Lindfield Learning Village (formerly William Balmain Teachers College) (draft for consideration) | NSW Environment, Energy and Science

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Heritage

Lindfield Learning Village (formerly William Balmain Teachers College) (draft for consideration)

Item details

Name of item: Lindfield Learning Village (formerly William Balmain Teachers College) (draft for consideration)
Other name/s: William Balmain Teacher’s College, Ku ring gai CAE, UTS Ku ring gai Campus
Type of item: Built
Group/Collection: Education
Category: University
Primary address: 100 Eton Road, Lindfield, NSW 2070
Local govt. area: Ku-Ring-Gai
Property description
Lot/Volume CodeLot/Volume NumberSection NumberPlan/Folio CodePlan/Folio Number
LOT4 1151638 
LOT2 DP1151638
All addresses
Street AddressSuburb/townLGAParishCountyType
100 Eton RoadLindfieldKu-Ring-Gai  Primary Address

Statement of significance:

The item is of state heritage significance for its historic values as a purpose designed and built Teacher's College of a scale previously unheard of in the history of Teacher Education until its 1968 design and construction.

The Lindfield Learning Village is of state heritage significance for its historically important role in the development of Architecture in Australia in the second half of the Twentieth Century. The campus may also be historically significant for its contribution to landscape architecture in Australia and as an early example of the indigenous landscape design ethos.

The Lindfield Learning Village is of state heritage significance as it is a unique and highly significant example of Neo -Brutalist architecture combined with the influence of the Sydney School architecture on a large scale and applied to a concrete building. The campus is one of the most expressive examples of the 1960-70s Neo-Brutalist buildings, its brutalism being moderated by the way in which the campus was designed to respond to the topography and bushland setting The campus may be of state heritage significance as an outstanding example of design giving close attention to the role of the building as an educational facility, and the way in which spatial planning could facilitate interaction between students and teaching staff.

The Lindfield Learning Village is of state heritage significance for its important associations with government and private practice architects and landscape architects including David Don Turner and Peter Stronach. The association of Bruce Mackenzie and Alan Correy with the campus are particularly significant, as the campus retains the ability to clearly demonstrate the landscape design and construction techniques associated with the work of these influential landscape architects. The site is a major example of the application of Mackenzie's philosophy of building carefully within a pristine natural environment rather than clearing the site and creating an 'artificial' natural landscape.

The building in its landscape setting is also of state heritage significance for its ability to demonstrate design philosophies and construction techniques associated with Neo Brutalism and Sydney School architecture popular in the 1970s. It is a rare and representative example of public architecture in the Neo-Brutalist style tempered by the architectural and landscape design influences of the Sydney School of Architecture. It is widely well regarded by members of the architecture profession having won various industry awards for its design and construction.
Date significance updated: 29 Jul 19
Note: The State Heritage Inventory provides information about heritage items listed by local and State government agencies. The State Heritage Inventory is continually being updated by local and State agencies as new information becomes available. Read the OEH copyright and disclaimer.

Description

Designer/Maker: David Don Turner, Bruce McKenzie and others
Builder/Maker: E.A. Watts Pty Ltd
Construction years: 1968-1985
Physical description: The site is located on land running between Chatswood, Roseville and Lindfield, on land bounded by Millwood Avenue, Lady Game Drive and Winchester Avenue, adjacent to Lane Cove National Park. The site of what is now UTS Ku-ring-gai consists of 46 acres of remnant bushland with Hawkesbury Sandstone outcropping steeply contoured to the Lane Cove River. The campus is contained within the one compact building. Sports facilities are located to the north on higher ground and car parking is located partially within the building with additional areas located to the north and east, in curved lines reflecting the topography for the site and with a dense surrounding of trees.

The building at UTS Ku-ring-gai consists of a single concrete structure that is visually strong, dramatic and heavily articulated in both internal and external form. The building's interaction with the essentially natural landscape surroundings, its use of off form concrete "expertly handled in design and construction" were recognised by the Jury when the building received the Sulman Award in 1978.

