drive that curves around the northern end of the artificial lake and leads to Appin Road. Remnant portions of other drives exist, including one that led to a north-eastern entrance from Appin Road.

Artificial lake: A major feature in the landscape, prominent in views to the homestead and mill tower from the entrance drive from Appin Road. The lake is cut across a natural decline, and has a small island. Immediately to the east is a secondary overflow dam.

Overshot dam: Located to the south-east of the homestead and features a causeway with stone embankments. It was referred to as the 'overshot dam' in the 1888 sales brochure.

Timber bridge remains: Located over Woodhouse Creek north-east of the overshot dam.

Fencing: Generally hardwood posts with barbed wire and steel uprights. Some early post and rail fences may survive.

Quarry: Former sandstone and shale quarry, located near Woodhouse Creek, south of the artificial lake south of the artificial lake.

Buildings

The homestead group comprises a stone homestead and two stone outbuildings (kitchen and laundry) to the south all dating from the period 1810-1830s.

Homestead: a single-storey building with verandahs on all sides. It has been altered extensively over time, with the rear verandah enclosed in brick c1960s and a substantial extension constructed to the north-west c1956-1962, forming an 'L' shaped complex. A carport has been added to the eastern wall. Interiors have not been inspected.

Kitchen: Small single-storey building, square in plan, with sandstone rubble walls and a hipped roof clad in corrugated iron with a single brick corbelled chimney. It has sash windows on the northern wall and the entrance on the western wall has a timber-framed verandah with corrugated iron roof. Later sandstone rubble addition to southern wall with rendered chimney and a single sash window.

Laundry: Small single-storey building, square in plan, with random coursed sandstone ashlar walls and a hipped roof clad in corrugated iron. Panelled timber door with timber-framed corrugated iron awning on eastern wall. Later awning to western wall.

Mill tower
A tall, round, tapering tower of blocked-coursed ashlar sandstone with window openings. Historical images and documents indicate that the stone tower was surmounted with a blackbutt timber windmill with a bell-shaped dome and timber sails. These timber elements are no longer evident. Two iron water tanks at the base of the tower were installed during Sir Denzil Macarthur-Onslow's tenure. Some cogs from the windmill are held by the Powerhouse Museum.

Former granary/store and coach house
A two-storey building, rectangular in plan, of random-coursed sandstone located south-east of the homestead and built into the hill. Primary faade faces the carriage drive and comprises five sash windows, centrally-located entry door, and a sandstone gable with arched window. Windows and walls have ashlar sandstone quoins. The gable roof has been recently clad in corrugated galvanised steel. The stone walls are 18 inches thick.

Former steam flour mill/granary
A substantial two-storey blocked-coursed ashlar sandstone building, a long rectangle in plan, with a recent corrugated galvanised steel roof. Located south of the homestead and built into the hill. Originally three storeys, but substantially modified in the 1920s into a single storey with skillion roof. Upper portion of western wall rebuilt since. Built for a steam flour mill, later served as a shearing shed. The eastern faade retains slot openings in the stonework, presumably from the steam mill machinery.

Remnant stables and brick cistern
Dating c1830s, located south-west of the homestead. Now surrounded by c1950s timber and steel framed additions. Round brick cistern c1830s on the northern side.

Other structures
There are various other farm-related structures that date c1920s-1950s, including two dairies from the 1920s and 1950s.
Physical condition and/or
Archaeological potential:
Homestead group, former granary/store/coach house and former steam flour mill/granary are all in fair condition. All appear to have relatively recent roofs. Hard mortar used in repointing of sections of some buildings' stonework is encouraging erosion of some of the stone blocks. Interiors have not been viewed or assessed. The stone mill tower is also in a fair condition.
Date condition updated:22 Aug 17
Modifications and dates: 1830s main homestead potentially added to earlier stone cottage.
1880s the Upper Canal, part of the Upper Canal System (SHR no. 01373), was constructed through Mt. Gilead estate. The Upper Canal System was part of the 1880-1888 Upper Nepean Scheme.

c1920s: third storey of former steam flour mill/granary removed; sails of windmill removed.
c1930-1950s: rear verandah to homestead enclosed.
c1956-1962: Swimming pool and pool house added north of homestead; northern wing and carport added to homestead, verandah and roof modified; some modifications of granary/store/coach house; some modifications to homestead outbuildings; steel and timber-framed additions to 1830s stables.
c1950s-60s: Interior of mill tower lined with concrete for use as a water tower.

c1979: timber-framed windows added to former granary/store/coach house.
The homestead and outbuildings, granary and coach house have all been re-roofed in recent years.
Current use: Cattle farm
Former use: Aboriginal land, farm: mixed farming: wheat, grazing, sheep, deer, cattle, dairy

History

Historical notes: Background
Mount Gilead is part of the traditional lands of the Dharawal people, who ranged from the coast, inland west to Campbelltown and Camden, north to Botany Bay and south to the Shoalhaven River and Nowra. The Dharawal extended widely across their lands, following the seasonal availability of foods and trading with neighbouring clans. The Georges River and its tributaries provided water, food and shelter, and the area's sandstone overhangs and platforms provided places for paintings and engravings.

