ANZAC Memorial | NSW Environment & Heritage

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ANZAC Memorial

Item details

Name of item: ANZAC Memorial
Other name/s: War Memorial Hyde Park, Hyde Park Memorial
Type of item: Built
Group/Collection: Monuments and Memorials
Category: War Memorial
Location: Lat: -33.8757405144 Long: 151.2109551270
Primary address: Hyde Park South, near Liverpool Street, Sydney, Nsw 2000
Parish: St Lawrence
County: Cumberland
Local govt. area: Sydney
Local Aboriginal Land Council: Metropolitan
Property description
Lot/Volume CodeLot/Volume NumberSection NumberPlan/Folio CodePlan/Folio Number
PART LOT1 DP1082647
LOT1915 DP906666
All addresses
Street AddressSuburb/townLGAParishCountyType
Hyde Park South, near Liverpool StreetSydneySydneySt LawrenceCumberlandPrimary Address

Owner/s

Organisation NameOwner CategoryDate Ownership Updated
Northpoint HeritageState Government 
Trustees of the Anzac Memorial BuildingState Government 

Statement of significance:

The ANZAC Memorial, completed in 1934, is of historical significance to the State for its embodiment of the collective grief of the people of NSW at the loss of Australian servicemen and women since World War I. It is associated with the landing of Australian troops at Gallipoli on 25 April 1915, since fundraising for the memorial was established on the first anniversary of the landing. It is also associated with returned servicemen and their organisations including the RSL, which lobbied for the erection of the monument and occupied offices within it. The ANZAC Memorial is of State aesthetic significance as a great work of public art which is arguably the finest expression of Art Deco monumentality in Australia. The result of an outstanding creative collaboration between architect Bruce Dellit and sculptor Rayner Hoff, it contains complex symbolic embellishments that reinforce and enhance the commemorative meanings of the building. Its landscape context in Hyde Park was purposefully designed for it by Dellit including the large Pool of Reflection lined by poplars. Its positioning on a major axis linked to the Archibald Fountain contributes significantly to the physical character of Hyde Park and the city of Sydney. The ANZAC Memorial is of State significance as the largest and most ambitious of the numerous war memorials constructed throughout NSW after the Great War. The memorial is also representative as NSW's contribution to the group of 'national war memorials', whereby each state capital city developed its own major war memorial in the inter-war period. In this group the ANZAC Memorial is outstanding in its size, integrity and aesthetic appeal.
Date significance updated: 19 Sep 11
Note: The State Heritage Inventory provides information about heritage items listed by local and State government agencies. The State Heritage Inventory is continually being updated by local and State agencies as new information becomes available. Read the OEH copyright and disclaimer.

Description

Designer/Maker: Charles Bruce Dellit, architect; Rayner Hoff, scul
Builder/Maker: Kell & Rigby
Construction years: 1932-1934
Physical description: The memorial setting
The ANZAC Memorial is located in Hyde Park South and is a principal physical focal point in the axis joining it and the Pool of Reflection with the Archibald Fountain in Hyde Park north. There are many prominent views of the memorial through Hyde Park South and the main axis is aligned with an avenue of fig trees, which accentuates the main path. The ziggurat form of ANZAC Memorial is also evident from Oxford Street for several blocks east of Whitlam Square (Government Architect's CMP, 2007).

The plantings around the ANZAC Memorial have strong associations with the building. The Allepo pine trees arranged around the building have significance because of their symbolic connection to Lone Pine Ridge in Anzac Cove in Turkey. Other symbolic trees have been brought as seedlings and planted in Hyde Park near the memorial, including Gallipoli Rose. The 14 poplars planted in two rows on either side of the Pool of Remembrance were planted in 1934, the date the pool was completed (Government Architect's CMP, 2007).

The pool underwent renovations in 1992 when a waterproof membrane was installed. This work was co-ordinated with paving around the memorial and the installation of a waterproofing membrane to the steps and podium level of the building (Government Architect's CMP, 2007).

Aligned between the Pool of Reflection and the memorial building staircase are two rows of flag poles that are used on ANZAC Day and commemorative occasions as part of the formal ceremonies at the memorial. Flags are flown permanently throughout the year. The three on the eastern side display the NSW flag and the three on the western side display the Australian national flag. The flagpole on the podium level of the memorial building is for the Governor's Flag and is only used when the Governor formally visits the site (Government Architect's CMP, 2007).

The External Building
The ANZAC Memorial was designed as a sculptural monument. The building is symmetrical on both axes. It uses elements reminiscent of traditional gothic church buildings (buttresses, tall windows, high ceilings), but interprets them in an Art Deco style. Grand staircases lead to the podium level and extend symmetrically on the north and south sides of the building on the main axis of Hyde Park. The balustrade around the exterior of the podium level is surmounted with cast stone urns. Large timber moulded doors slide into cavities in the external walls to allow entry. The ground floor provides the visual base of the building form and is fenestrated with timber framed double hung windows and bronze security grilles. A string course of granite extends around the building and becomes the sill at windows (Government Architect's CMP, 2007).

The memorial is adorned externally with many sculptures representing the various Australian armed forces and support units. They are the sentinels of the building, keeping watch whilst representing the fallen for whom the building is dedicated. Between the seated figures in each corner are cast stone bas reliefs. The four large standing figures at the top of each corner of the building represent the Australian Infantry, Navy, Air Force and Army Medical Corps. Another 16 seated figures are positioned at the top of the buttresses, below the corner figures, and represent the various units. These statues include a Naval Signaller, Aviator, Nurse and Lewis Gunner fabricated from cast stone to resemble the granite facing of the building 'so they should have the effect of having been hewn out of the moment rather than placed thereon'. Above the Eastern and Western Entrances, bronze bas reliefs depict scenes of Australians in the Eastern and Western Fronts. The bronze bas reliefs are generally in good condition, however they require cleaning and the repair of some minor corrosion (Government Architect's CMP, 2007).

A dark pink granosite (synthetic coating) applied to the external statues in the mid 1980s does not reinterpret the architect's original design intention of the statues being hewn from the stone (Government Architect's CMP, 2007).

The Internal Building
The memorial's main entrance from ground level is from the Western side. The vestibule area is lined in Ulum white marble. Two timber cabinets of silky oak with obscured glass are recessed into opposite walls. In the centre of the ceiling is a large brass 'Star' light, designed by Dellit (Government Architect's CMP, 2007).

This vestibule has glazed doors leading to the association and management offices to the north, exhibition area to the south, and opens to the west to the stair hall and the Hall of Silence. Originally, internal access between the upper and lower levels of the building was via two 'mirror imaged' stairwells, which extended from the Stair Hall in the Vestibule to the Hall of Memory and down to the basement. One of these stairwells has been converted into a new lift, constructed in 2009, linking all three levels. This controlled lift was installed to provide equitable access to the Hall of Memory for aging veterans and people with a disability. In the remaining stairwell is a bronze, Art Deco-styled skylight with amber glass. That has been converted to a light. Both stairwells are lined in marble with marble treads. A bronze handrail was fixed to each of the stair walls in 1997, designed by Louis Berczi, in a style to match the external copper handrails designed by Dellit (Government Architect's CMP, 2007).

At the edge of the Stair Hall is a barred entrance to the Hall of Silence. A large bronze moulded banister, too heavy to move, prevents access to the 'tomb' of the fallen soldier, in the 'Hall of Silence'. At the foot of the entrance, engraved in black granite, with inset brass lettering are the words 'LET SILENT CONTEMPLATION BE YOUR OFFERING' (Government Architect's CMP, 2007).

At the top of the stair well is a plaster niche framed with marble. The niche displays the original wreath laid by the trustees at the building opening. The wreath is kept in a glass display case (Government Architect's CMP, 2007) and was restored in late 2009.