The building is constructed in the Neo Brutalist style but incorporates elements of the Sydney School of architecture in its use of landscaping and other built features. Stages one and two of the building uses bands of warm brick toning to contrast with the monolithic concrete adjacent structures . Precast concrete sun shades are used throughout all stages of the building as are the black aluminium framed window frames. (Urbis).

Internally the use of off board concrete, face brick and waffle slab ceilings with primary doors constructed of timber with metal or timber door cases and architraves is featured in stages one through five. Windown in all stages are designed to work with the landscape design to invite views to the indigenous landscape setting. The stages are designed around their primary educational/functional use.

The building's architect, David Turner based the design of the building on the concept of an Italian hill village with external fortressing and internal circulation. Turner evoked medieval construction techniques in his largely concrete structure, the finished form of the building, following a staged construction process, has a rambling stepped town like quality that also evokes the rock outcrop it is sited on. The design focused around keeping the building as compact as possible to maintain connections between staff and students and to preserve the natural bushland setting . The internal spaces of the building relate to the surrounding landscape through views, vistas, light shafts and through the use of native plants throughout the building's courtyards and roof decks, with the retention of the surrounding native landscape making a significant contribution to the building's success.

The landscape concept was devised by Bruce Mackenzie and Allan Correy, who regarded the site primarily as a significant example of intact remnant bushland. Correy and Mackenzie were early advocates of the indigenous design ethos in landscaping. Mackenzie using a technique he had found successful during previous work on the Pettit and Sevitt sites for Ancher Mortlock Murray & Woolley, initially surveyed the site to establish its characteristics and best qualities. The siting of the building was based around the identified conservation opportunities, so as to preserve as much as possible of the remnant bushland . The location of the building, car parks and roads was then surveyed on the site, marked out and fenced. Only the areas inside the temporary fence were cleared, protecting the adjacent bushland from damage during the building process. This early integration of landscape and building design through site planning and the construction program lead to the intimate link between the two that remains a central feature of the site.

" The landscape is primarily characterised by undulating topography , rock outcrops, trees and native vegetation. The bushland landscape is brought up to a, surrounds and [moves] through the building complex. The native bushland is characterised by two natural vegetation communities and one are of modified vegetation, including smpoth -barked apple - red bloodwood native forest [found]on enriched sandstone slopes around Sydney and the Central Coast; dwarf apple - broad leafed scribbly gum - Sydney pepperment low opem woodland on sandstone ridsges with subtle enrichment in North Sydney; and cleared land expticss and exotic/non-indigenous plantings' ( Kleinfelder, Landscape Management Plan, Lindfield Learning Village, Eton Roiad Linfield, 18 October 2019).

Other important elements in the l;andscape include the road cuttings and Rock infill, known as Dunstan Grove, and a large open lawn area located south of the Stage 1 building. This area was created for to ensure some seperation of bush and buildings in the event of bushfire. (Urbis, Conservation Management Plan, Lindfield Learning Village, 16 November 2018)

The building is a concrete construction, with waffle slab columns and walls. Infill walls are face brick. The roof is made of built up membrane with polystyrene insulation and finished with ceramic or asbestos cement tiles. Air conditioning is supplied to lecture theatres and library only; the rest of the building is naturally ventilated. The anodised aluminium frame windows are all operable. The external sunshades and sunhoods are precast concrete elements. Floor finishes are generally carpet (originally green), with vinyl tiles in the original science area and ceramic tiles in the art craft area. Ceilings are finished with painted timber boards or plaster sheet. The few air-conditioned spaces have suspended ceilings. The building was originally fitted with gas convection heating and there were two lifts when built. Choice of materials, integration of services, the high quality finish and the consistency of character in relation to interior treatment were all praised in the Jury Comments upon receipt of the 1978 Sulman Award .

The building is constructed on split levels and has five main floors with basement plant rooms and an astronomy observation tower. Lower levels have rooms that open onto roof decks, allowing access to the exterior. Small turrets conceal external spiral stairways with the mass of the single building broken by small courtyards and concrete linking bridges. The feeling of a campus is created by the internal circulation spine running throughout the building, forming an internal street with a related series of courtyards. Externally the bulk of the building is broken by the use of sunhoods and vertical sunshades plus variations in modulation and massing, including the circular astronomy tower which reflects architect David Turner's design concept of an Italian Hill Village.

