Cathedral Church of Christ the King (inc. hall and cottages) | NSW Environment & Heritage

Culture and heritage

Heritage

Cathedral Church of Christ the King (inc. hall and cottages)

Item details

Name of item: Cathedral Church of Christ the King (inc. hall and cottages)
Other name/s: Christ Church Cathedral; Grafton Anglican Cathedral
Type of item: Complex / Group
Group/Collection: Religion
Category: Cathedral
Location: Lat: -29.6929786007 Long: 152.9349478880
Primary address: Duke Street, Grafton, NSW 2460
Parish: Great Marlow
County: Clarence
Local govt. area: Clarence Valley
Local Aboriginal Land Council: Grafton-Ngerrie
Property description
Lot/Volume CodeLot/Volume NumberSection NumberPlan/Folio CodePlan/Folio Number
LOT1 DP245341
LOTA DP51
LOTB DP51
LOTC DP51
LOTD DP51
LOTE DP51
LOTF DP51
LOTG DP51
LOT109DP758470
LOT79DP758470
LOT89DP758470
All addresses
Street AddressSuburb/townLGAParishCountyType
Duke StreetGraftonClarence ValleyGreat MarlowClarencePrimary Address
Fitzroy StreetGraftonClarence ValleyGreat MarlowClarenceAlternate Address
Victoria StreetGraftonClarence ValleyGreat MarlowClarenceAlternate Address

Owner/s

Organisation NameOwner CategoryDate Ownership Updated
Anglican Diocese of GraftonReligious Organisation 

Statement of significance:

Cathedral Church of Christ the King is of State significance as an intact example of the culmination of architect John Horbury Hunt's ecclesiastical ideas. Constructed between 1874 -1884, Christ Church Cathedral demonstrates the growth of the Anglican Church in the Diocese of Grafton. The building demonstrates the skill and originality of Hunt's ideas and use of brickwork, form and assymetrical balance, culminating in the mighty western archway. Hunts use of adjustable and fixed wooden louvers instead of glass is purported to be the first attempt to alleviate the problem of heat in any public building in Australia.
Date significance updated: 23 Sep 02
Note: The State Heritage Inventory provides information about heritage items listed by local and State government agencies. The State Heritage Inventory is continually being updated by local and State agencies as new information becomes available. Read the OEH copyright and disclaimer.

Description

Designer/Maker: John Horbury Hunt (Cathedral)
Builder/Maker: G J T Lawson (woodwork), Reynold Brothers (brickwork)
Construction years: 1874-1884
Physical description: Site and grounds:
The site occupies the corner of FItzroy Street and Duke Street, Grafton and comprises generally grassed surrounds with a cluster of five key buildings. The cathedral is located at the site's rear, two cottages to its northern side street, the Edwards Hall and Education and Welfare Offices and shops and car parking facing Fitzroy Street north of the cathedral.

Cathedral Church:
Cathedral Church of Christ the King is of Gothic architectural style and is admirably expressed in form and materials. In the words of Hunt it imitates the transition style of about 1300AD. The Cathedral is built of local salmon pink bricks, mainly in English bond. It consists of an eight bay nave, sanctuary, side aisles, a side Chapel, a Baptistry, Clergy Vestry and Choir Vestry. Massive scale emphasised by use of an enormous and dramatic double archway of decorative brickwork spanning the west end. A smaller arch of similar design is in the chancel. Over 90 different patterns of ornamental brickwork were used in its completion. The nave has an open timber roof, supported by space trusses, while close spaced trusses span the sanctuary. The Cathedral seats 1000 people.

Building commenced in 1881. By 1884 only three bays of the nave, the tower and the Chapter House had been built. Except for the tower these were completed in 1937, to Hunt's original design, the bricks being made from the same clay and moulds as the original work. In 1896 the great stained glass window was installed in the chancel over the high alter and dedicated to Bishop Turner. It is a rich example of the work of Lyon and Cottier, Sydney.

Parish Hall (Christ Church Hall/Edwards Hall)
An attractive small single storey hall built of similar sand mould apricot brick as used on the cathedral and designed by architect John Horbury Hunt, built 1890. The church hall has been sympathetically conceived adjacent to the Cathedral and is an attractive small church. The corrugated iron roof, originally shingled, has two scalloped barge boards, which may have also replaced the original pattern.