Hall of Silence
The room located in the centre of the building is striking in its starkness and wields a powerful influence on visitors. The room is circular in plan with the sculpture 'Sacrifice' located at its centre, as if to hold the sculpture in its embrace. The floor is Ulum white marble, inlayed with a bronze flame that flares out from the centrally located sculpture. The ceiling of the room curves up toward the carved marble banister that defines the 'Well of Contemplation', a large circular opening in the centre of the shallow domed ceiling. This opening provides the only natural lighting to the 'Hall of Silence' and has the effect of focussing that light onto the central sculpture. The cornice is a marble frieze in which is carved the names of the great battles where Australian forces participated in the war. According to Dellit, the names 'complete the message which the group of sculpture symbolising 'Sacrifice' is intended to deliver' (Government Architect's CMP, 2007).

Located on the north-south and east-west axes, the room has three large silky oak double doors, gold painted, that slide open into wall cavities. Two of the doors are now permanently left open and glass doors installed in front of the reveals to allow visitors a view of the sculpture 'Sacrifice' from inside the Exhibition space and the Assembly Hall (Government Architect's CMP, 2007).

Sacrifice
At the heart of the memorial is the bronze sculpture, 'Sacrifice', by Rayner Hoff. It powerfully symbolises the sacrifice made in times of war by both those who go to fight and those left behind. The sculpture can be seen from above through the Well of Contemplation, with heads bowed, or at ground level from the vestibule, Assembly Hall and Exhibition space. The sculpture is also visible from Hyde Park, as originally proposed by Dellit, with glazed eastern doors to the Assembly Hall (Government Architect's CMP, 2007).

Hall of Memory
The 'Hall of Memory' is also a circular room that occupies the podium level of the building centred on and located directly above the 'Hall of Silence'. The large external staircases that lead to the external timber sliding double doors on the podium level on the northern and southern sides were intended to form the grand entrances to the memorial. The 'Hall of Memory' is clad in Ulum marble. In the centre of the room, carved in the form of a wreath is the marble balustrade around the 'Well of Contemplation' (Government Architect's CMP, 2007).

Located in the four 'corners' of the room are semi-circular 'Niches of Remembrance', each devoted to one of the major theatres of World War I in which Australians fought, and each commemorating the names of major campaigns in those theatres. The name of the theatre is carved in relief into the face of the marble wall at the top of each niche with the names of the battles beneath it, another example of the fusion of sculpture and building. At the base of each niche, laid in the paving is a headstone from Flanders, Gallipoli, Palestine and New Guinea (Government Architect's CMP, 2007).

Above the tall niches are marble cast bas reliefs by Rayner Hoff that represent the Army, Navy, Air Force and Army Medical Corps and therefore correspond to the four large standing external sculptures. Hoff called them 'The March of the Dead'. Each relief is bracketed by winged finial lights. Above all this is the high soaring dome of the ceiling covered with 120,000 stars, one for every man and woman in NSW who served in the Great War, made of plaster of paris and painted gold leaf. The height of the room is accentuated with the four grand cathedral windows of etched amber glass, designed by Dellit with Hoff (Government Architect's CMP, 2007).

To the west of Hall of Memory are the internal stairs from the ground floor vestibule. To the east is the Remembrance Flame Room, originally the Archives Room and intended to list the names of those 21,000 NSW men and women who died serving their county in the Great War. The room's entrance is accentuated with pilasters and carvings. Over the doorway is carved '1914-1918' and above that is a winged flaming sword (a symbol of sacrifice) over a rising sun emblem. The room holds the Remembrance Flame that was first officially lit on the 11th of November 1995. The Great Doors to the room are left open to keep the flame exposed to view at all times. A braided rope hangs across the entrance to prevent visitors from entering (Government Architect's CMP, 2007).

The Exhibition Space
The exhibition space occupies the southern office area originally provided for the RSL. In 1986, changes to the existing room layout were made, including removal of a number of small offices. The original Strong Room with its Chubb security door is still intact. The items displayed in the museum collection were donated by the public and they include personal letters, medals, books, diaries, uniforms, souvenirs, relics and banners relating to the various conflicts in which Australians were involved (Government Architect's CMP, 2007). In 2000 an Abloy anti-theft proof locking system was installed in the exhibition cases. To commemorate the 75th anniversary of the Memorial in 2009, the space was refurbished (for example the original marquetry counter was reused as the visitor's counter) and a new exhibition was installed.

The Assembly Hall
Located opposite the entry vestibule on the eastern side of the memorial, the Assembly Hall was originally designed as a large open space used for meetings and forums by the different building occupants. In recent years it had been partitioned to allow for a smaller meeting space, office accommodation and archive storage at the northern end. It has been restored and reopened to the public, with new glazed doors to the east and west and a large freestanding AV unit, screening a short film about the Memorial. The room can also be used as a travelling exhibition space (Government Architect's CMP, 2007).

The original plans for the room proposed a raised dais on the southern endwith protruding stage and steps but this was never built. The original dais area was fitted as a kitchen for the memorial staff. This was subsequently removed in 2009, providing a linking space between the exhibition and the Assembly Hall (Government Architect's CMP, 2007).

The design of the room is more ornate than the general office space. The Art Deco detailing extends to the fittings and fixtures in the room. The ceiling is moulded with large Art Deco coffers and the walls are punctuated with plaster pilasters. A set of gold painted great doors opens back to reveal the sculpture 'Sacrifice'. This room has marble door architraves and 'star lights' designed by Dellit. The original flange wall lights are still in use and many of the original switches still exist in the room. The floors of the Assembly Hall are two inch hardwood seasoned Red Mahogany (Government Architect's CMP, 2007).

The bearers are built directly onto the concrete slab. The flooring structure suggests that the original intent may have been to install parquetry flooring throughout the hall (Government Architect's CMP, 2007). These floor boards were lifted, patched, repaired and relaid as part of building works during 2009.

Offices for the TB Soldiers and Limbless Soldiers Association
The northern side of the ANZAC Memorial was originally designated for offices for the TB Soldiers Association and for the Limbless Soldiers Association with parquetry floors, marquetry counters and maple panelled timber partitions. The association's rooms are accessed by the public from the front vestibule via a tiled corridor with maple-framed clerestory windows glazed with obscured glass. The offices as built did not follow the original plan (Government Architect's CMP, 2007). The original partitions in the TB Soldiers Association were removed in 1986 and substituted with aluminium-framed timber panel and glass partitions. These were subsequently replaced in 2009 with stud-framed plasterboard walls in a new configuration.

The Limbless Soldiers offices changed only slightly from the original layout. The marquetry counter ran across the room and the entrance door was placed to the top of this room. The general activity room was also changed just slightly from the plan, the door is in the middle of the room and the wall curves slightly to make a concave shape in the corridor. Building works in 2009 included restoration of the remaining original offices, creation of a new meeting room/library, kitchenette and management offices. The timber panelled partitions in this area are still in good order but only some of the original furniture remains. The Limbless Soldiers Association moved out of their offices in 2004 and the area has been used by the RSL since that date (Government Architect's CMP, 2007).

The original Chubb Strong Rooms are still retained in both rooms (there are three strong rooms in all) (Government Architect's CMP, 2007).

Basement
The basement of the ANZAC Memorial contains toilets for both men and women and the original timber lockers are still used by the memorial staff today. The basement has had some alterations within the original layout, however the toilet partitions and doors as well as many fixtures have not been altered and are in good order. Construction during 2009 included the insertion of a new disabled toilet (associated with the new lift), and a purpose-made cleaners room. Two light wells were originally created to provide fresh air and natural light for the toilets. These light wells now also contain the air conditioning plant, air intake and exhaust system for the building. A major stormwater pit (approximately 1m x 1m) is also located in the basement, in the central cleaner's store with a submersible pump, and is known as the Underground Plant Room. The stairs and flooring of the basement are terrazzo in good condition. The partitions in the male and female toilets are marble and the original timber doors and hardware are in good order. In addition to the existing original timber handrail, a new brass handrail was added in 1985 to match the style of the handrail in the stair well to the 'Hall of Memory' (Government Architect's CMP, 2007).