The different functions of the college are brought together by the broad internal circulation spine or internal street which has great variety in scale and character of spaces. The design concept was based on activity zones, the cental being the library, students union, assembly hall, lecture theatres and tutorial spaces. The administrative zone is connected as is the zones for the teaching of music, science, art/craft and gymnasium (eg: higher noise levels). The zonings also relate to the staged building construction. Within the zonings the design sought a free flow of movement and flexible spaces, with folding doors to central circulation spaces.

The building's construction consisted of the following stages:
*Stage 1 (construction started 1968) included the library, lower lecture rooms, arts and crafts, TV studio, teaching and science blocks, astronomy/observation tower and greenhouse.
*Stage 2 (1972) consisted of the oval to the north of the site, basketball courts, gymnasium, medical teaching block, union and administration areas and 1000 seat assembly hall, with organ. This was all housed within the one building. Parking areas located to the north and east.
*Stage 3 (1974) Gym and sports facilities accessed via a walkway from the main building complex.
*Stage 4 (1977) Lecture rooms and offices, dining terraces.
*Stage 5 More lecture rooms and offices (1984)
*Stage 6 (1985) Child Care facilities

Project Architect David Turner was involved with all stages of construction until 1989. Turner was not involved but expansion and redesign of the Library was undertaken in 1993.
Physical condition and/or
Archaeological potential:
Physical condition is good.

No post settlement archaeological potential. Possible Aboriginal archaeological potential within surrounding bushland and related to sites within the adjacent Lane Cove National Park.
Modifications and dates: The campus was constructed in stages between 1968 and 1985. Since 1989 minor works have been carried out without the involvement of the project architect. The most significant of these was the expansion and re-design of the Library in 1993. Although the structure proved largely resistant to the severe bushfires of 1994 the off form concrete observatory tower was damaged.
The buildings have been adapted as a Kindergarten to Year 12 School which has entailed the demolition of some partition walls and removal of built in furniture. Much of the furniture is in storage and is to be reused in the final fitout.Additionally there has been the erection of new partition walls and staircases that have some impact on the original internal spatial planning.
Native trees and understorey bushland has been thinned out, especially in the entrance to the Statge 2 building which has had a significant impact on the original bushland setting. The circulation drive to the swest of the buildings has also impacted on the bushland setting.
The use of strong coloured elements externally on the entrance wall to Stage 2 building and in the playground interupt original intention to integrate the buildings into the bush. Internally the use of bold coloured elements such as the extension of the height of balustrading in bright coloured materials can be seen to mirror the use of strong colour in the original handrails and other features.
Despite these changes the item is considered to be intact and in good condition.
Further information: Designer:
NSW Government Architects Office: Project Architect David Turner.
Landscape Architect: Allan Correy with Bruce Mackenzie.
Documentation Architects: Allen Jack + Cottier.

Structural Engineers:
Taylor Thompson Whitting.
Current use: The current use oif the item is as a Kindergarten to Year 12 School
Former use: rifle range, national park (part),tertiary education institution (Teachers College, Institute of Advanced Education, University) Kindergarten to Year 12 School

History

Historical notes: Except where specifically referenced this material was referenced from: Urbis,Conservation Management Plan Linfield Learning Centre 2018; City Plan Heritage, Final Draft Heritage Assessment, 2004; Graham Brooks and Associates Heritage Assessment and Conservation Strategy, 2007.

The land upon which the Lindfield Learning Village now stands was the traditional land of the Cameragal people of the Eora Nation. The traditional people made use of the resources of the Lane Cove river, nearby harbour and beaches and surrounding bushland. While no archaeological evidence of Aboriginal occupation has been found in the immediate location of the Learnign Village,16 Aboriginal archaeological sites have been recorded within 50 meteres of the site indicating the place as one of traditional occupation. These sites include art sites and shelter sites with middens and stone artefacts.