Victorian Cottage
A late Victorian single storey brick cottage having a timber verandah all round with good decorative timber valances. The building appears to have been altered little and is in good condition.

Georgian Cottage
A three bayed, four roomed, stuccoed brick late Georgian single storey cottage with an attic and three bay verandah. The building contains most original cedar joinery. The gabled roof is corrugated iron and the verandah is timber with simple mouldings.

Other buildings on site include the:
Cathedral Welfare & Education Centre / Bookshop and Opportunity Shop (1996);
Single storey, modern face brick buildings with pitched, hipped corrugated iron and flat metal roof. The Education and Welfare Centre has a wrap-around verandah to three sides. It is connected to Edwards Hall by a covered breezeway (Oultram, 2015, 2).
Physical condition and/or
Archaeological potential:
Physical condition is good. Archaeological potential is high.
Date condition updated:23 Sep 02
Modifications and dates: 1874 - the foundation stone for the Cathedral is laid on June 24th.
1880 - concrete foundations poured
1881 - building commenced
1884 - three bays of the nave had been built and Cathdral is opened and dedicated on July 25th. St. James Day.
1896 - great stained glass window was installed in the chancel over the high altar and dedicated to Bishop Turner.
1934 - The Foundation Stone for the second stage of the Cathedral is laid on 27th June.
1937 - On October 30th, the second stage is dedicated.
1959 - The Cathedral is consecrated on 14th September.
1976 - The Cathedral Parish Centre is completed with the addition of a hall, offices and kitchen to the existing Hunt Hall.
1984 - Centenary celebrations and Cathedral restoration.
Current use: Place of worship
Former use: Place of worship

History

Historical notes: Bishop James FrancisTurner, the Bishop of Armidale and Grafton had designs prepared by the firm Carpenter and Slater, but this was abandoned and he commissioned architect John Horbury Hunt to prepare alternative designs (Oultram, 2015, 4).

Hunt began designing the Cathedral Church of Christ the King, or Christ Church Cathedral as early as 1870. However when Turner raised the matter, the congregation at Grafton rejected the plans because of the cost involved.

In June 1874 Bishop Turner spread the mortar for the foundation stone and Hunt lowered and placed it in position. The foundation stone was laid on a cleared part of the Victoria and Duke Street site. It was not until 1878 when the Rev Charles Capel Greenway became Archdeacon of Grafton that fundraising for the building began in earnest.
Greenway was the son of colonial architect, Francis Greenway (ibid, 2015, 4).

the time of the cathedral's construction, 1874-84 was a boom time for the development of Grafton city (ibid, 2015, 13).

In May 1879 Hunt was commissioned to prepare detailed designs for the superstructure. Concrete foundations were laid for four bays of the nave, the chancel, a side chapel and the north and south vestry transepts, in 1880 (ibid, 2015, 4).

Embedded in the foundations were large sandstone blocks brought from Eatonville, NSW. In June 1881 contracts were let between the Diocese and G J T Lawson (for the woodwork) and Messrs Reynold Bros (for the brickwork) for the erection of the first portion of the cathedral comprising the brick walls, roof, sanctuary and first four bays of the nave. The gothic inspired building was constructed from half a million pink sandstock bricks manufactured locally by Mr Samuel George. Richard Palmer, from Grafton, supplied over 100 brick moulds to Mr George.

The first stage of the cathedral was opened and dedicated by Archbishop Barry on St James' Day, 25 July 1884. In 1896 the great stained glass was installed and dedicated to Bishop Turner.

The foundation stone for the second stage extension of the Cathedral , comprising the last four bays of the nave and the west porch, was laid on 27 June 1934. The architect for the extension was Power Adam and Munnings from Sydney. J.F Munnings was the supervising architect and F C Hargrave from Grafton was the acting-supervising architect. Builders Messrs S D C Kennedy and Bird Pty Ltd from Sydney completed the extension in 1937. The extensions contained approximately 300,000 hand made bricks from 100 different moulds, laid in old English style. The clay was sourced from the same pit and the moulds were the same as those used in stage one building works. The second stage extension was dedicated on 30 October 1937, to Hunt's design (this last point, in Oultram, 2015, 4).

The second stage extension was consecrated on 14 September 1959. The extension included additions to the original plan of a choir vestry, north and south entrance floors, chancel extensions, stone flagging on the front steps and rubber tiling in the aisles. Power Adam and Munnings prepared drawings for the new vestry extension off the organ chamber in 1937.