Undercroft and Vertical Security Screens
The undercrofts are located under the external stairs leading to the podium level of the memorial. Originally intended for storage spaces for the offices of the RSL and the TB and Limbless Associations, they were largely unusable until 1992 when a water proof membrane was installed over the external stairs to deal with the damp and water ingress issues. The north undercroft now stores the original unused furniture from the memorial (Government Architect's CMP, 2007).

To provide protection against increasing vandalism of the ANZAC Memorial, external security screens were installed in 1999. The panels of the screen are made of safety glass etched with designs that continue the original concept of the symbolic use of building elements to reinforce the memorial's purpose. When lowered (normally between 9am and 5pm) they are virtually invisible and allow unobstructed public access (Government Architect's CMP, 2007).

The Great Doors and Windows
There are ten sets of great doors to the building, seven on the ground floor and three on the podium level. All the doors are double leaf sliding doors of solid silky oak timber with brass furniture. The sets of external doors are painted green externally and gold internally. The doors slide on tracks that are recessed in the masonry walls of the building. The sets of doors are all panelled and decorated with carvings of urns, eternals flames, swords and crosses all symbolic of the memorial. These doors were repaired and repainted in 2006 (Government Architect's CMP, 2007).

Moveable heritage
There is an extensive collection of artefacts, items of memorabilia and tributes on display in the Museum space or stored in a number of small spaces on site, including one of the safes. These items have all been donated by members of the public (Government Architect's CMP, 2007).

Mechanical and Electrical Services
Construction works during 2009 upgraded the services in the building, including the air-conditioning with the installation of new suspended services spine for ductwork, lighting and security services through the exhibition area and offices.

Many of the original electrical fittings remain in use in the building. These include switches and lighting. The original star lights, designed by Dellit and inspired by the stars on the ceiling of the Hall of Memories, are still used throughout the building. The original wall bracket light fittings in the Assembly Hall are also still used (Government Architect's CMP, 2007).
Physical condition and/or
Archaeological potential:
Pysical condition
Following many years of major catch-up maintenance and repair works, the general condition of the Memorial in 2010 is very good. Water ingress has been a constant issue within the building since it opened in 1934. In 2009 this was resolved with modifications to the podium drainage and paving system.

Archaeology
The archaeological potential of the site has not been formally assessed. Hyde Park was the site of Australia's first race course and cricket pitch. Recent scholarship suggests Hyde Park north was also the site of a 'fighting ground' for staging combative trials, first by the Aboriginal people between their own clans, later by Aboriginal people in demonstrating their fighting prowess against the British (Karskens, 2009). Evidence associated with these uses as well as former park layouts may still exist within the park precinct, although it is likely to have been substantially disturbed by construction of the railway stations and tunnels as well as the memorial itself. The outlet to Busby's Bore is immediately to the east of the memorial within the broader site curtilage (Government Architect's CMP, 2007).
Date condition updated:26 Feb 10
Modifications and dates: See physical description, above.
Further information: The memorial contains a number of moveable heritage items including the wreath, rail designed by Bruce Dellit. Two larger plaster models of the building and possibly some furniture within the office spaces.
Current use: Memorial/ Monument/ Museum
Former use: Aboriginal Memorial/ Monument/ Offices/ Meeting hall

History

Historical notes: Aboriginal land
Material in rock shelters reveals that Aboriginal people inhabited the Sydney Harbour area from at least 25,000 years ago. Several different languages and dialects were spoken in the Sydney Harbour area before the arrival of the First Fleet. The Cardigal, who formed part of the Darug nation, were the Aboriginal traditional owners of the inner Sydney area (Haglun, 1996).

The commencement of a British penal colony in 1788, combined with the effects of a smallpox epidemic in 1789-1791, quickly led to the disintegration of traditional Aboriginal social structure in Sydney. Nonetheless some surviving Aboriginal people lived in the township and formed a complexity of relationships with the colonisers, both friendly and hostile (Clendinning, 2003). It is believed that the southern end of Hyde Park, where the ANZAC Memorial is located, was used as a 'contest ground' for staging combative trials between Aboriginal warriors, watched avidly by the British in the early days of the colony (Karskens, 2009, pp440-1). It is remarkable that the State's most grand and monumental war memorial should be positioned on this historical site of indigenous combat.

Origins of the term 'Anzac'
The term 'Anzac' began as an acronym for the Australian and New Zealand Army Corps in World War I, but it was soon accepted as a word in its own right. The Anzacs formed part of the expeditionary force organised by Britain and France to invade the Gallipoli Peninsula and clear the Dardanelles Straits for the British Navy. The Australian Anzacs represented the national effort from a young nation taking its part in the Great War and reports of the courage they displayed at Gallipoli became the most enduring legend of Australian military history (Government Architect's CMP, 2007).

After the withdrawal from Gallipoli, the Anzac infantry divisions went on to fight against Germany on the Western Front. The Light Horse fought to protect the Suez Canal against the Turks and joined the forces fighting in the Middle East. On the anniversary of Anzac Day in 1918, the Australian infantry reinforced the legend when it stopped the German advance at Villers-Bretonneux on the Somme. Australians were successfully used as shock troops at Ypres, Amiens, Mont St Quentin and Peronne, and took a leading part in breaking through the Hindenburg Line, in their last major offensive (Government Architect's CMP, 2007).

From an Australian population of around four and a half million, enlistments in the army and navy numbered 416,809, a total that represents one-half of the men of military age in Australia at that time. Altogether, 60,000 Australians were killed and 167,000 were injured, a higher toll proportionately than was suffered by any other British Empire country. Small wonder that those who returned wanted to see the sacrifice of their dead comrades remembered (Government Architect's CMP, 2007).

The first Anzac Day in NSW was organised by a committee within the Returned Soldiers Association (RSA) of NSW, an organisation formed by men who had been invalided home. Later the organisation was subsumed by the Returned Soldiers' Sailors' (and Airmen's) Imperial League of Australia (RSSILA), finally named the Returned and Services League (RSL). The original objectives of the day of commemoration were to remember dead comrades, induce young men to enlist and collect money for an ANZAC Memorial monument. NSW Premier WA Holman's Labor government promised a pound for pound subsidy to match the money raised on the first Anzac Day. In 1917 the RSSILA requested that 25 April be declared 'Australia's National Day' and gazetted as a public holiday. Both the Queensland and Australian governments made Anzac Day a public holiday in 1921. The official public holiday was first gazetted in NSW in 1925 (Government Architect's CMP, 2007).

Developing the memorial concept in Australia
Historian Ken Inglis believes that the 'war memorial' is a twentieth century concept which memorialised the human cost of war rather than the victorious outcome, as the former military monuments had done, and celebrated the sacrifice of ordinary soldiers rather than focusing on the men who led them. The names of those who made the ultimate sacrifice are differentiated from the names of those who returned. Whether returned or not, the memorials record the soldiers' service to the nation. This trend to list both the returned and the fallen was uniquely Australian, reflecting the all volunteer nature of the Australian forces (Government Architect's CMP, 2007).

Each capital city developed its own major memorial, with many smaller memorials in the suburbs, and regional areas. The major memorials and their dates of construction are as follows:

Darwin Cenotaph, Darwin - 1921
Hobart War Memorial, Hobart -1925
State War Memorial Cenotaph, Perth - 1928-1929
Shrine of Remembrance, Brisbane - 1930
National War Memorial, Adelaide - 1931
Shrine of Remembrance, Melbourne - 1928-1934
ANZAC Memorial, Sydney - 1934
Australian War Memorial, Canberra - 1941 (Government Architect's CMP, 2007)

The earlier memorials are generally in the form of obelisks, sometimes with applied sculpture, while most of the later examples are commemorative buildings with a range of rooms and uses. The social meanings of war memorials increased in complexity as time went on. The later examples such as the Shrine of Remembrance in Melbourne, 1934, the ANZAC Memorial in Sydney, 1934 and the Australian War Memorial in Canberra, 1941, represented the new trends in the symbolism of memorials more than the simple columns, obelisks and statues of citizen soldiers erected during the fighting and immediately after it. The Shrine of Remembrance in Melbourne is the most comparable monument to the ANZAC Memorial in Australia, both comprising one principal commemorative space, surrounded and above a series of administrative and exhibition spaces, contained within an imposing landmark building in differing architectural styles, set within a formal landscape (Government Architect's CMP, 2007).