With establishment of the convict colony in Sydney in 1788 the displacement of Aboriginal people began. The Campbelltown area became known as 'Cowpastures' by the colonists in 1796, following the discovery of an escaped herd of cattle and verdant pastures there in 1795. Governor Hunter sought to protect the herd by demarcating the Cowpastures area as belonging to the government, stationing a convict constable there and not making land grants. The Dharawal people had seen the cattle, which had escaped in 1788, and sketched their images on the walls of a sandstone shelter.

The first land grant in the area was 5000 acres made to John Macarthur in 1805. By 1809, 34 settlers received grants in the Minto district in the northern part of Campbelltown, with the size of the grants reflecting the wealth and status of the grantees. Large grants were made to surveyor James Meehan (Macquarie Field), surgeon Charles Throsby (Glenfield), William Redfern (Campbellfield), Richard Brooks (Denham Court) and Robert Townson (Varroville). A track between Campbelltown and Appin that had been in use since 1811 was surveyed by Meehan in 1815 and named Appin Road.

Relations between the Dharawal people and the colonists in the area were mainly peaceful, though the Dharawal bore the brunt of a punitive expedition led by Captain James Wallis in 1816 following two years of conflict between the settlers and other Aboriginal clans in the area. At least 14 Dharawal people were massacred at Appin, to the distress of sympathetic settlers. Despite this conflict, the Dharawal people remained in the Appin area, and corroborees and other ceremonies continued under the protection of the Macarthurs of Camden Park, though numbers steadily declined.

Uther period
Reuben Uther, a Sydney merchant, was granted 400 acres (162 ha) (Portion 65 of the Parish of Menangle) by Governor Macquarie on 25 August 1812. Uther was an emancipist who had come to the colony in 1807 as a convict indentured to Simeon Lord. In March 1810 the Earl of Liverpool wrote to Macquarie passing on the wishes of Uther's father that Uther 'receive encouragement as a Settler'. Having served Lord as a clerk or manager, Uther established himself as a successful businessmen, opening a hat factory with Lord and Francis Williams in 1811. In 1815 he established his own hat factory in Sydney. Uther went on to have interests in retailing and iron, acting as agent and attorney for his father-in-law, Lancelot Iredale (whose daughter became Uther's second wife in 1829), and to be a prominent figure in the colonial freemason society. On his death his estate was valued at 250,000 pounds and included the Imperial Arcade between Pitt and Castlereagh Streets .

Uther named his farm 'Gilead', presumably after the biblical city of Gilead which was said to be one of Israel's finest farming regions. In October 1812 Uther was issued with 4 cows and one ox and he also established crops at Gilead. By 1815 Uther had a contract to supply meat to the government stores. In a tour of the district in 1815, Macquarie commented favourably on the state of Uther's farm, noting that he had built a house high on the hill and had better crops than his neighbour.

Rose period
Uther sold Gilead to Thomas Rose, an ex-convict, in 1818. The sales notice for the farm described it as having 400 acres, 50 of which were cleared of timber and 50 more felled, with a good house and skilling (lean-to kitchen) on a 'highly pleasant Hill, commanding a view of the Cow Pastures for many miles'. The farm was also described as having a barn, ground that had produced 'wonderful Crops' and as next to 'one of the best Stock Runs in the Colony'.

Rose had arrived in Sydney in 1798 as a convict and set up as a baker in Sydney in 1804 and later as a publican. Following his absolute pardon in 1809, Rose was granted land at the corner of King and Castlereagh Streets, where he built a bakery and the Rose and Crown Inn. He steadily acquired neighbouring lots until he owned the entire block bounded by King, Elizabeth, Market and Castlereagh streets. Rose became a prominent businessman and public figure in Sydney: he was a stockholder in the Bank of New South Wales, a trustee of the Sydney Public Free Grammar School, and treasurer of the Sydney Reading Room. He acted as clerk of the Sydney race-course until 1827 and owned several race-horses. He moved to Gilead permanently in 1826 following the death of his first wife Elizabeth.

Over his 19 year ownership of Gilead, which he renamed Mount Gilead, Rose made considerable improvements and expanded it greatly through grants made to him and purchases from other grantees. By 1823 the Gilead farm amounted to 2000 acres. Rose won fame for his experiments in water conservation at the property, building his first dam there in 1824. In 1825 he constructed a stone and rammed earth embankment across a natural decline at Gilead, which captured run off from the slope and formed a large artificial lake. This lake was said to hold nearly 120 million cubic feet (3,398,400 cubic metres) and appears to be the earliest successful attempt to conserve water in the colony. It was a great success, providing sufficient capacity to withstand the drought of 1829. In 1829 Rose constructed a cheaper rammed earth dam near Appin Road for the relief of his neighbours. Rose's water conservation efforts attracted the interest of nearby landowners and the government, with Governor Bourke visiting Rose at Gilead in 1833. It has been suggested that Rose was behind a proposal in 1832 to build a public reservoir in Campbelltown, a proposal that ultimately resulted in the town having a reliable water supply for the next 50 years.

