Wilberforce Cemetery | NSW Environment & Heritage

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Wilberforce Cemetery

Item details

Name of item: Wilberforce Cemetery
Other name/s: St John's Church of England Cemetery
Type of item: Landscape
Group/Collection: Cemeteries and Burial Sites
Category: Cemetery/Graveyard/Burial Ground
Location: Lat: -33.5541292250 Long: 150.8425937790
Primary address: Clergy Road, Wilberforce, NSW 2756
Parish: Wilberforce
County: Cook
Local govt. area: Hawkesbury
Local Aboriginal Land Council: Deerubbin
Property description
Lot/Volume CodeLot/Volume NumberSection NumberPlan/Folio CodePlan/Folio Number
CROWN LAND 1262.3000  
LOT7016 DP1032360

Boundary:

Wilberforce Cemetery is located on the northern side of the township of Wilberforce bounded by Copeland Road and Old Sackville Road to the northwest, Duke Road to the southwest and Clergy Road to the southeast. To the northeast is residential subdivision. The cemetery is in two sections. The main section is the former St John's Church of England Cemetery to the southwest and is a trapezoid shaped block. A smaller section to the northeast running to the roadway was added in 1906. The site slopes from the northern corner to the southwest (corner of Duke Road and Clergy Road). The former Wesleyan cemetery section on east side of the road is not included because it has no relation to the Macquarie cemetery and it remains as bushland with no evidence of burials.
All addresses
Street AddressSuburb/townLGAParishCountyType
Clergy RoadWilberforceHawkesburyWilberforceCookPrimary Address

Owner/s

Organisation NameOwner CategoryDate Ownership Updated
Hawkesbury City CouncilLocal Government12 Mar 10

Statement of significance:

It is of State heritage significance because Wilberforce Cemetery is one of the five cemeteries established as part of the core functions of the five towns founded by Governor Lachlan Macquarie in 1810. Wilberforce Cemetery demonstrates Macquarie's policy of ending the burial of deceased persons on their landholdings by establishing consecrated burial grounds in each of the towns he established. The cemetery contains a significant proportion of burials of convicts from the First, Second and Third Fleets. Of the burials at Wilberforce from 1811 to 1825, 36% were interments of convicts who arrived before 1800. Between 1811 and 1825, there was a considerable number of burials in the cemetery who were early ex-convict arrivals. Many were later joined by their families and descendants in the cemetery. A high number of older grave markers also survive, many of them for ex-convicts who arrived in the earlier period. Of all Macquarie's cemeteries, Wilberforce has the most interments with the highest proportional representation of ex-convict settlers from the First to the Third Fleets. Wilberforce is the only town of those founded by Macquarie which still retains the original buildings and burial ground at its centre. The visual inter-relationship of these elements is still apparent, as is the commanding position of the group on an elevated site.

Many of the people interred in the cemetery founded families that continued to live in the area. Since Wilberforce was one of the original 'hearth' areas of the colony from where settlers fanned out to settle other districts, Wilberforce Cemetery has significance for settlers across a broad expanse of the state.

Many examples of altar style slab burial markers and a rare table slab monument remain within the cemetery. Wilberforce Cemetery is of State significance under this criterion.

In conjunction with the schoolhouse-cum-chapel the cemetery has a strong ability to demonstrate Governor Lachlan Macquarie's vision for these towns.
Date significance updated: 12 Mar 10
Note: The State Heritage Inventory provides information about heritage items listed by local and State government agencies. The State Heritage Inventory is continually being updated by local and State agencies as new information becomes available. Read the OEH copyright and disclaimer.

Description

Designer/Maker: Surveyor James Meehan
Construction years: 1811-
Physical description: The Wilberforce Cemetery formerly known as the St John’s Church of England Cemetery began as a large rectangular plot divided into four sections by a northeast-southwest path and a northwest-southeast path. The alignment of these paths remains clear, although the paths are now grassed over. The northwest-southeast path does not continue southeast beyond its junction with the northeast-southwest path. The northeast-southwest path also does not extend far southwest of the northwest-southeast path. The cemetery has some terracing along the edge of the northeast-southwest path to accommodate the slope across the site.