Authorising the ANZAC Memorial
In 1918 the RSSILA in 1918 published its aims for the monument:
1. The building was to be a memorial for those who died;
2. It was to be architecturally worthy of its high purpose;
3. It was to provide headquarters for those working to assist widows and children of those who were killed and also, those AIF members who returned;
4. It was to house the records of the AIF;
5. It would be a meeting place and a source of assistance with repatriation; and
6. It would provide a centre for any later campaigns on behalf of the AIF and their dependants (Government Architect's CMP, 2007).

After 1919, all the state's war memorial building committees were required to seek expert advice from a War Memorials Advisory Committee comprising representatives from the Town Planning Association, Institute of Architects (NSW), Royal Society of Artists and the National Art Gallery (NSW). A proposal to build the memorial on Observatory Hill was withdrawn due to the planned proximity of the roads leading onto the Sydney Harbour Bridge (Hansard, 19/9/1984, p1129). The proposal to use part of Hyde Park for the Anzac Memorial was promoted by former city surveyor Norman Weekes who was redesigning Hyde Park after it had been virtually destroyed during the construction of the city railway. Assisted by architect Raymond McGrath, Weekes produced a plan with two axial avenues running north -south and east-west, the latter being in line with the transept of St Mary's Cathedral. He envisaged the intersection of these avenues as an ideal site for a commemorative column and balanced that with an Anzac Memorial at the southern end. However, progress on the memorial was impeded until legislation established a Board of Trustees for the building and the manner in which the site would be chosen was passed in 1923 (Government Architect's CMP, 2007).

The Trustees gained Parliamentary approval for Weekes' plan in 1929 on the condition that the area dedicated to the memorial would be limited in size. The Advisory Board for the Hyde Park Remodelling chose the southern end of the park to site the monument. The National Council of Women and Anzac Fellowship of Women objected to this site because it was considered to be insufficiently commanding, while artist Julian Ashton pointed out that skyscrapers would soon overshadow its position (Government Architect's CMP, 2007).

About this time another war memorial was bequeathed to Australians by the late JF Archibald, co-founder of the Bulletin newspaper, to commemorate the association of Australia and France in the Great War of 1914-1918. Created by Franois Sicard who had won the Prix de Rome in 1891, the Public Trustee requested that it be installed at the site of Weekes' proposed column at the northern end of Hyde Park. Major Hubert Colette and JB Waterhouse supervised the erection of the Archibald Memorial Fountain, which was completed on 14 March 1932. This was when work was beginning on the ANZAC Memorial building at the southern end of the same avenue (Government Architect's CMP, 2007).

Debates about the style of the ANZAC Memorial can be generally divided into soldiers' versus women's groups which supported utility versus beauty respectively. The majority of returned soldiers looked for a building that would meet their immediate needs for association, while women's groups tended to favour a structure that would be commemorative. After ten years of debate, the RSSILA and the disabled veterans bodies all agreed on Anzac Day 1928 that the building 'should be commemorative rather than utilitarian'. As the RSSILA state president Fred Davison expressed it, the League had finally agreed to a 'shrine of remembrance' such as their Victorian counterparts had begun to build. The soldiers' needs were not entirely abandoned and in the spirit of compromise one-seventh of the funding was allocated to incorporate offices where the returned soldiers' organisations could look after their members (Government Architect's CMP, 2007).

The Cenotaph, Martin Place
The uncertainty about both site and building style of the ANZAC Memorial combined with the long wait for its construction left Sydney without a focal point for Anzac Day ceremonies. Around 1925 the Lang Labor government responded to the urging of the NSW RSSILA by donating 10,000 pounds for a cenotaph in Martin Place, near where wartime appeals and recruitment rallies had been held. This was also the place where the Armistice Day crowds had honoured their 'Glorious Dead' at the war's end on 11 November 1918. It was consecrated on 8 August 1927, becoming the focus of Anzac Day ceremonies some eight years before the ANZAC Memorial building was available for such purposes. Sydney's Anzac Day Dawn Service was never been moved to the ANZAC Memorial because the Cenotaph had already become the accepted site and Martin Place had stronger war-time associations than Hyde Park (Government Architect's CMP, 2007).

The ANZAC Memorial Design Competition
The competition for the design of the ANZAC Memorial building was announced on 13 July 1929. Entrants were required to be Australians qualified to work as architects within or outside NSW, the latter persons being required to register in the state if they won. Competitors could confer with an Australian sculptor, either while designing the competition entry or during its construction. All entrants had to register by 30 January 1930 and present their entries two weeks later. The judges were Professor AS Hook, Dean of the Sydney University Faculty of Architecture Professor Leslie Wilkinson, and the Public Trustee EJ Payne. The winner would be appointed the ANZAC Memorial architect. The cost of the building was limited to 75,000 pounds calculated at rates current at the time of entry. In addition to the memorial itself the building was required to provide office accommodation for the Returned Soldiers and Sailors Imperial League, TB Soldiers' Association and the Limbless Soldiers' Association (Government Architect's CMP, 2007).

The Trustees received 117 entries in the competition and chose seven for second stage consideration which were exhibited in the Blaxland Galleries in Farmers Department Store (now Grace Bros). The judges awarded first prize to C. Bruce Dellit. According to Building magazine, most people agreed that Dellit's design for the ANZAC Memorial was the best in the competition (Government Architect's CMP, 2007).

In his entry Dellit submitted a model with photographs of it from all angles and 17 drawing sheets including an aerial perspective and an isometric section In Dellit's own words: 'ENDURANCE COURAGE AND SACRIFICE - these are the three thoughts which have inspired the accompanying design, and it is around the last mentioned that it develops'. Dellit explained that the central sculpture 'sacrifice' was placed in the lower chamber 'like a famous French tomb' - Napoleon's tomb - to 'offer visitors an opportunity for a quiet, dignified, physical and mental acknowledgment of the message' (Government Architect's CMP, 2007).

The architect - Bruce Dellit
Australian born Charles Bruce Dellit studied at the Sydney Technical College under Byera Hadley from 1912 to 1918 and continued his professional education at the University of Sydney. Dellit registered as an architect in June 1923 and established his own practice six years later. Before winning the ANZAC Memorial competition, he had designed Kyle House in Macquarie Place featuring the 'monumental entrance arch' that became one of his characteristic motifs. It also shows his interest in American Art Deco skyscrapers and the patterned brickwork espoused by contemporary Dutch and German schools. Along with his contemporary Emil Sodersten, he is considered to have pioneered the Art Deco style in Australia. Dellit employed a more pronounced use of ornament and symbolism while Sodersten relied more on form and materials for his architecture. Many of the notable Art Deco buildings in Sydney were designed by these architects. (Government Architect's CMP, 2007).

In designing the ANZAC Memorial, Dellit used sculptural and architectural imagery to express collective mourning at the death of so many young men from NSW. The form of the sculpture changed with the involvement of Rayner Hoff, whom Dellit engaged after he had won the competition. Hoff greatly strengthened the imagery by replacing Dellit's seasons and sculptures representing the arts of war and peace with figures representing all branches of the armed services. The Pool of Reflection that mirrors the building on the northern side remains Dellit's call for passers-by to stop and remember (Government Architect's CMP, 2007).