Rose cultivated crops and grazed cattle at Mount Gilead and the estate was worked by 12 assigned convicts and two other employees. Rose married Sarah Pye in 1828 and they had five children. In 1836 Rose constructed a 60 foot (18m) windmill for grinding wheat on the summit of Mount Gilead. The blades, shaft and gears were all of ironbark and the tower constructed of sandstone quarried from the farm. It had a stone wall around it to protect animals from the windmill's blades. Rose also constructed a large store with threshing machine, and made both the mill and machine available to local landowners. Campbelltown had become a major wheat-growing region by this time, and remained so until the appearance of wheat rust in the mid-1850s.

By the time Rose died in 1837, the Mount Gilead farm featured a homestead built of stone with seven bedrooms, hall, parlours and drawing-rooms, with detached kitchen, larder, bakehouse and laundry. Farm buildings comprise a granary, a large storehouse, barn, cellars, piggeries, stockyard, milking shed, six-stall stable, coach house, horse mill, threshing machine and the windmill. Rose, who was buried on the property (though later transferred to St Peters of Campbelltown), left Mount Gilead in trust to his five youngest children. The trustees attempted to sell the property in 1853, but without success. It was then leased until 1858 when it was made over to Charles Henry Jacob Rose, the eldest child of Sarah.

Henry Rose was soon in debt and mortgaged the property with the Sydney Insurance Company in 1859. The company put the property up for sale in 1861. The plan of the estate that accompanied the auction notice shows the extent of development of the farm, as well as its general layout. The plan shows the homestead, cluster of farm buildings and windmill in the north-eastern area of the property, along with the artificial lake. It also shows two main entrance to the homestead from Appin Road: a northern entrance road through Portions 55, 56 and 57 (these and Portion 35 were sold from the estate in 1863), and a southern entrance road through Portion 75 that wrapped around the southern side of the artificial lake and joined the northern entrance road north-east of the windmill. A road from the rear of the homestead group to Menangle Creek is also shown.

The remainder of the estate was sold to Walter Friend 1864, who added to the estate 300 acres on the eastern side of Appin Road. Friend sold the whole estate in 1867 to Edward Hume Woodhouse, a bank manager who had been born on a neighbouring property granted to his father G.M. Woodhouse, a principal clerk in the Judge-Advocate's office under Ellis Bent.

Woodhouse period
Woodhouse proved to be an innovative and adventurous farmer, introducing a wide variety of livestock and agricultural techniques to the Mount Gilead property in the six years he was there. Following the devastation wrought on the district's wheat crops by rust, Woodhouse recognised his estate's potential for dairying and is generally credited with introducing wide-scale dairying in the Campbelltown area. He invested in cattle for dairy and beef, sheep for wool and meat, Berkshire pigs and various poultry, as well as more exotic livestock like deer and llamas.

Woodhouse died in 1875 and his son, Edmund, inherited Mount Gilead. He continued his father's interest in breeding cattle, producing champion shorthorn bulls, followed by Devon cattle, and introducing new breeds such as imported Poland-China pigs, the first of their breed in the colony. The estate was well-renowned for its advances in agricultural techniques, including stock-feeding and machinery. Landscape photographers Kerry and Jones took a series of panoramas of the estate in 1886. The Upper Canal of the Upper Nepean water supply scheme (SHR no. 1373) was built through the estate by 1888, running north-south along the valley to the west of the homestead group.

By 1888 Edmund Woodhouse was in financial difficulties and the estate was offered for sale by Mills and Pile, divided into 13 allotments. The sale brochure featured drawings and descriptions of the estate and its features. It was described as being of 2063 acres, with 1600 of those acres cleared of timber, and of having 'a truly Park-Like Appearance resembling, an English Country Seat'. Attention had been given to the estate's layout - 'the picturesque [had] been studied' - with 'hundreds' of trees planted on the hills and slopes in single trees and clumps, which provided a contrast to the native timber that remained. The estate had artificial pastures of clover and introduced grasses, divided with ironbark fences, and retained ironbark forest in the land to the east of Appin Road. The artificial lake had a boat house and bathing house, an island planted with willows, cedars and poplars, and had been stocked with fish. An overshot dam faced with dressed stone and crossed by a road, was located to the south-west of the homestead group, along a creek. A further fenced dam, planted with Monterey or radiata pine (Pinus insignis, now P.radiata), was located north of the homestead. The estate's vegetable garden, south of the homestead, was about one acre and 'in a high state of productiveness'. There was also a deer park between the carriage drive and the artificial lake, and five cottages throughout the estate.

The homestead was said to have a 100-foot long stone-flagged verandah that continued around both ends of the house and contain a drawing room, five bedrooms, two dressing rooms, hall, library, office, passages, pantry, and a store room, with cedar woodwork throughout and a double roof (iron over shingle). The bathroom had a plunge pool and shower, supplied by a 10,000 gallon tank. The stable was said to contain five stalls, harness room, saddle room, and coach-man's room, with a loft over the whole building. The coach house (called 'the granary' in the brochure) had a coach-house for three vehicles, a three-stall stable, a harness room and a farrier's shop on the ground floor, and a billiard room, complete with table and fittings, on the upper floor. The large granary was described as being built of dressed stone with walls two feet thick and three storeys high, originally built as a steam mill but at that time containing a four horsepower circular saw. The sales brochure also noted that the ground floor had been used as a shearing shed.