The graves are laid out in approximate rows running northwest-southeast so that the graves can face approximately east. The alignment of the rows has been modified by the c.1911 addition of a wedge shaped section of land on the northeast side of the area and by the practicalities of aligning graves with the contours of the slope. Apart from the newer area of graves at the southwestern end of the eastern sector, the rows are irregular. This is probably as much to do with gravediggers coping with the slope of the land as with the apparently haphazard allocation of gravesites in the nineteenth century.

The earliest burials are scattered around the cemetery although there is a definite preference to using the higher ground on the northwestern and northeastern sides. The addition of land c.1911 was followed by burials at the high land in that area. Even by the mid twentieth century, burials appear to be concentrated on the higher land on the northeastern and northwestern sides. New rows from the mid to late twentieth century are differentiated from the nineteenth and early twentieth century burials by the more ordered layout of the rows.

There is no formal planting within the former St John’s Church of England Cemetery. It has been left simply grassed with trees in the Clergy Road and Copeland Road reserves providing some separation between the cemetery and the surrounding town.

Fencing
An aluminium spear picket fence marks the boundary of the former St John’s Church of England Cemetery. Gates are located on the northeast and southeast sides, aligning with the main axial paths.

Monuments
Wilberforce Cemetery contains a range of monument styles from the early nineteenth century to the late twentieth century. The majority of early monuments are upright slabs or grave markers. Sandstone is the most common material for the grave markers followed by white marble. Most monuments from the inter-war period onwards are slab and desk style, often built of granite.

The cemetery is notable for the survival of a number of fine altar style slabs, although the condition of these vary. A rare table style slab monument for Emily, Eliza and Emily Louisa Robinson (died 1849, 1894 and 1928) also survives.

Columbaria
A pair of brick columbarium walls was built at the eastern entrance to the cemetery in the 1970s. They are simple cream brick walls with brick capping. The side of one wall has a plaque commemorating members of the First Fleet who lived in the area and were buried in the cemetery.
Physical condition and/or
Archaeological potential:
Many of the monuments are in reasonable condition considering their age and problems in more recent years with vandalism. This is a reflection of the care and respect they have received from the local community. Some monuments have weathered so that their original inscriptions are no longer clear or have been lost. A number of these have had plaques fixed with the words of the original inscription repeated. Others have been re-engraved or have had the lettering blacked to make it clearer.

The monuments in the worst condition are generally the table style slab monuments. Subsidence due to erosion on the steep site and/or inadequate footings for the original monument has contributed to this.

Since Wilberforce Cemetery is an old and largely intact cemetery, the graves provide significant potential archaeological information about early burials and burial practices.
Date condition updated:12 Mar 10
Modifications and dates: In 1906 the original cemetery of 1811 was extended from its eastern boundary to the unmade road by the addition of a wedge-shaped piece of land of 1 rood 20 perches (0.15 ha)

In 1896 an area of 1 acre was added across the road on the eastern side as a Wesleyan/General cemetery but since it was not used for burials it is not included in this listing.
Current use: Cemetery
Former use: Cemetery

History

Historical notes: The Darug (various spellings) occupied the area from Botany Bay to Port Jackson north-west to the Hawkesbury and into the Blue Mountains. The cultural life of the Darug was reflected in the art they left on rock faces. Before 1788, there were probably 5,000 to 8,000 Aboriginal people in the Sydney region. Of these, about 2,000 were probably inland Darug, with about 1,000 living between Parramatta and the Blue Mountains. They lived in bands of about 50 people, and each band hunted over its own territory. The Gommerigal-tongarra lived on both sides of South Creek. The Boorooboorongal lived on the Nepean from Castlereagh to Richmond. (Kohen, 1993, pp 6-8) Little information was collected about the Aborigines of the Hawkesbury before their removal by white settlement so details of their lifestyle have to be inferred from the practices of other south-eastern Aborigines. It is believed they lived in bark gunyahs. The men hunted game and the women foraged for food.