Similarly, while the central sculpture 'Sacrifice' at the heart of the building is Hoff's, the form of the interior, itself very emotive, is Dellit's. Dellit used impressive staircases flanked by memorial urns to lead the visitor up into the Hall of Memory. Once there, they must bow their heads to look into the Well of Contemplation in order to contemplate 'Sacrifice', which is in the Hall of Silence below or look up to see the dome decorated with 120,000 golden 'Stars of Memory', each representing a serviceman or woman from NSW. Dellit's architecture and Hoff's sculptures greatly enhance each other to provide an artistically integrated emotional message (Government Architect's CMP, 2007).

According to Maisy Stapleton, the greatest exponents of the Art Deco style in Sydney were the architects C. Bruce Dellit and Emil Sodersten. She considered that Dellit's highest achievement was the ANZAC Memorial, 'a vision of modern form and strong, emotive expression closely allied to popular sentiment' and described the memorial as 'the epitome of Art Deco in Australia' (Government Architect's CMP, 2007).

Dellit died of cancer on 21 August 1942 only eight years after the ANZAC Memorial was ceremoniously opened. It is considered his finest achievement by some, 'a vision of modern form and strong, emotive expression closely allied to popular sentiment.' His later works included two chapels at Kinsela's Funeral Parlour, Darlinghurst, 1933 and several bank buildings in the city as well as numerous competition entries. The Bulletin obituary described him as an "arresting and vital figure Everything about him was big" (Government Architect's CMP, 2007).

The sculptor, Rayner Hoff
George Rayner Hoff was born in 1894 on the Isle of Mann. His father later moved the family to Nottingham in England where Rayner Hoff worked in a stonemason's yard while still at school. At 14 he commenced work in an architect's office and later furthered his training by studying drawing and design at the Nottingham School of Art. In 1915 Hoff enlisted in the army and served on the Western Front the following year. After the war he studied sculpture at the Royal College of Art in London under Frances Derwent Wood and in 1922 he won the Prix de Rome (Government Architect's CMP, 2007).

Hoff arrived in Sydney in August 1923 and began work as head teacher of modelling and sculpture at East Sydney Technical College, Darlinghurst (Sydney's major art school), where he also established his private studio. Hoff exerted an enormous influence on the progress of Australian sculpture. By the end of the decade, Hoff's work at the college produced a school of gifted sculptors and assistants. It was, according to Deborah Edwards, 'perhaps the sole instance of a coherent school of production among sculptors in Australian history'. In 1925 Hoff completed reliefs for the Dubbo War Memorial and in 1927 he was commissioned to design the sculptures on the National War Memorial, South Australia (Government Architect's CMP, 2007).

In 1930 Dellit commissioned Hoff to design the sculptures for the ANZAC Memorial. Creating the numerous sculptures on the ANZAC Memorial became the pinnacle of Hoff 's career. The task involved creation of sixteen seated and four standing figures of servicemen and women in cast synthetic stone, four corner cast stone reliefs and two long bronze bas-reliefs over the eastern and western doors outside the building. Hoff's contributions to the interior also included designing the form of the 120,000 faceted gold stars that covered the domed ceiling, four relief panels showing the march of the dead, each superimposed with symbolic representations of the Army, Navy, Air Force and Army Medical Corps, and the marble wreath surrounding the Well of Contemplation that framed the view of Sacrifice below. Hoff and eight assistants were fully employed on the memorial between 1931 and 1934 (Government Architect's CMP, 2007).

Hoff gave considerable prominence to the female contributors to the war effort in the ANZAC Memorial, including the women who lost their fathers, husbands and sons. Nurses were prominent among the figures representing the services and women were central to the group sculpture, 'Sacrifice'. Hoff explained the prominent position of the women in this work in 1932: 'Thousands of women, although not directly engaged in war activities lost all that was dearest to them. There was no acknowledgment of them in casualty lists, lists of wounded, maimed and killed. In this spirit I have shown them carrying their load, the sacrifice of their menfolk' (Government Architect's CMP, 2007).

In 1932 models for the two massive bronze groups intended for placement in front of the east and west windows were publicly exhibited. Hoff's 'The Crucifixion of Civilisation 1914' and 'Victory after Sacrifice 1918' both featured naked women as the central figures. The violent controversy that greeted the exhibition of these models prevented their development into full-size sculptures, with the sexual aspect of the imagery attracting the most intense criticism. In despair over the controversy, Hoff eventually destroyed the plaster models and refused to compromise his designs when the possibility of making them was raised again in 1934. The sculptures were never completed (Government Architect's CMP, 2007).

Hoff's other public sculptures in Sydney included a bas-relief of Mercury in Transport House, York Street and several sculptures in Emil Sodersten's City Mutual Life Building in Hunter Street. However, in spite of his obvious success, Hoff was unable to shake the controversy about the unexecuted ANZAC Memorial sculptures. It remained with him until his early death from pancreatitis on 19 November 1937 (Government Architect's CMP, 2007).

Builders and Contractors
The Trustees specified that the memorial must be built of Australian materials and by Australian workmen. Having been encouraged to give preference to returned servicemen, the contractors Kell and Rigby applied to the RSSILA Labour Bureau for their workers. Also working on the ANZAC Memorial were numerous sub-contractors. These professionals and artisans included structural engineers RS Morris & Co Ltd, masons Melocco Bros Ltd who carved the wreath around the Well of Contemplation, Messrs Loveridge and Hudson Ltd who prepared the granite facing on the outside walls, JC Goodwin and Co Ltd who supplied the amber glass, Art Glass Ltd, which completed the sandblasting, and T. Grounds and Sons who manufactured the stone figures on the buttresses and the funerary urns to Hoff's design. The London firm of Morris Singer & Co Ltd cast central sculpture and bronze panels over the doors but the flame surrounding the sculpture and the bronze grilles on the lower windows were made in Australia by Castle Bros, while Kell and Rigby themselves produced the bronze nails studding the doors. Homebush Ceiling Works made the ceilings and supplied the 120,000 stars for the dome, the latter being gilded by A. Zimmerman. Kellor and Yates completed the plasterwork. The Electrical and General Installation Co was responsible for the electrical installation and Nielsen and Moller made the light fixtures. Later, Dellit was able to persuade the City Council to supply temporary floodlighting for the building, a service made permanent in 1938 (Government Architect's CMP, 2007).

Changes in the course of constructing the ANZAC Memorial
Originally, Dellit wanted the memorial to be built of sandstone or synthetic granite on an 18-inch base of Bowral trachyte. However, the building was actually constructed in red granite from quarries near Bathurst, NSW. The podium and semi-circular stairs were faced in granite; and the terrace was formed in terrazzo (Government Architect's CMP, 2007).

In 1932 Dellit incorporated four stones from battlefields at Gallipoli, France, Palestine and New Guinea into the floors of the niches in the Hall of Memory in the form of the AIF Rising Sun. The names of major battles at each of these sites were added to the niche walls (Government Architect's CMP, 2007). The dome of stars approved in 1933 was also a late inclusion. This feature began as a fundraiser when the project had lost support through the fracas over Hoff's exterior statues. To cover the shortfall in funding the memorial, the RSSILA offered 150,000 stars for sale at two shillings each. Although they were unable to sell the full number, 120,000 stars were fixed to the ceiling to represent all the state's volunteers. In order to facilitate their attachment to the plaster ceiling, they were fashioned from plaster of Paris and gilded (Government Architect's CMP, 2007).

In another late change, the interior walls were lined in unpolished marble while polished marble covered the floors. All doors were originally to be bronze but funding shortages caused that specification to be changed to maple, studded with bronze nails. Dellit intended that each of the great amber windows would bear a different design for the Army, Navy, Air Force and Medical Corps. However, the building subcommittee asked for an alternative and a new design was etched on all the windows which combined the AIF symbol with a pattern of eternal flames (Government Architect's CMP, 2007).