A bell tower and chapter house designed by Hunt were never completed. The cathedral today is an imposing structure in the city, surrounded by other buildings that demonstrate the work of the church.

The Diocese of Grafton was erected as a separate diocese in 1914, and its shield of wavy blue and white lines reflects the coastal and riverine nature of the diocese. Grafton Diocese is one of the 23 which constitute the Anglican Church of Australia. It covers the coastal area south of the New South Wales-Queensland border known as the Northern Rivers Region and inland generally following intermediate ranges between the Great Dividing Range and the Pacific Ocean. There are 28 parishes.

Parish Hall (Christ Church Hall)(1881):
Constructed in 1881 and is widely purported to be designed by Horbury Hunt. However research by the Diocesan Archivist has indicated that Bishop Turner, a trained architect designed it.

Victorian Cottage
The Anglican Diocese of Grafton purchased this cottage between the years 1961 -1973. It was purchased from the estate of the late Ada Laura Greentree. Prior to purchase it was used as a private residence.

From 1961 to 1983 it was used for offices and general parish purposes. From 1983 to 1996 it was used as a Cathedral Bookshop. From 1996 to 1998 it was used for general parish purposes and since 1998 it has been used as offices for a counselling service.

Georgian Cottage
The Anglican Diocese of Grafton purchased this cottage between the years 1961 -1973. Prior to 1961 it is believed to have been used as a private residence. Since 1973 it has been used for offices for staff, youth group meeting rooms and general parish purposes.

Education & Welfare Centre, Shops (1996):
The Education and Welfare Centre was completed in 1996 to the design of Barrie E.Ross, building designer. It was set to the north of the cathedral with car parking fronting Fitzroy Street (Oultram, 2015, 6).

Historic themes

Australian theme (abbrev)New South Wales themeLocal theme
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Environment - cultural landscape-Activities associated with the interactions between humans, human societies and the shaping of their physical surroundings Developing local, regional and national economies-National Theme 3
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Environment - cultural landscape-Activities associated with the interactions between humans, human societies and the shaping of their physical surroundings Significant Places: How are significant places marked in the landscape of Parramatta by, or for, different groups?-Monuments and Sites
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Land tenure-Activities and processes for identifying forms of ownership and occupancy of land and water, both Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Townships-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Towns, suburbs and villages-Activities associated with creating, planning and managing urban functions, landscapes and lifestyles in towns, suburbs and villages 19th Century Infrastructure-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Towns, suburbs and villages-Activities associated with creating, planning and managing urban functions, landscapes and lifestyles in towns, suburbs and villages Creating landmark structures and places in regional settings-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Towns, suburbs and villages-Activities associated with creating, planning and managing urban functions, landscapes and lifestyles in towns, suburbs and villages Beautifying towns and villages-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Creative endeavour-Activities associated with the production and performance of literary, artistic, architectural and other imaginative, interpretive or inventive works; and/or associated with the production and expression of cultural phenomena; and/or environments that have inspired such creative activities. Architectural styles and periods - Victorian (late)-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Creative endeavour-Activities associated with the production and performance of literary, artistic, architectural and other imaginative, interpretive or inventive works; and/or associated with the production and expression of cultural phenomena; and/or environments that have inspired such creative activities. Landscaping - Victorian period-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Creative endeavour-Activities associated with the production and performance of literary, artistic, architectural and other imaginative, interpretive or inventive works; and/or associated with the production and expression of cultural phenomena; and/or environments that have inspired such creative activities. Designing in an exemplary architectural style-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Religion-Activities associated with particular systems of faith and worship Practising Anglicanism-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Religion-Activities associated with particular systems of faith and worship church hall-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Religion-Activities associated with particular systems of faith and worship Cathedral-
9. Phases of Life-Marking the phases of life Persons-Activities of, and associations with, identifiable individuals, families and communal groups Associations with John Horbury Hunt, architect-
9. Phases of Life-Marking the phases of life Persons-Activities of, and associations with, identifiable individuals, families and communal groups Associations with Bishop James Francis Turner-