On 15 December 1810, Macquarie issued an Order laying out five towns along the Hawkesbury River. One at Green Hills would be called Windsor. Another at Richmond Hill District would be called Richmond. A third in the Nelson district would be named Pitt Town. The village in the Phillip district would be called Wilberforce and the fifth in the Evan district was Castlereagh. Nearby settlers would be allotted sites on these towns to build. (HRNSW, 7, pp 469-70)

Wilberforce developed as an area of small farms with few large landholders. (Hubert, Conservation Plan, 17) Situated on the northern bank of the Hawkesbury River with more difficult access, it did not attract the attention of large landholders. A community with a sizeable representation of freed convicts emerged and was maintained over the years as their families grew.

An early burial ground was located at Portland Head, later known as Ebenezer and may have been in operation as early as 1810. (Hubert, Conservation Plan, 18) Otherwise, deceased people were often buried on their farms.

On 6 December 1810, Macquarie selected the site for Wilberforce. These town sites would provide refuges from floods for those farming nearby lands. Surveyor James Meehan was instructed to lay out a town at Wilberforce on 26 December 1810. (Hubert, Conservation Plan, 18) Macquarie also selected land for a church on high ground near this site. Surveyor James Meehan laid out 2 acres for a burial ground at Wilberforce on 5 January 1811. (Field Book 67, p 45, SRNSW SZ 888) On 2 February 1811, Macquarie instructed Reverend Samuel Marsden to consecrate the burial grounds at towns on the Hawkesbury including Wilberforce. Surveyor Evans would show him the areas set aside. (Col Sec, Letters Sent, 1810, SRNSW 4/3490D, p 97) Macquarie issued an order on 11 May 1811 that deceased persons must be buried in consecrated burial grounds and no longer on their farms and that the local setttlers were to enclose these burial grounds as soon as possible (Sydney Gazette, 18 May 1811, p 1) Reverend Cartwright was paid £10 before 1 July 1812 for ‘inclosing the Burial Ground at the Township of Wilberforce’. (Sydney Gazette, 24 Oct 1812, p 2)

The earliest burials in Wilberforce Cemetery were of three drowned men, James Hamilton (Hambleton), Joseph Ware and John Tunstal on 13 December 1811, but their gravesites are unknown. (Hubert, Conservation Plan, 21) Margaret Chaseling was buried in the cemetery in October 1815 and is the oldest burial for which the site is known. (Hubert, Conservation Plan, 22) Soon afterwards, Anthony Richardson, a Second Fleet arrival, was buried on 4 February 1816. His burial marker is the oldest to survive. (Hubert, Conservation Plan, 24) A schoolhouse-cum-chapel was also erected on the church site nearby so that the Macquarie ideal of the church, school and burial ground on the highest point demonstrating order and religion was realised in the town of Wilberforce.

In July 1822, Macquarie reported that at Wilberforce he had erected, ‘A Burial Ground of 4 Acres Contiguous to the Temporary chapel, enclosed with a Strong Fence.’ It is notable that the measurement does not agree with the area as laid out by surveyor Meehan, which was 2 acres (0.8 ha). The area of the oldest section is close to 2 acres. Macquarie appears to have simply made an error when listing his achievements in the colony.

Until 1826, burials at Wilberforce were recorded in the register for St Matthew’s at Windsor. A separate burial register for Wilberforce Cemetery commenced that year. (Hubert, Conservation Plan, 29)

Between 1811 and 1825, there were a considerable number of burials in the cemetery who were early ex-convict arrivals. Many were later joined in the cemetery by their families and descendants. The existing spatial configuration of the Cemetery is also striking. A high number of older grave markers also survive, many of them for ex-convicts who arrived in the earlier period. Of all Macquarie's cemeteries, Wilberforce has the most interments with the highest proportional representation of ex-convict settlers from the First to the Third Fleets. Windsor has more convict burials but they arrived later. Richmond cemetery is dominated by free arrivals. The original Pitt Town cemetery does not exist any more. Castlereagh cemetery was largely unused. Liverpool cemetery has been destroyed. Of the burials at Wilberforce from 1811 to 1825, 36% were interments of convicts who arrived before 1800. (Hubert, Conservation Plan, 26-9) The orientation of the graves is such that they face from north-east to south-west, so that the north-eastern boundary is the ‘front’ of the cemetery. (Hubert, Conservation Plan, 41)