Historical records describe early contact between Europeans and Aboriginal people in the Land Cove area with Lt Ralph Clarke exchanging a hatchet with two spears with two Aboriginal men on the banks of the Lane Cove River. Over the next months and years, as the European new comer's impact on local resources of timber, food and limeshell grew, the Aboriginal people of the area resisted the incursion of the Europeans, on occasion burning houses and killing livestock. In the early 1800 this resistence continued and in 1804, farmer James Wiltshier was subject to 'shouts of defiance and spear brandishing by up to 200 Aborigines' (Lenehan 1987 12).

The 46 acres on which the UTS Ku-ring-gai campus is located was undeveloped, privately owned, freehold land until 1915 when the Commonwealth Government acquired it. From this date until 1955 it was used sporadically as an Army rifle range. In 1961 the Minister of Education acquired the land, then 92 acres, from the Commonwealth for educational purposes. However when the site was transferred to the University of Technology Sydney in 1972 only 46 acres remained, the rest having been acquired by Lane Cove National Park.

The site was allocated specifically for a Teacher training facility. Until 1972 the training of teachers was a State Government funded enterprise undertaken in Teacher's Colleges. The NSW Teacher's Federation had been calling for a new Teacher's College since the 1950s. The original Balmain Teachers' College had been opened in 1947 on the site of the 70 year old Smith Street Superior School, Balmain (KRGHS, 1996, 45). The movement gained impetus in NSW in 1965 when the Askin government was elected with a promise to establish a new Teacher's College. By 1966 a completely new facility located at the Ku-ring-gai site had been suggested. The construction of the new college was supported by Dr. Harold Wyndham, Director General of Education in NSW from 1952 to 1968. It was reputedly Wyndham who advocated the Ku-ring-gai site and lobbied the Minister to buy the land from the Commonwealth in 1961.

Wyndham, amongst others felt strongly that the North Shore of Sydney required tertiary education facilities. Wyndham valued the North Shore location of the Ku-ring-gai campus, despite the obvious difficulties it presented in terms of access, transport and parking. A lobby group under the name of Association for the Civic and Educational Advancement of the Northern Suburbs (ACEANS) had strongly influenced the siting of the recently constructed Macquarie University. ACEANS provided evidence that 42% of first year students at Sydney University travelled from the North Shore . The group appears to have been influential as Macquarie University opened in 1967 and the re-location of the William Balmain Teacher's College to the site at Ku-ring-gai was announced in the same year.

The establishment of the college was greatly assisted by a grant of 7.5 million from the Commonwealth Government in 1961 for the construction of three new Teacher's Colleges. The Ku-ring-gai college was to cost $3 million and accommodate 850 trainee teachers. This level of funding far outweighed funds available from the State Government. It is noted in the history of the college that "there seemed to be few brakes on expenditure and the new college was planned and built on an undreamt of scale" . There was a particular focus on the training of science teachers at William Balmain College which influenced the level of facilities constructed in Stage One of the Ku-ring-gai campus, including the lavish provision of laboratories and an astronomy tower. In 1972 Teacher's Colleges became 'colleges of advanced education' within the government's three tiered tertiary education system and the site was signed over the University of Technology Sydney (UTS) which has in subsequent educational changes become a University.

A committee was appointed to oversee the building of the three new colleges. Its members were Rae Mclintock from the Department of Education, David Turner from the Government Architects Office and Ron Underwood, a William Balmain College lecturer. The other colleges were located in regional centres, Goulburn and Newcastle. As well as the committee, staff were encouraged to contribute and an extensive consultative approach was taken. As a result of the consultation and close working relationship Turner had with the planning committee the building was purpose-designed for Teacher education.

Turner was an Englishman who had joined the Government Architect's Branch in 1963, and had worked on small projects for other teachers' colleges. From 1967 he was the architectural supervisor of the construction of the three colleges. He remained design architect for the continual additions and improvements to the Ku-ring-gai site for more than twenty years, giving a very unusual degree of continuity to the building's ongoing design and construction. Turner's association with the site ended in 1992 when another architectural practice was appointed to undertake extensions to the Library.

In 1967 the sketch plans of the Ku-ring-gai college were exhibited with the statement that the compact building will have "a split level design and will retain as much of the natural beauty of trees, shrubs and rock as possible" . Turner responded to the Ku-ring-gai site by reducing the potential scale of the college through the construction of a single structure with internal circulation that was naturally ventilated and compatible with the setting.