Assessment of significance

SHR Criteria a)
[Historical significance]
Cathedral Church of Christ the King was constructed between 1874-1884, a boom time for the city of Grafton. It demonstrates the growth of a small parish church to the mother church of the Anglican Diocese of Grafton. Grafton's Cathedral traces its beginnings back to the early 1840s when Anglican clergymen under the Bishop of Australia came to the isolated settlements of the Northern Rivers.
SHR Criteria b)
[Associative significance]
Cathedral Church of Christ the King is associated with the renowned architect John Horbury Hunt.
SHR Criteria c)
[Aesthetic significance]
Cathedral Church of Christ the King has aesthetic significance at a State level as an example of the culmination of architect John Horbury Hunt's ecclesiastical ideas. It is significant for its simplification of brickwork, the scale of the west end entrance double archway, the interior arches and the attention to ventilation in the hot Grafton climate. Hunts use of adjustable and fixed wooden louvers instead of glass is purported to be the first attempt to alleviate the problem of heat in any public building in Australia.
SHR Criteria d)
[Social significance]
Cathedral Church of Christ the King is integral to the identification of the sense of place for the Grafton community and is valued by the Anglican community as a symbol of religious worship and parish administration in the Northern Rivers region. By being a Cathedral, the City of Grafton came to city status. The significance and high esteem held for the Cathedral and its architecture has been held for many years and is demonstrated through the 1930s additions to the Cathedral that were faithful to Hunt's intentions by use of the clay from the same pit and same moulds to make the bricks.
SHR Criteria e)
[Research potential]
Cathedral Church of Christ the King has high archaeological potential and is an important example and benchmark of the ecclesiastical architecture of John Horbury Hunt.
SHR Criteria f)
[Rarity]
Cathedral Church of Christ the King is one three large ecclesiastical commissions of the architect John Horbury Hunt (the others being the cathedrals at Armidale and Newcastle).
Integrity/Intactness: Cathedral Church of Christ the King is highly intact and has stayed closest to Hunt's original plans with no major alterations to the design.
Assessment criteria: Items are assessed against the PDF State Heritage Register (SHR) Criteria to determine the level of significance. Refer to the Listings below for the level of statutory protection.

Procedures /Exemptions

Section of actDescriptionTitleCommentsAction date
57(2)Exemption to allow workStandard Exemptions SCHEDULE OF STANDARD EXEMPTIONS
HERITAGE ACT 1977
Notice of Order Under Section 57 (2) of the Heritage Act 1977

I, the Minister for Planning, pursuant to subsection 57(2) of the Heritage Act 1977, on the recommendation of the Heritage Council of New South Wales, do by this Order:

1. revoke the Schedule of Exemptions to subsection 57(1) of the Heritage Act made under subsection 57(2) and published in the Government Gazette on 22 February 2008; and

2. grant standard exemptions from subsection 57(1) of the Heritage Act 1977, described in the Schedule attached.

FRANK SARTOR
Minister for Planning
Sydney, 11 July 2008

To view the schedule click on the Standard Exemptions for Works Requiring Heritage Council Approval link below.
Sep 5 2008

PDF Standard exemptions for works requiring Heritage Council approval

Listings

Heritage ListingListing TitleListing NumberGazette DateGazette NumberGazette Page
Heritage Act - State Heritage Register 0165414 Mar 03 604153
Regional Environmental Plan  23 Dec 94   
Local Environmental PlanClarence Valley LEP 2012I96; I98; I99; I10023 Dec 11   
National Trust of Australia register NTA (NSW) Country Register2678   
Register of the National Estate 343121 Mar 78   

References, internet links & images

TypeAuthorYearTitleInternet Links
WrittenDavid Sheedy National Trust Classification Card
WrittenDepartment of Planninf1988Built Heritage of the North Coast REP - Inventory
WrittenJ.M. Freeland1970Architect Extraodinary The Life and Work of John Horbury Hunt 1838-1904
WrittenJohn Oultram Heritage & Design2015Cathedral Church of Christ the King (Grafton Cathedral) - Proposed Fire Repairs to the Education and Welfare Office and Shop

Note: internet links may be to web pages, documents or images.

rez rez rez rez rez
(Click on thumbnail for full size image and image details)

Data source

The information for this entry comes from the following source:
Name: Heritage Office
Database number: 5052884
File number: EF14/4559; H00/00823


Every effort has been made to ensure that information contained in the State Heritage Inventory is correct. If you find any errors or omissions please send your comments to the Database Manager.

All information and pictures on this page are the copyright of the Heritage Division or respective copyright owners.