The windmill was said to command views of the Saddle-Back mountain near Kiama to the south-east, the Gib Range near Mittagong to the south, Katoomba and the Blue Mountains to the west, the spire of St John's Church in Camden to the north-west and Hunters Hill to the north-east.

The 1888 sale did not go ahead and Edmund Woodhouse was bankrupt when he died three years later. The estate became the property of Australian Mortgage Company and was leased to Charles Axam, who used the estate for dairying. The property had several short-term owners from 1910-1941. In 1927 an article noted that 'Rose's Mill on the estate is probably the only windmill still standing in NSW'. By the 1930s the wooden elements of the mill had collapsed.

Macarthur Onslow period
The estate was purchased by Sylvia Macarthur-Onslow in the name of her son Andrew William Macarthur-Onslow in 1941. When he died in a flying accident in 1948, the property passed to Sylvia, who owned it until her death in 1950, when it was inherited by her eldest son, Denzil Macarthur-Onslow. In 1958 Denzil Macarthur-Onslow transferred the land east of Appin Road to his second wife. He purchased an additional 100 acres (Portion 59) in 1965, then transferred ownership of the whole estate to his company Mount Gilead Pty Limited in 1982.

Denzil Macarthur-Onslow had a distinguished military career, commencing as a lieutenant in the militia in 1922 and rising to the rank of brigadier in 1946. He was brigadier in Citizen Military Forces from 1949 and was promoted to major general in 1954, later serving as the only CMF officer on the Military Board, the army's decision-making body. He was appointed CBE in 1951 and was knighted in 1964. He thrice stood for the seat of Eden-Monaro, first for the Liberal Democratic Party, then for the Liberal Party of Australia. He was president of the Big Brother Movement from 1966-80 and a prominent businessman, sitting on numerous boards and establishing his own pastry-cook supply business in the 1940s. He married his third wife, Lady Dorothy, a medical practitioner who was prominent in her own right, in 1950. Lady Dorothy had a distinguished career, serving as a member of the Health Advisory Council NSW, director of the NSW division of the National Heart Foundation and on the boards of numerous hospital and health district boards in NSW. She was also a life-long champion of the Girl Guides Association, serving as the vice-president of the NSW division from 1977-1982. Lady Dorothy was made an Officer of the Order of Australia in 1987.

Since 1941, the Macarthur-Onslow family has made some changes to the Mount Gilead property, including alterations and additions to the homestead c1960s, construction of a pool and pool house and a second residence to the north. The family used the estate for cattle breeding and, until 1986, dairying. Ownership of the estate, as part of Mount Gilead Pty Limited, passed to Sir Denzil and Lady Dorothy's children Lee and Katrina on Lady Dorothy's death in 2013. The property continues to be used for cattle breeding.