Turner decided the building should be off-form concrete in the 'Neo Brutalism' style to be compatible with its rugged setting. Concrete as a sculptural form, unfinished, was a central component of the style. Turner was also influenced by Frank Lloyd Wright and the contemporaneous Sydney School of architecture that was characterised by an appreciation for the native landscape, and a desire to work with rather than against the indigenous landscape.

The Sydney School
The Sydney School was a distinctive picturesque architecture with a craft aesthetic which emerged in the Sydney area from 1960 . Not isolated to Sydney the ethic of the style "influenced a considerable portion of the architecture of the country for the next two decades." . The style was partially a reaction to the cold, hard edged forms of the International Style and was inspired by the socially based concern of improving the quality of the houses available to the average Australian and was symptomatic of concerns shared by many sections of the community .

The style was characterised by its response to Australian climatic conditions and physical and visual continuity to vegetation outside, and a use of raw, exposed materials including concrete, brick and timber. The organic characteristics of these building materials were featured in the richly toned and textured Sydney School buildings, blending into their native bushland sites.

This brick and timber architecture was obviously limited in its application to large structures. Never-the-less, the site at Ku-ring-gai presented a great opportunity for Turner to pursue the ethic of the Sydney School on a large scale with a public building. The landscape was a central component from the initial stages of site planing. Landscape Architect Alan Correy did the site planning with landscaper Bruce Mackenzie. Mackenzie used the experience of managing construction work at the Pettit and Sevitt sites some years earlier for Anchor Mortlock Murray and Woolley, where clearing of the site was prevented by fencing off areas outside building footprints. After construction very little to no additional planting was added or needed .

MacKenzie and Correy were central figures in the development of an indigenous design landscape movement that was associated with the Sydney School architecture. The use of landscape consultants, designers and architects was emerging in Australian in the 1960s with the field's first qualified professionals returning from study in the United States or England having studied the theories of Meltang. In the 1960s government departments adopted positive policies towards the use of landscape consultants and the NSW Government Architects branch played an important part in establishing sound landscape design in the Sydney area . Allan Correy held the first full time position in the newly formed Landscape Section of the Government Architects Office in 1967. Correy was influential in this role, and subsequent ones within the public service and at the University of Sydney, in establishing an ecological approach to landscape design.

Bruce MacKenzie although self trained was an early member of the Institute of Landscape Architects and played an integral part in its establishment and growth. He was highly influential and his work ranged from individual gardens to large parks and extensive regional planning schemes. Some of his most acclaimed work was undertaken at the Pettit and Sevitt home sites in St. Ives and Thornleigh and at Long Nose Point, Birchgrove. He forwarded the conservation of native vegetation and use of indigenous flora in gardens and designed primarily using existing rock outcrops, trees and native shrub undergrowth that required little alteration of the existing setting and little ongoing care or maintenance. The site at Ku-ring-gai most clearly demonstrates his design principals on a large and densely treed site, its success more remarkable for its application to the landscaping of a large scale public building.

The revived interest in the Australian landscape that is displayed in the Ku-ring-gai college was represented in wider Australian society in the 1960s. The work of artists including Patrick White, Sidney Nolan and Lloyd Rees reflected a lessoning of the anxiety the native bushland had induced in previous generations and a new appreciation for its aesthetic qualities. Throughout the 1960s and 1970s the wider conservation movement assisted in popularising design which focused on retention of the native landscape. The largely nationalist sentiments of the Sydney School's attitude to the environment was in part Romantic and not dissimilar to the Heidelberg School of painting of the 1880s. However as Taylor notes "the fact that it was so widely and rapidly accepted and that for more than a decade it continued to hold a persuasive influence on Australian architecture, testifies to its relevance and validity."

In 1971, at the completion of Stage 1 which included the Library, lower lecture roomsart/craft area, teaching spaces, science block, astronomy towner, the William Balmain College was relocated from temporary accomodation in St Leonards to Lindfield.
Shortly after Stage 1 was completed, in 1972, the Ku-ring-gai college won the Concrete Institute Award, the Landscape Institute Award and the RAIA Merit Award for Commercial and Public Buildings.