Dellit always intended that the office accommodation at the base of the building should be incorporated into the memorial when the need for its original use had passed. The ex-servicemen's offices featured joinery in silky oak and parquetry floors of red mahogany. Light fittings in the shape of stars echoed the dome in the Hall of Memories. On the eastern side Dellit added an Assembly Hall to balance the entry foyer on the west. This room had seating for 130 people and was available to all ex-servicemen's groups. In practice it was used mainly by the associations with offices in the building. Its small size and the ban on alcohol (which applied to the whole memorial) meant that few associations sought to hire it. It was not available for outside use from 1942 to 1957 while the RSL occupied it as an extension to their office (Government Architect's CMP, 2007).

The inscriptions that Dellit intended for the memorial were another casualty of the design process. The Trustees consulted the poet Leon Gellert, then Professor Hook, who consulted Professor Mungo McCallum, librarian H. M. Green and historian C. E. W. Bean, about the inscriptions. These experts ruled against most of the numerous labels suggested by Dellit. The surviving inscriptions include those on the Foundation stones laid by Governor Game and Premier Bevan on 19 July 1932 which bear the words 'A soldier set this stone' and 'A citizen set this stone' to indicate the contributions both soldiers and citizens had made to the building. An inscription in the floor at the western entrance to the Hall of Silence, 'Let Silent Contemplation be Your Offering' was also kept, as was a list of the major battles in the Hall of Silence. The experts chose a simple statement submitted by Hook, Green and Bean to mark the dedication of the building, stating, 'This Memorial was opened by a son of the King on 24th November 1934' (Government Architect's CMP, 2007).

Another feature that was considerably altered was the landscaping. Dellit planned water gardens for either side of the memorial in the form of a narrow pool to the north and a cascading waterfall to the south. However, as the bulk of the building began to rise above the park, it became apparent that the scale of the water features needed to be increased to balance it. As a result, the cascades were eliminated and the pool extended to 170 feet (52 metres) long by 72 feet (22 metres) wide. Landscaping was completed by the City Council, which was responsible for the park. Finance for the additional work came from the state Unemployment Relief Fund and a large number of council employees and relief labourers poured the concrete for the pool in a single day to eliminate the need for joints and ensure that it was watertight. The Council acceded to Dellit's request to keep a clear open space around the memorial. It also followed his plan for a line of poplars on either side of the pool to symbolise the French battlefields. Dellit also wanted beds filled with the red poppies of Flanders and other plantings from the eastern and western fronts (Government Architect's CMP, 2007).

The Opening Ceremony, 24 November 1934
Crowds attending the opening of the ANZAC Memorial were estimated at 100,000. Archbishop Sheehan boycotted the event on the grounds that it was 'not entirely Catholic in character'. In keeping with the words on the foundation tablets, the ceremony aimed to show that the building was of and for the people. The Duke of Gloucester made the dedication speech and the Anglican Archbishop of Sydney Dr Howard Mowll gave the prayer:
'To the Glory of God, and as a lasting monument of all the members of the Australian Forces of the State of NSW, who served their King and country in the Great War, and especially in grateful remembrance of those who laid down their lives, we dedicate this ANZAC Memorial' (Government Architect's CMP, 2007).

To familiarise the public with the symbolism of the monument and to mark its completion, in 1934 the Trustees published The Book of the Anzac Memorial in a limited edition. This volume both commemorated and explained the memorial. The December 1934 issue of Building magazine also focused on the ANZAC Memorial, devoted nine pages to explain its details and symbolism (Government Architect's CMP, 2007).

Offices at the memorial
All associations with offices in the ANZAC Memorial building helped members with their applications to the Repatriation Department and assistance with medical needs. Each office in the memorial had a counter where members could apply for assistance, a waiting lobby, and secretarial and general offices (Government Architect's CMP, 2007).

By the mid 1930s the ex-servicemen's offices in the ANZAC Memorial were already overcrowded, and the situation became critical when veterans from World War II began accessing the building for services in the 1940s. The RSL gained permission to extend its rooms into the Assembly Hall in 1942 but its situation was not significantly improved until it moved to nearby Anzac House in College Street in 1957. The TB Soldiers, Sailors and Airmen also moved into Anzac House but returned to the ANZAC Memorial in 1980. The Limbless and Maimed Soldiers' Association stayed in the memorial through the whole period that its members survived (Government Architect's CMP, 2007).

Changing Perceptions of the ANZAC Memorial
Australia was embroiled in World War II less than five years after the ANZAC Memorial opened. Attempts to physically make changes and add additional symbols to reflect this and later wars did not proceed due to difficulties envisaging how this might be achieved without compromising the design. (Government Architect's CMP, 2007).

Although the ANZAC Memorial experienced no significant structural changes, in the latter half of the twentieth century people did tend to assume that it was a memorial for all wars. The memorial also became a symbol of all wars in a negative way, particularly in the case of the Australian Government's support of the United States in Vietnam, which polarised the nation. In the prolonged civil protests about Australian involvement in that war - characterised by the moratorium marches of the late 1960s - the ANZAC Memorial became a rallying point. It was also the site of an anti-war sit-in in 1970 and the centre for a Ban the Bomb protest in 1983. In 1975 feminists inferred it was a symbol of male domination when they painted on it, 'Women march for Liberation' (Government Architect's CMP, 2007).

In 1984 an amendment of the Anzac Memorial Building Act of 1923 legally acknowledged the meaning of the ANZAC Memorial that most people had already accepted when it authorised the building's re-dedication as the principal war memorial of NSW. Governor Sir James Rowland performed the ceremony on 30 November, fifty years and six days after the first dedication by the Duke of Gloucester. From that time, the ANZAC Memorial's stated purpose was to honour the men and women of NSW who served in all wars where Australia had been involved (Government Architect's CMP, 2007).

In the same year a 'museum' or exhibition space was established to inform the public both about the wars in which Australia has been involved and those who served in them. It was originally opened on the 50th Anniversary of the official opening of the memorial, on 18 November 1984. A bronze plaque marking the event was mounted on a wall in the Vestibule. A permanent photographic exhibition titled 'Australians at War' opened during this month and became a great success with visiting school groups and tourists (Government Architect's CMP, 2007).

A recent mark of respect to NSW service men and women was the 1995 addition of a Remembrance Flame to the Hall of Memory. The Trustees made space for this new symbol by removing the door to the Archives Room and commissioning the Australian Gas Light Company Limited (AGL) to install the burner which is currently lit 8 hours a day between 9 am and 5 pm (Government Architect's CMP, 2007).

The ANZAC Memorial has been variously described as 'a unique statement of architectural and sculptural unity', 'the ultimate conception of the Art Deco style in this country' and 'the epitome of Art Deco in Australia.' It has become a site of increasing visitation in the 21st century, including a marked increase in the number of schools and other educational bodies. The ANZAC Memorial Building is 'a lasting memorial', [an] 'outstanding legacy' that continues to move present-day Australians to bow their heads 'in honoured memory of all those who have fought on the nation's behalf' (Government Architect's CMP, 2007).

On 22 August 2016 the first sod on the $40 million enhancement of the Anzac Memorial was turned in Hyde Park. Premier Mike Baird said the major upgrade would bring to life the original 1930s vision of the memorial. Plans include an education and interpretation centre and a water cascade at the memorial's southern side. "By enhancing this Memorial we are ensuring future generations can continue to honour those who fought for the freedoms we enjoy today," Mr Baird said. Construction will be completed by Built, the company responsible for the refurbishment of the First World War Galleries in the Australian War Memorial in Canberra. The upgrade is jointly funded by the NSW and Australian Governments and is due to be completed as the Centenary of Anzac commemorations conclude in 2018 (NSW Government e-news, 26/8/2016).