Historic themes

Australian theme (abbrev)New South Wales themeLocal theme
1. Environment-Tracing the evolution of a continent's special environments Environment - naturally evolved-Activities associated with the physical surroundings that support human life and influence or shape human cultures. Environment/Contact: What do we know of the Contact Environment?-Environment (Natural) Control
1. Environment-Tracing the evolution of a continent's special environments Environment - naturally evolved-Activities associated with the physical surroundings that support human life and influence or shape human cultures. Other open space-
1. Environment-Tracing the evolution of a continent's special environments Environment - naturally evolved-Activities associated with the physical surroundings that support human life and influence or shape human cultures. Introduce cultural planting-
1. Environment-Tracing the evolution of a continent's special environments Environment - naturally evolved-Activities associated with the physical surroundings that support human life and influence or shape human cultures. Changing the environment-
1. Environment-Tracing the evolution of a continent's special environments Environment - naturally evolved-Activities associated with the physical surroundings that support human life and influence or shape human cultures. Cultural: Natural landscapes valued by humans-
1. Environment-Tracing the evolution of a continent's special environments Environment - naturally evolved-Activities associated with the physical surroundings that support human life and influence or shape human cultures. Cultural: Plains and plateaux supporting human activities-
2. Peopling-Peopling the continent Aboriginal cultures and interactions with other cultures-Activities associated with maintaining, developing, experiencing and remembering Aboriginal cultural identities and practices, past and present. All nations - places of battle or other early interactions between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal peoples-
2. Peopling-Peopling the continent Aboriginal cultures and interactions with other cultures-Activities associated with maintaining, developing, experiencing and remembering Aboriginal cultural identities and practices, past and present. All nations - sites evidencing occupation-
2. Peopling-Peopling the continent Aboriginal cultures and interactions with other cultures-Activities associated with maintaining, developing, experiencing and remembering Aboriginal cultural identities and practices, past and present. Dharawal Nation - contact sites-
2. Peopling-Peopling the continent Aboriginal cultures and interactions with other cultures-Activities associated with maintaining, developing, experiencing and remembering Aboriginal cultural identities and practices, past and present. Aboriginal Culture-
2. Peopling-Peopling the continent Convict-Activities relating to incarceration, transport, reform, accommodation and working during the convict period in NSW (1788-1850) - does not include activities associated with the conviction of persons in NSW that are unrelated to the imperial 'convict system': use the theme of Law & Order for such activities Convict labour-
2. Peopling-Peopling the continent Convict-Activities relating to incarceration, transport, reform, accommodation and working during the convict period in NSW (1788-1850) - does not include activities associated with the conviction of persons in NSW that are unrelated to the imperial 'convict system': use the theme of Law & Order for such activities Creating a gentleman's estate-
2. Peopling-Peopling the continent Convict-Activities relating to incarceration, transport, reform, accommodation and working during the convict period in NSW (1788-1850) - does not include activities associated with the conviction of persons in NSW that are unrelated to the imperial 'convict system': use the theme of Law & Order for such activities Working on private assignment-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Agriculture-Activities relating to the cultivation and rearing of plant and animal species, usually for commercial purposes, can include aquaculture Processing wheat and other grains-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Agriculture-Activities relating to the cultivation and rearing of plant and animal species, usually for commercial purposes, can include aquaculture Marking the transition from pastoralism to agriculture-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Agriculture-Activities relating to the cultivation and rearing of plant and animal species, usually for commercial purposes, can include aquaculture Farming wheat and other grains-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Agriculture-Activities relating to the cultivation and rearing of plant and animal species, usually for commercial purposes, can include aquaculture Clearing land for farming-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Agriculture-Activities relating to the cultivation and rearing of plant and animal species, usually for commercial purposes, can include aquaculture Dairy farming-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Agriculture-Activities relating to the cultivation and rearing of plant and animal species, usually for commercial purposes, can include aquaculture Ancillary structures - wells, cisterns-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Agriculture-Activities relating to the cultivation and rearing of plant and animal species, usually for commercial purposes, can include aquaculture Ancillary structures - wells, cisterns-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Environment - cultural landscape-Activities associated with the interactions between humans, human societies and the shaping of their physical surroundings Landscapes of urban and rural interaction-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Environment - cultural landscape-Activities associated with the interactions between humans, human societies and the shaping of their physical surroundings Landscapes of food production-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Environment - cultural landscape-Activities associated with the interactions between humans, human societies and the shaping of their physical surroundings Landscapes and countryside of rural charm-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Pastoralism-Activities associated with the breeding, raising, processing and distribution of livestock for human use Dairying-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Pastoralism-Activities associated with the breeding, raising, processing and distribution of livestock for human use Modifying landscapes to increase productivity-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Pastoralism-Activities associated with the breeding, raising, processing and distribution of livestock for human use Agisting and fattening stock for slaughter-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Accommodation-Activities associated with the provision of accommodation, and particular types of accommodation – does not include architectural styles – use the theme of Creative Endeavour for such activities. Housing farming families-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Accommodation-Activities associated with the provision of accommodation, and particular types of accommodation – does not include architectural styles – use the theme of Creative Endeavour for such activities. Housing for farm and station hands-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Land tenure-Activities and processes for identifying forms of ownership and occupancy of land and water, both Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Sub-division of large estates-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Land tenure-Activities and processes for identifying forms of ownership and occupancy of land and water, both Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Granting Crown lands for private farming-
5. Working-Working Labour-Activities associated with work practises and organised and unorganised labour Working on pastoral stations-