Stage 2 of the campus was constructed between 1972 and 1974 with Don Turner remaining as project architect. This stage saw the construction of the Assembly Hall, Students Union and Administrative Offices. During this time the function of the college underwent a change and diversification of itseducational role from a teaching college to a College of Advanced Education with additional Shools of Finance and Administrative studies, , Libnrary and Information Studies and Practical Leagal Training.As a CAE the organisation also became autonomously governed and not under the auspices of the Department of Education.

Stage 3 of the Complex, completed in 1976, was to include a Gymnasium and additional teaching spaces. Don Turner who no longer was with the Government Architects Branch was contracted to design and document Stage 3 although he was not involved in its construction.

In1978 the building was awarded the RAIA Sir John Sulman Award. The Sir John Sulman Award citation included the statement that: "the building is the first in Australia to come to grips successfully with the essence of a college as a close collaboration of teachers and students - a social entity."

Stage 4, designed with input frpom Don Turner commenced construction in 1980 and comprised Dining Terraces, an extension that connected Stage 2 with the Auditorium and more lecture rooms and a staff office wing.

In 1984, Stage 5 of the campus was commenced and was completer in 1988 a period of time during which the college college was amalgamated with the University of Technology, Sydney. In this phase of development it was again decided, as with previous stages, to expand the footprint of the complex rather than a seperate building on a discrete site. The new wing remained connected to the original circulation spine of the complex. The lecture rooms and offices comprising this 4 storey extension were located south west of the building complex.

Further expansion took place in 1993 to provide child care facilities and expand the library and were completed in 1994.

By 2003 the University of Technology began canvassing ways to alternatively use the campus in the light of student preference for study on a city campus. By 2007 a proposal to rezone the site was submitted to the Department of Planning. The proposal proposed retaining the main part of the building as an educational facility but the demolition of some of the building and the development of 440 dwellings and residential buildings of up to 5 storeys with accompanying roads and recreation areas. The Concept Plan was approved in 2005 and allowed residential development and educational uses as well as the conservation of the main building.
In 2010 the Defence Housing Australia sucessfully tendered tfor a development on the Lindfield site. Crimson Hill development was commenced in 2013.

In 2012 UTS entered an agreement with the NSW government to swap the Ku-ring-gai campus with Ultimo TAFE building.. By 2015 Faculties were transferred from the Ku-Ring-gai campus to UTS at Ultimo.

The latest phase in the history of the building is the development of unique educational facility at the site, the Linfield Learning Village. A school with a capacity to accomodate 2000 student from Kindergarten to Year 12. Stage 1 of the building has been conserved and adapted to accomodate an initial intake of 350 K-Y10 students in 2019. This will increase to a further 700 in 2020.

Historic themes

Australian theme (abbrev)New South Wales themeLocal theme
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Creative endeavour-Activities associated with the production and performance of literary, artistic, architectural and other imaginative, interpretive or inventive works; and/or associated with the production and expression of cultural phenomena; and/or environments that have inspired such creative activities. Building in response to natural landscape features.-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Creative endeavour-Activities associated with the production and performance of literary, artistic, architectural and other imaginative, interpretive or inventive works; and/or associated with the production and expression of cultural phenomena; and/or environments that have inspired such creative activities. Architectural styles and periods - late 20th Century Sydney Regional-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Creative endeavour-Activities associated with the production and performance of literary, artistic, architectural and other imaginative, interpretive or inventive works; and/or associated with the production and expression of cultural phenomena; and/or environments that have inspired such creative activities. Landscaping - 20th c bush garden style-
9. Phases of Life-Marking the phases of life Persons-Activities of, and associations with, identifiable individuals, families and communal groups Associations with David Turner, Government Architect's Office-
9. Phases of Life-Marking the phases of life Persons-Activities of, and associations with, identifiable individuals, families and communal groups Associations with Bruce Mackenzie, landscape architect-

Assessment of significance

SHR Criteria a)
[Historical significance]
The Lindfield Learning Village is of state heritage significance for its historic values as a purpose designed and built Teacher's College on a scale previously unheard of in the history of Teacher Education until its 1968 design and construction. It was built to meet the burgeoning demand for teacher training at the time. The location of the college represents community pressure in the 1960s to locate educational facilities on the North Shore of Sydney and the financial input from the Commonwealth Government into Teacher education in the period.