In 2018 architect Bruce Dellit's vision has been realised, 84 years late, but in time for the centenary of WW1 Armistice Day. Dellit's original intention was that the memorial, seen from Liverpool Street (to its south) would be seen over four levels of cascading water. It was unrealised due to the Great Depression of the 1930s. Completion of this vision will be in time for the centenary of the armistice of WW1 on November 11, which will be held, not as usual at Martin Place Cenotaph, but at the completed Anzac Memorial (Barlass, 2018).

Historic themes

Australian theme (abbrev)New South Wales themeLocal theme
2. Peopling-Peopling the continent Aboriginal cultures and interactions with other cultures-Activities associated with maintaining, developing, experiencing and remembering Aboriginal cultural identities and practices, past and present. Eora nation - places of contact with the colonisers-
2. Peopling-Peopling the continent Aboriginal cultures and interactions with other cultures-Activities associated with maintaining, developing, experiencing and remembering Aboriginal cultural identities and practices, past and present. All nations - places of battle or other early interactions between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal peoples-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Environment - cultural landscape-Activities associated with the interactions between humans, human societies and the shaping of their physical surroundings Significant plantings(s) of remembrance-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Events-Activities and processes that mark the consequences of natural and cultural occurences (none)-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Towns, suburbs and villages-Activities associated with creating, planning and managing urban functions, landscapes and lifestyles in towns, suburbs and villages Beautifying towns and villages-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Towns, suburbs and villages-Activities associated with creating, planning and managing urban functions, landscapes and lifestyles in towns, suburbs and villages Creating landmark structures and places in urban settings-
5. Working-Working Labour-Activities associated with work practises and organised and unorganised labour Working in schemes for the unemployed during the Great Depression-
5. Working-Working Labour-Activities associated with work practises and organised and unorganised labour Preferring to employ ex-servicemen-
6. Educating-Educating Education-Activities associated with teaching and learning by children and adults, formally and informally. Educating through memorials and exhibitions-
7. Governing-Governing Defence-Activities associated with defending places from hostile takeover and occupation Memorialising the defenders-
7. Governing-Governing Defence-Activities associated with defending places from hostile takeover and occupation Involvement with the Vietnam War-
7. Governing-Governing Defence-Activities associated with defending places from hostile takeover and occupation Involvement with the First (Great) World War-
7. Governing-Governing Defence-Activities associated with defending places from hostile takeover and occupation Involvement with the Second World War-
7. Governing-Governing Defence-Activities associated with defending places from hostile takeover and occupation Involvement with the Korean War-
7. Governing-Governing Government and Administration-Activities associated with the governance of local areas, regions, the State and the nation, and the administration of public programs - includes both principled and corrupt activities. Developing roles for government - providing community facilities-
7. Governing-Governing Welfare-Activities and process associated with the provision of social services by the state or philanthropic organisations Providing services for ex-servicemen-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Creative endeavour-Activities associated with the production and performance of literary, artistic, architectural and other imaginative, interpretive or inventive works; and/or associated with the production and expression of cultural phenomena; and/or environments that have inspired such creative activities. Interior design styles and periods - Art Deco-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Creative endeavour-Activities associated with the production and performance of literary, artistic, architectural and other imaginative, interpretive or inventive works; and/or associated with the production and expression of cultural phenomena; and/or environments that have inspired such creative activities. Architectural styles and periods - Interwar Art Deco-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Creative endeavour-Activities associated with the production and performance of literary, artistic, architectural and other imaginative, interpretive or inventive works; and/or associated with the production and expression of cultural phenomena; and/or environments that have inspired such creative activities. Landscaping - 20th century interwar-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Creative endeavour-Activities associated with the production and performance of literary, artistic, architectural and other imaginative, interpretive or inventive works; and/or associated with the production and expression of cultural phenomena; and/or environments that have inspired such creative activities. Designing landscapes in an exemplary style-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Creative endeavour-Activities associated with the production and performance of literary, artistic, architectural and other imaginative, interpretive or inventive works; and/or associated with the production and expression of cultural phenomena; and/or environments that have inspired such creative activities. Performing important ceremonies and rituals-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Social institutions-Activities and organisational arrangements for the provision of social activities Participating in ANZAC Day celebrations-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Social institutions-Activities and organisational arrangements for the provision of social activities (none)-
9. Phases of Life-Marking the phases of life Birth and Death-Activities associated with the initial stages of human life and the bearing of children, and with the final stages of human life and disposal of the dead. Remembering the deceased-
9. Phases of Life-Marking the phases of life Birth and Death-Activities associated with the initial stages of human life and the bearing of children, and with the final stages of human life and disposal of the dead. Erecting and visiting monuments and memorials-
9. Phases of Life-Marking the phases of life Persons-Activities of, and associations with, identifiable individuals, families and communal groups Associations with Bruce Dellit, architect-
9. Phases of Life-Marking the phases of life Persons-Activities of, and associations with, identifiable individuals, families and communal groups Associations with the Returned Services League (RSL)-
9. Phases of Life-Marking the phases of life Persons-Activities of, and associations with, identifiable individuals, families and communal groups Associations with Raynor Hoff, sculptor-
9. Phases of Life-Marking the phases of life Persons-Activities of, and associations with, identifiable individuals, families and communal groups (none)-

Assessment of significance

SHR Criteria a)
[Historical significance]
The ANZAC Memorial in Hyde Park is of historical significance to the State as an embodiment of the collective grief felt by the people of New South Wales at the loss of Australian servicemen at Gallipoli and other conflicts since then. Authorised by NSW legislation in 1923, it is of State significance as a major place of commemoration and for its associations with the celebration of Anzac Day since 1941. The ANZAC Memorial is also of historical significance because its construction provided much needed employment for returned veterans during the Great Depression. The Lake of Reflection was constructed through the Unemployment Relief Fund established by the State government.
SHR Criteria b)
[Associative significance]
The ANZAC Memorial is of State significance for its association with the landing of Australian troops at Gallipoli on 15 April 1915. The landing at Gallipoli was a significant event in Australian history, having an enormous impact on the Australian psyche and the formation of the Australian character and fundraising for the memorial was established on the first anniversary of the landing. This association is strengthened by the presence of an Aleppo Pine in the western ground of the memorial, taken from the Lone Pine at Lone Pine Gap in Gallipoli. The ANZAC Memorial is also of State significance for its association with returned servicemen and their organisations including the RSL, Limbless and Maimed Soldier's Association and the T.B. Sailors and Soldier's Association of Australia. These groups both lobbied for the erection of the monument and have occupied offices within it. The ANZAC Memorial is also of State significance as for its associations with its architect Bruce Dellit and its sculptor Rayner Hoff, both of whom are famous largely because of their design work in creating the memorial, which is arguably the finest Art Deco building in Australia. The memorial is associated with Anzac Day and the Anzac Day march on the 25th of April each year which starts at the Cenotaph and concludes near Hyde Park.
SHR Criteria c)
[Aesthetic significance]
The ANZAC Memorial is of State aesthetic significance as a great work of public art which is arguably the finest expression of Art Deco monumentality in Australia. It is the result of an outstanding creative collaboration between architect Bruce Dellit and sculptor Rayner Hoff and contains complex symbolic embellishments that reinforce and enhance the commemorative meanings of the building. Its relative lack of religious symbology provides evidence of the processes of secularisation in NSW during the inter war period. The memorial has been praised for its 'unity of architecture, carving and sculpture' and for 'achieving a remarkable dignity of expression' (Inglis, p.312-3). Rayner Hoff's sculpture has been described as 'a masterpiece of craftsmanship... romantic without being sentimental, austere without being severe' (Sturgeon). The ANZAC Memorial is also of State significance for the landscape purposefully designed for it by Dellit including a large reflection pool lined by poplars. The building is a prominent element in Hyde Park where it shares a principal axis with another major memorial to World War I, the Archibald Fountain. Its position contributes significantly to the physical character of Hyde Park and the city of Sydney.
SHR Criteria d)
[Social significance]
The ANZAC Memorial is of State significance as a major focus for the public commemoration of Australians lost at war since its completion. Its construction is linked to acceptance of the term 'Anzac' by the Australian people and the legend that is associated with the name. The memorial remains an integral part of Anzac Day commemorations each year. Its sculpture is likely to be of State social significance for its commemoration of the role of women in war, both as war workers and as mothers of soldiers, which was almost unheard of in the 1930s and remains unusual today. The Returned Soldiers Association of NSW wanted the memorial to be 'A lasting memorial, some outstanding legacy that shall quicken the blood of future generations, and move them to bare their heads in honoured memory of those who won for Australia its place amongst the nations'. The ANZAC Memorial provides an important place of communal commemoration.
SHR Criteria f)
[Rarity]
The ANZAC Memorial is of State significance for its rarity as an impressive and intact example of Art Deco public architecture. It is a rare example of a profound creative collaboration between architect and artist. The ANZAC Memorial is of State significance for its uniqueness as the grandest and most monumental war memorial in New South Wales.
SHR Criteria g)
[Representativeness]
The ANZAC Memorial is of State significance as the largest and most ambitious of the numerous war memorials constructed throughout New South Wales after World War I and as a remarkable example of commemorative architecture and Art Deco design. The memorial is also representative as NSW’s contribution to the group of 'national war memorials', whereby each state capital city developed its own major war memorial in the inter-war period. In this group the ANZAC Memorial is outstanding in its size, integrity and aesthetic appeal.
Integrity/Intactness: The Anzac Memorial is remarkably intact, and contains a great deal of original fabric. This includes moveable items such as the wreath laid by the Duke of Gloucester.
Assessment criteria: Items are assessed against the PDF State Heritage Register (SHR) Criteria to determine the level of significance. Refer to the Listings below for the level of statutory protection.