5. Working-Working Labour-Activities associated with work practises and organised and unorganised labour Working independently on the land-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Creative endeavour-Activities associated with the production and performance of literary, artistic, architectural and other imaginative, interpretive or inventive works; and/or associated with the production and expression of cultural phenomena; and/or environments that have inspired such creative activities. Designing landscapes in an exemplary style-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Creative endeavour-Activities associated with the production and performance of literary, artistic, architectural and other imaginative, interpretive or inventive works; and/or associated with the production and expression of cultural phenomena; and/or environments that have inspired such creative activities. Designing structures to emphasise their important roles-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Creative endeavour-Activities associated with the production and performance of literary, artistic, architectural and other imaginative, interpretive or inventive works; and/or associated with the production and expression of cultural phenomena; and/or environments that have inspired such creative activities. Building in response to climate - verandahs-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Creative endeavour-Activities associated with the production and performance of literary, artistic, architectural and other imaginative, interpretive or inventive works; and/or associated with the production and expression of cultural phenomena; and/or environments that have inspired such creative activities. Building in response to natural landscape features.-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Creative endeavour-Activities associated with the production and performance of literary, artistic, architectural and other imaginative, interpretive or inventive works; and/or associated with the production and expression of cultural phenomena; and/or environments that have inspired such creative activities. Architectural styles and periods - colonial homestead-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Creative endeavour-Activities associated with the production and performance of literary, artistic, architectural and other imaginative, interpretive or inventive works; and/or associated with the production and expression of cultural phenomena; and/or environments that have inspired such creative activities. Vernacular structures and building techniques-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Creative endeavour-Activities associated with the production and performance of literary, artistic, architectural and other imaginative, interpretive or inventive works; and/or associated with the production and expression of cultural phenomena; and/or environments that have inspired such creative activities. Adaptation of overseas design for local use-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Creative endeavour-Activities associated with the production and performance of literary, artistic, architectural and other imaginative, interpretive or inventive works; and/or associated with the production and expression of cultural phenomena; and/or environments that have inspired such creative activities. Landscaping - Victorian period-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Creative endeavour-Activities associated with the production and performance of literary, artistic, architectural and other imaginative, interpretive or inventive works; and/or associated with the production and expression of cultural phenomena; and/or environments that have inspired such creative activities. Landscaping - colonial period-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Creative endeavour-Activities associated with the production and performance of literary, artistic, architectural and other imaginative, interpretive or inventive works; and/or associated with the production and expression of cultural phenomena; and/or environments that have inspired such creative activities. Interior design styles and periods - Victorian-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Creative endeavour-Activities associated with the production and performance of literary, artistic, architectural and other imaginative, interpretive or inventive works; and/or associated with the production and expression of cultural phenomena; and/or environments that have inspired such creative activities. Interior design styles and periods - Colonial-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Creative endeavour-Activities associated with the production and performance of literary, artistic, architectural and other imaginative, interpretive or inventive works; and/or associated with the production and expression of cultural phenomena; and/or environments that have inspired such creative activities. work of stonemasons-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Creative endeavour-Activities associated with the production and performance of literary, artistic, architectural and other imaginative, interpretive or inventive works; and/or associated with the production and expression of cultural phenomena; and/or environments that have inspired such creative activities. Architectural styles and periods - colonial vernacular-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Creative endeavour-Activities associated with the production and performance of literary, artistic, architectural and other imaginative, interpretive or inventive works; and/or associated with the production and expression of cultural phenomena; and/or environments that have inspired such creative activities. Architectural styles and periods - Victorian (early)-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Domestic life-Activities associated with creating, maintaining, living in and working around houses and institutions. Country estates - visiting, enjoying-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Domestic life-Activities associated with creating, maintaining, living in and working around houses and institutions. Ways of life 1900-1950-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Domestic life-Activities associated with creating, maintaining, living in and working around houses and institutions. Ways of life 1950-2000-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Domestic life-Activities associated with creating, maintaining, living in and working around houses and institutions. Ways of life 1788-1850-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Domestic life-Activities associated with creating, maintaining, living in and working around houses and institutions. Ways of life 1850-1900-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Domestic life-Activities associated with creating, maintaining, living in and working around houses and institutions. Convict housing near workplaces-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Domestic life-Activities associated with creating, maintaining, living in and working around houses and institutions. Physical evidence of creating, maintaining, living in and working around houses, through domestic artefacts scatters, ar-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Domestic life-Activities associated with creating, maintaining, living in and working around houses and institutions. Living on the urban fringe-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Domestic life-Activities associated with creating, maintaining, living in and working around houses and institutions. Ornamental Garden-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Domestic life-Activities associated with creating, maintaining, living in and working around houses and institutions. Living in a bushland setting-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Domestic life-Activities associated with creating, maintaining, living in and working around houses and institutions. Living in a rural homestead-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Domestic life-Activities associated with creating, maintaining, living in and working around houses and institutions. Living in, adapting and renovating homes for changing conditions-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Domestic life-Activities associated with creating, maintaining, living in and working around houses and institutions. Kitchens and servants-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Leisure-Activities associated with recreation and relaxation Gathering at landmark places to socialise-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Leisure-Activities associated with recreation and relaxation Gardening-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Leisure-Activities associated with recreation and relaxation Visiting heritage places-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Leisure-Activities associated with recreation and relaxation Visiting lookouts and places of natural beauty-
9. Phases of Life-Marking the phases of life Persons-Activities of, and associations with, identifiable individuals, families and communal groups Associations with Reuben Uther, Sydney merchant, grazier-
9. Phases of Life-Marking the phases of life Persons-Activities of, and associations with, identifiable individuals, families and communal groups Associations with Edward Hume Woodhouse, bank manager, farmer-
9. Phases of Life-Marking the phases of life Persons-Activities of, and associations with, identifiable individuals, families and communal groups Associations with Sylvia Macarthur-Onslow, gentlewoman-
9. Phases of Life-Marking the phases of life Persons-Activities of, and associations with, identifiable individuals, families and communal groups Associations with Major General Denzil Macarthur-Onslow, soldier, businessman, farmer-
9. Phases of Life-Marking the phases of life Persons-Activities of, and associations with, identifiable individuals, families and communal groups Associations with Lady Dorothy Macarthur-Onslow AO, GP, farmer-
9. Phases of Life-Marking the phases of life Persons-Activities of, and associations with, identifiable individuals, families and communal groups Associations with Thomas Rose, ex-convict merchant, publican, farmer-