The campus is also of state significance for its important role in the development of Architecture in Australia in the second half of the Twentieth Century. The campus provides evidence of the Neo Brutalist style popular for public buildings during this period. The campus is a significant variation of the Neo-Brutalist style demonstrating the simultaneous influence of the Sydney School of architecture in the softening of the Brutalist aspects of the building.

The Linfield Learning Village is of state heritage significance for its contribution to landscape architecture in Australia and as an early example of the indigenous landscape design ethos. The preservation of the native bushland setting reflecting wider social attitudes to the Australian bush and the growing conservation movement. The site is a highly successful design featuring a harmonious relationship between new construction and the native bushland setting.
SHR Criteria b)
[Associative significance]
The Lindfield Learning Village has state level heritage significance for its historic associations with the NSW Government Architects Office (GAO) under EH Farmer and Project Architect David Don Turner, who designed and supervised construction of the college from 1967 until the 1992. The GAO played an important role in the changing nature of Australian Architecture during the 1960s and 1970s, particularly in the introduction of Neo-Brutalism and its use in public and educational buildings.

The site also has strong associations at a state level with two of the leading figures in the establishment of landscape design and an indigenous design ethos in Australia; Allan Correy and Bruce Mackenzie. Correy was the first Landscape Architect employed by the Government Architects Office and later educator at the University of Sydney. MacKenzie pioneered the use of native bushland in landscape schemes and was involved in several prominent developments including the Petit and Sevitt project home villages at St. Ives and Thornleigh. The work of these practitioners at the Ku-ring-gai site was complimentary to the ethos of the Sydney School of Architecture where and their work was integral to the overall design.

The site also represents the work and legacy of noted education reformer, Dr. Harold Wyndham, Director General of Education in NSW from 1952 to 1968 who purchased the land and promoted the location of the site, and the members of the Association for the Civic and Educational Advancement of the Northern Suburbs of Sydney (ACEANS) who galvanised support for the establishment of tertiary education facilities on the North Shore of Sydney in the 1960s.
SHR Criteria c)
[Aesthetic significance]
The Lindfield Learning Village is of state heritage significance as it is a unique and highly significant example of Neo -Brutalist architecture combined with the influence of the Sydney School architecture on a large scale and applied to a concrete building. The aesthetically distinctive buildings use a palette of materials and finishes including the, bright carpets and fixtures that contrast with textured off-form concrete and the warmth of internal brick. The campus is one of the most expressive examples of the 1960-70s Neo-Brutalist buildings, its brutalism being moderated by the way in which the campus was designed to respond to the topography and bushland setting

The campus is of state heritage significance as an outstanding example of design giving close attention to the role of the building as an educational facility, and the way in which spatial planning could facilitate interaction between students and teaching staff. An important component of this aspect is the concept of the building being an Italian Hill town built on a prominent wooded ridgeline with an internal pedestrian street connecting different area and educational/social activities.

Another outstanding innovation inherent in the building enhancing its state level architectural qualities is the consideration given to the integration of the buildings into the site with as little impact on existing topography/ landforms and native vegetation as possible.

MacKenzie's landscape design is a fine demonstration of his philosophy that existing contours, rocks and trees can be the main determinants of composition The juxtapositions between built elements and soft landscaping demonstrate careful attention to detail and is reflected in the great variety of outlooks achieved from all internal spaces. The internal courtyards, water feature and main roof garden are all fine examples of building and landscape design providing staff and students with a mix of inspirational and practical environments for contemplation and passive recreation.