Procedures /Exemptions

Section of actDescriptionTitleCommentsAction date
57(2)Exemption to allow workStandard Exemptions SCHEDULE OF STANDARD EXEMPTIONS
HERITAGE ACT 1977
Notice of Order Under Section 57 (2) of the Heritage Act 1977

I, the Minister for Planning, pursuant to subsection 57(2) of the Heritage Act 1977, on the recommendation of the Heritage Council of New South Wales, do by this Order:

1. revoke the Schedule of Exemptions to subsection 57(1) of the Heritage Act made under subsection 57(2) and published in the Government Gazette on 22 February 2008; and

2. grant standard exemptions from subsection 57(1) of the Heritage Act 1977, described in the Schedule attached.

FRANK SARTOR
Minister for Planning
Sydney, 11 July 2008

To view the schedule click on the Standard Exemptions for Works Requiring Heritage Council Approval link below.
Sep 5 2008
57(2)Exemption to allow workHeritage Act - Site Specific Exemptions HERITAGE ACT, 1977
DIRECTION PURSUANT TO SECTION 34(1)(a)
TO LIST AN ITEM ON THE STATE HERITAGE REGISTER

ANZAC Memorial
Hyde Park South, Sydney
SHR No 1822

In pursuance of Section 34(1)(a) of the Heritage Act, 1977, I, the Minister for Planning, having considered a recommendation of the Heritage Council of New South Wales, direct the Council to list the item of environmental heritage specified in Schedule "A" on the State Heritage Register. This listing shall apply to the curtilage or site of the item, being the land described in Schedule "B". The listing is subject to the exemptions from approval under Section 57(2) of the Heritage Act, 1977, described in Schedule "C" and in addition to the standard exemptions.

The Hon Tony Kelly MLC
Minister for Planning
Sydney, Day of 2010

SCHEDULE "A"
The item known as ANZAC Memorial, situated on the land described in Schedule "B".

SCHEDULE "B"
All those pieces or parcels of land known as Lot 1915 DP 906666 and Part Lot 1 DP 1082647 in Parish of St Lawrence, County of Cumberland shown on the plan catalogued HC 2323 in the office of the Heritage Council of New South Wales.

SCHEDULE "C"
a) All maintenance of the existing landscaping, both vegetation and built elements, including planting, pruning and removal of diseased trees.
b) Replacement of the poplar trees that line the Pool of Reflection with advanced specimens of the same genus in the same locations where this is required in the interest of public safety.
c) Replacement or removal of plants other than the poplars where this is required in the interest of public safety or to maintain formal border tree plantings to the precinct or to define the wider curtilage of the ANZAC Memorial as illustrated in the original Dellit landscape design scheme.
d) Activities associated with the use, maintenance and repair of the Pool of Reflection, excluding any new development. This exemption includes works associated with increasing the basement plant space for the Pool of Reflection and works on pumps, pipes and electrical installation.
e) Use of the place for public gatherings and memorial services.
f) All maintenance and repairs, including upgrading of services, consistent with a Conservation Management Plan for the place endorsed by the Heritage Council of NSW.
g) All new signage and interpretation that conforms to a Conservation Management Plan endorsed by the Heritage Council of NSW.
h) Erection of temporary structures and provision of temporary services for community and civic events provided these remain in place for no longer than two months.
i) All activities in relation to moveable heritage and curatorial activities within the place, including changing, moving and replacing the exhibition contents and display cases as well as the screening of films.
Apr 23 2010

PDF Standard exemptions for works requiring Heritage Council approval

Listings

Heritage ListingListing TitleListing NumberGazette DateGazette NumberGazette Page
Heritage Act - State Heritage Register 0182223 Apr 10   
Local Environmental PlanANZAC War Memorial including Pool of Reflection1174207 Apr 12   
National Trust of Australia register      
Royal Australian Institute of Architects register  30 Mar 79   
Register of the National Estate 00181621 Mar 78   

References, internet links & images

TypeAuthorYearTitleInternet Links
Written 1934Building magazine
Written 1932Building magazine
Written 1930Building magazine
Written 1928Building magazine
Written 1922Building magazine
WrittenAct NO 27, 19231923Anzac Memorial (Building) Act
WrittenBarlass, Tim2018Anzac Memorial revealed in original glory
WrittenBevis Hillier & Stephen Escritt Art Deco Style
WrittenC. Bruce Dellit1930Report Accompanying Designs for the Anzac Memorial Building in Architecture
WrittenDennis Jeans1983The Making of the Anzac Memorial Heritage Conservation News Winter
WrittenGML2012Hyde Park Archaeological Management Plan
WrittenGovernment Archtiects Office NSW2007ANZAC Memorial, Hyde Park, Conservation Management Plan
WrittenGrace Karskens2009The Colony, A History of Early Sydney
WrittenHoward Ashton & others1934The Sculpture of Rayner Hoff
WrittenKenneth Stanley Inglis1998Sacred Places: War Memorialsin the Australian Landscape
WrittenLegislative Council debate over amendment to the ANZAC Memorial Bill, 19 September 1984, p1127-1133.1984Hansard (NSW)
WrittenLionel Lindsay and W. B. Dalley1932Art in Australia
WrittenLionel Lindsay, W. B. Dalley1932Art in Australia
WrittenMaisie Stapleton2001'Sydney Art Deco: the architecture of Dellit and Sodersten' in M. Ferson and M. Nilsson (eds) Art Deco in Australia
WrittenMurphy, Damien2014'80 years on, Anzac Memorial to get its water feature at last'
WrittenPembroke, Michael2009'The Aspen Tree', in Trees of History & Romance
WrittenRoger Butler1979Raymond McGrath Prints
WrittenS. Elliott Napier1934The Book of the Anzac Memorial
WrittenStephen Foster, Glenda Gartrell, Peter Spearritt and Margaret Varghese1984‘History and Social Significance of the Anzac Memorial, Hyde Park, Sydney’

Note: internet links may be to web pages, documents or images.

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Data source

The information for this entry comes from the following source:
Name: Heritage Office
Database number: 5053512
File number: EF14/5310; S90/6399


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