Assessment of significance

SHR Criteria a)
[Historical significance]
Mount Gilead is likely to be of state heritage significance as an early nineteenth century colonial estate with rare surviving features, and which forms one of a continuum of notable colonial properties along Appin Road. Mount Gilead provides intact evidence of the colonial pastoral expansion into the Camden and Campbelltown areas southwest of Sydney in the period 1810-1830 and its development throughout the nineteenth century. This expansion provided land vital for agriculture to support the young colony. Mount Gilead is able to demonstrate numerous aspects of this formative period of colonial land use and pastoralism, as well as the continuity of this use from the colonial period to today, with surviving structures and landscape elements including remnant mill tower, an externally intact sandstone granary/store/coach house, a modified steam mill/granary, modified sandstone homestead and outbuildings, artificial lake and overshot dam, quarry, early cultivation patterns and cleared paddock character and use for grazing cattle. The landscape also provides evidence of Aboriginal occupation and use of the land prior to its colonial development.

The estate's picturesque landscape design, still evident in the arrangement of the homestead group and windmill tower, plantings of Moreton Bay Figs (Ficus macrophylla) and Bunya pine (Araucaria bidwillii), contrast of cleared paddocks to clumps of indigenous trees, and entrance drive around the artificial lake, provides important surviving evidence of nineteenth century estate planning.
SHR Criteria b)
[Associative significance]
Mount Gilead is likely to be of state heritage significance for its association with three individuals of importance in the development of New South Wales: Reuben Uther (1791-1880), Thomas Rose (d. 1837) and Edward Woodhouse (d. 1875). Uther established the Gilead farm on the land granted to him by Macquarie in 1812. He was an emancipist and merchant who had successes in manufacturing, retailing and agriculture. Rose pioneered water conservation in colonial agriculture at Mount Gilead, the physical remnants of which include the artificial lake still present there. He was well known in the colony as an enterprising individual who arrived in New South Wales as a convict and went on to develop considerable wealth and status. Edward Woodhouse was an innovative farmer who introduced new breeds to colonial agriculture at Mount Gilead and is widely acknowledged as recognising the potential for large-scale dairying in the Campbelltown area, ultimately rescuing local farms from the devastation wrought by wheat rust on its mainly grain crops.
SHR Criteria c)
[Aesthetic significance]
Mount Gilead is likely to be of state heritage significance as a colonial landscape with outstanding picturesque qualities, substantially unchanged since the nineteenth century. These qualities are bestowed by the estate's undulating topography, contrast of cleared paddocks with stands of indigenous vegetation, and the siting of the various estate structures and plantings along the central ridgeline that connects the homestead to One Tree Hill to the north. The available vistas within the estate capture its aesthetic highlights, particularly those experienced along the two main entry routes (from the north and the west) where the rich combination of estate features is revealed progressively, and between the homestead and One Tree Hill. The view west across artificial lake to the homestead, granaries and mill tower along the ridgeline is particularly fine. The sandstone mill tower is a landmark in the local area, visible from considerable distances in the surrounding landscape. It offers expansive views across the Nepean River to the west where there are important vistas to Menangle and Camden Park. The combination of topography, structures, plantings and vistas reflects a deliberate concern to cultivate a visually pleasing estate environment while maximising its economic value as an agricultural asset, evidence of an eighteenth-century ideal that continued to be espoused by influential nineteenth century writers such as John Claudius Loudon. Locally indigenous vegetation that remains in the western, southern and eastern areas of the estate enhances the landscape's visual setting and is an intrinsic component of Mount Gilead's colonial landscape character.

The beauty of Mount Gilead's archetypal rural landscape and built features have long been appreciated, providing inspiration for celebrated artists and photographers of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, including Ure Smith, Sheila McDonald and the Lindsays, and professional photographers Kerry & Jones and Harold Cazneaux.
SHR Criteria e)
[Research potential]
Mount Gilead is likely to be of state heritage significance for its potential to yield substantial information relating to the development of rural and pastoral lifestyles and technology over a 200-year period. Surrounding the homestead complex are a number of potential archaeological sites related to farm worker cottages and other farm buildings, as well as gardens, fences and cultivation patterns, all from various periods of the nineteenth century occupation of the estate. There may also be evidence of earlier phases of the estate's planning such as former access roads, tree plantings, paddock layout, dams and gardens. This resource has the potential to reveal evidence of how colonial pastoral properties were developed and worked, as well as the domestic and working lives of those who lived and worked there, and how these lifestyles changed over time. Extant structures, such as the former granaries and mill tower, remnant stables and brick cistern, and landscape features such as the artificial lake, plantings, and sandstone quarry also have the potential to contribute to this understanding.
SHR Criteria f)
[Rarity]
MMount Gilead is likely to be of state heritage significance as one of a decreasing number of relatively intact colonial properties of the Cumberland Plain. It retains rare intact features that demonstrate pastoral enterprise of the colonial period, including the externally intact sandstone granary/coach house, homestead (modified), former steam flour mill/granary (modified), sandstone mill tower and artificial lake. The artificial lake established by Thomas Rose is the earliest known private example of its kind remaining intact in Australia. The sandstone mill tower is the earliest known example of a windmill remaining in NSW and provides rare evidence of a now defunct agricultural process.
SHR Criteria g)
[Representativeness]
Mount Gilead is likely to be of state heritage significance as a fine example of a colonial cultural landscape that retains much of its nineteenth century landscape character. The siting of its main buildings and individual plantings of landmark trees along a central spine, with surrounding cleared paddocks and pattern of woodland and plantings enclosing and revealing views, demonstrates the principal characteristics of a colonial cultural landscape in the picturesque style. This value is reinforced by its place within a group of colonial properties along Appin Road. The mill tower is the best surviving example of its kind in NSW and remains within its rural landscape context.
Integrity/Intactness: The landscape within the proposed SHR curtilage is highly intact. The item's significant sandstone structures have all been modified to some degree.
Assessment criteria: Items are assessed against the PDF State Heritage Register (SHR) Criteria to determine the level of significance. Refer to the Listings below for the level of statutory protection.