The aesthetic significance of the site is reinforced by the fact that it remains largely intact, with only minor alterations to the initial design scheme having been undertaken. The site has received multiple awards and is regarded as having attained a high degree of creative and technical achievement.
SHR Criteria d)
[Social significance]
The building is of state heritage significance for the high regard in which it is held by the architectural and landscape design community as a successful example of a highly influential style. The receipt of several awards including the 1972 RAIA Merit Award and the 1978 Sulman Award reinforces significance of the site to the design and construction community. The site remains highly regarded for its functional qualities and as an example of good design.
SHR Criteria e)
[Research potential]
The Lindfield Learning Village is of state heritage significance as a highly intact and seminal example of a Neo-Brutalist building in Australia, combined with the influence of the Sydney School which is apparent in its natural environment and spatial planning to create a socially interactive environment. In its highly intact condition and supported by extensive documentary evidence of its development, the campus and its setting may contribute to a greater understanding of the design as it was conceived and carried out in the late 1960s.
SHR Criteria f)
[Rarity]
The Lindfield Learning Village is of state heritage significance for its rarity as an example of Neo-Brutalist public building designed to be closely integrated with the topography and natural bushland setting, It is a rare combination of the Neo-Brutalist fashion for public architecture with the natural landscape ethos closely associated with the contemporary Sydney School of architecture.

Its rarity values are enhanced at a state level as the adjoining bushland provide habitat for a number of protected rare and vulnerable indigenous plant species such as Boronia serrulate, Lomandra brevis and Pteris vittata.
SHR Criteria g)
[Representativeness]
The Lindfield Learning Village is of state heritage significance as an important representative example of New-Brutalist architecture combined with element of contemporaneous Sydney Architectural style . The landscape setting of the campus and the manner in which the buildings were constructed with minimal impact on the natural environment is representative of the development of Australian landscape architecture in the 1960s and 1970s. It is an important and influential representative example of both Neo Brutalism in NSW and the landscape ethos of the Sydney School of architecture. The landscape is representative of the body of work of Bruce MacKenzie.
Integrity/Intactness: The item is substantially intact, with only minor alterations to the building having occurred since the final stages of construction. The surrounding vegetation remains substantially intact in its natural form despite several bushfires since the period of construction.
Assessment criteria: Items are assessed against the PDF State Heritage Register (SHR) Criteria to determine the level of significance. Refer to the Listings below for the level of statutory protection.

Listings

Heritage ListingListing TitleListing NumberGazette DateGazette NumberGazette Page
Heritage Act - Under consideration for SHR/IHO listingSHR 25 Jul 18   

References, internet links & images

TypeAuthorYearTitleInternet Links
WrittenCorrey, Allan1977Land Values: Changing Attitudes Towards the Australian Environment
WrittenDavid Don Turner2003David Don Turner
WrittenGraham Brooks & Associates2004UTS campus Ku-ring-gai : heritage assessment and conservation strategy
WrittenJahn, Graham1997Sydney Architecture
WrittenKu-Ring-Gai Historical Society1996Focus on Ku-Ring-Gai - the story of Ku-Ring-Gai's growth and development
WrittenMackenzie, Bruce2003An Exploration in Landscape
WrittenMackenzie, Bruce1966The Landscape Environment - A wasted Potential
WrittenMetcalf, Andrew1997Architecture in Transition: The Sulman Awards 1932 - 1996
WrittenMusecape P/L2004Landscape component of heritage assessment for UTS Ku-ring-gai Campus, Liindfield
WrittenPatty, Anna2012'UTS campus likely to become school to alleviate overcrowding' View detail
WrittenTaylor, Jennifer Australian Architecture Since 1960 (2nd Ed. 1990)
WrittenTurney, Cliff & Taylor, Judy1996To Enlighten Them Our Task - A History of Teacher Education at Balmain & Ku-ring-gai Colleges, 1946 - 1990
WrittenUnknown1978Sampling of Awards 1978
WrittenUnknown1976Building Ideas
WrittenUnknown1973Constructional Review, Vol. 46, No. 3 August - September 1973
WrittenUnknown1971Constructional Review, Vol. 44, No. 4, November, 1971
WrittenUnknown1971'William Blamain Teachers College'
WrittenUnknown - RAIA1979'Ku-ring-gai College of Advanced Education' - Architecture in Australia
WrittenUnknown RAIA1971William Balmain Teachers College (Stage 1) - Architecture in Australia
WrittenUTS2012'Thinking of Studying at UTS?' advertisement, in 'The Parramatta Advertiser'

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Data source

The information for this entry comes from the following source:
Name: Heritage Office
Database number: 5055545
File number: H04/00152-003


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