Recommended management:

Recommendations

Management CategoryDescriptionDate Updated
Statutory InstrumentNominate for State Heritage Register (SHR) 
Recommended ManagementProduce a Conservation Management Plan (CMP) 
Recommended ManagementProduce an Archaeological Management Plan (AMP) 
Recommended ManagementPrepare a maintenance schedule or guidelines 
Recommended ManagementCarry out interpretation, promotion and/or education 

Listings

Heritage ListingListing TitleListing NumberGazette DateGazette NumberGazette Page
Heritage Act - Under consideration for SHR/IHO listing  18 Dec 15   
Local Environmental PlanCampbelltown Local Environmental Plan 2015I5811 Dec 15   
Potential Heritage Item     
National Trust of Australia register  61614 Apr 80   

Study details

TitleYearNumberAuthorInspected byGuidelines used
Colonial Landscapes of the Cumberland Plain and Camden, NSW20004.18Morris, C., & Britton, G./NSW National Trust (for the Heritage Council of NSW)Colleen Morris & Geoffrey Britton Yes
Macarthur Region Heritage Study1992Map 8, no. 36; Index no. 106, category 1 (Key building groupMacarthur Development Board  No
Campbelltown City Heritage Review Study20091291064Paul Davies P/LPaul Davies Yes
National Trust Country Register0 National Trust of Australia (NSW)  No

References, internet links & images

TypeAuthorYearTitleInternet Links
Written 1861Plan of the Mount Gilead Estate to be sold by Richardson & Wrench at Morris' Hotel, Campbelltown, 23rd Nov. 1861
WrittenCampbelltown City Council Mount Gilead Group, Lot 1 DP 807555 Appin Road, Gilead - Group of Stone buildings, windmill and dam built 1820s on View detail
WrittenChampion, T.S.1932'Mt.Gilead Windmill: a Campbelltown Relic'
WrittenCharles Bertie with illustrations by Ure Smith1974Old Colonial By-ways (1974 edition)
WrittenClouston (Landscape Architects)2014Mount Gilead Landscape Character and Visual Impact Assessment
WrittenFowler, Verlie1994'Mt.Gilead', in Grist Mills volume 7, no.4
WrittenFox, Len1978Windmills outside Sydney’, in Old Sydney Windmills
WrittenGML Heritage2015Mount Gilead Estate Curtilage Study
WrittenLachlan Macquarie, Governor of New South Wales1956Journals of his Tours in New South Wales and Van Diemen's Land, 1810-1822
WrittenLeary, F & J.1979Colonial Heritage - Historic Buildings of NSW
WrittenListon, Carol1988Campbelltown: the Bicentennial History
WrittenMcGookin, Daniel2019Walker Corporation respond after project rejected
WrittenMills & Pile, auctioneers, 130 Pitt Street, Sydney, NSW1888Mount Gilead (cartographic material): the property of Edmund B. Woodhouse, Esp. sale day Thursday 12th April 1888, 11.30am
WrittenMoloney, J.J.1929'Early Menangle'
WrittenMorris, John F.1942'Mount Gilead Estate and Windmill, Campbelltown'
WrittenNational Trust of Australia (NSW) Ladies Committee National Trust of Australia (NSW) Ladies Committee Inspection Leaflet no. 194
WrittenNavin Officer2006Mount Gilead Campbelltown, NSW, Cultural Heritage Assessment. Mount Gilead Campbelltown, NSW, Cultural Heritage Assessment
WrittenNavin Officer Heritage Consultants and Tropman & Tropman Architects2015European Heritage Assessment of Mt Gilead
WrittenPercival, Syd1992Chronicles of Appin, NSW
WrittenProudfoot, Helen Index no. 106, Category 1 (Key building group)
WrittenThe Home (magazine), 1/9/19271927Sydney Landmarks
WrittenThe Sydney Prehistory Group In Search of the Cobrakall - A survey of Aboriginal sites in the Campbelltown area south of Sydney - part 2
WrittenTKD Architects2017Mount Gilead, 901 Appin Road, Gilead, Preliminary Heritage Assessment
WrittenTKD Architects2015Mount Gilead, 901 Appin Road, Gilead, Heritage Curtilage Review
WrittenVirtus Heritage2017Hillsborough Site, Appin Road, Mount Gilead - s.140 Archaeological Research Design and Methodology
WrittenWitt, Merrill2019'Bigger Sydney chops forests'
WrittenZautsen, Daniel2018'Housing plan quietly takes a step forward'
WrittenZautsen, Daniel2017'Mt.Gilead: Plans for 1700 homes on rural site get green light: works to begin next year but concerns for koalas'

Note: internet links may be to web pages, documents or images.

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Data source

The information for this entry comes from the following source:
Name: Heritage Office
Database number: 5052615
File number: EF13/14808; EF14/7931; H02/79


Every effort has been made to ensure that information contained in the State Heritage Inventory is correct. If you find any errors or omissions please send your comments to the Database Manager.

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