Though the cemetery was placed in the control of the Church of England, there are burials of people from other denominations as well such as Roman Catholics and Methodists. (Hubert, Conservation Plan, 42)

The burial ground was officially appropriated as a Church of England Cemetery in 1833. (Hubert, Conservation Plan, 55) From the earliest days, a road to the north and Kurrajong passed close to the eastern side of the cemetery. It was a rough track not officially gazetted but its existence was shown on the earliest plans of the town. (SR Map 5960; W Baker, Map of the County of Cook, W Baker, Sydney, 1843-6)

On 22 August 1894, Surveyor C R Scrivener completed a survey of two additions to the cemetery for a General Cemetery, with 1 rood 20 perches adjoining the Church of England Cemetery and another of 1 acre across the roadway. (Ms.1262.3000, Crown Plan) On 4 July 1896, an area of 1 acre was dedicated as a General Cemetery on the opposite side of the unnamed road. (NSWGG, 4 July 1896, p 4572) It never appears to have been used for interments and is not included as part of this listing.

The area measuring 1 rood 20 perches immediately adjacent to the older cemetery between the 1811 cemetery and the unnamed road was dedicated as a General Cemetery on 22 August 1906. It was later approved as an extension to the Church of England Cemetery. (Ms.1262.3000, Crown Plan) It was used for burials from 1911 onwards, mostly from the same families who were interred in the older part of the cemetery. There were five burials there in 1911. (Hubert, Conservation Plan, 2, 38) It became an integral part of the cemetery and is included as part of this listing.

Monuments have been made by a variety of masons including a noted local mason, George Robertson of Windsor.

The trustees handed over control of Wilberforce cemetery to Colo Shire Council on 27 February 1968. (C McHardy, Sacred to the Memory, 4) It was closed for new burials in November 1986, though pre-existing rights to burial mean that there are occasionally additional interments. (Hubert, Conservation Plan, 48) It is now under the control of Hawkesbury Shire Council.

In 2003, Cathy McHardy collated the total number of interments as 1,317, the number of monuments as 460 and the number of marked interments as 842. (C McHardy, Sacred to the Memory, 6) She has identified three burials from the First Fleet; ten from the Second Fleet and four from the Third Fleet. (C McHardy, Sacred to the Memory, 10)

Historic themes

Australian theme (abbrev)New South Wales themeLocal theme
2. Peopling-Peopling the continent Convict-Activities relating to incarceration, transport, reform, accommodation and working during the convict period in NSW (1788-1850) - does not include activities associated with the conviction of persons in NSW that are unrelated to the imperial 'convict system': use the theme of Law & Order for such activities Burying convicts-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Land tenure-Activities and processes for identifying forms of ownership and occupancy of land and water, both Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Demonstrating Governor Macquarie's town and landscape planning-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Land tenure-Activities and processes for identifying forms of ownership and occupancy of land and water, both Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Alienating Crown Lands for religious purposes-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Towns, suburbs and villages-Activities associated with creating, planning and managing urban functions, landscapes and lifestyles in towns, suburbs and villages Indicators of early town planning and the disposition of people within the emerging settlement-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Towns, suburbs and villages-Activities associated with creating, planning and managing urban functions, landscapes and lifestyles in towns, suburbs and villages Planning relationships between key structures and town plans-
7. Governing-Governing Government and Administration-Activities associated with the governance of local areas, regions, the State and the nation, and the administration of public programs - includes both principled and corrupt activities. Developing roles for government - providing rail transport-
7. Governing-Governing Government and Administration-Activities associated with the governance of local areas, regions, the State and the nation, and the administration of public programs - includes both principled and corrupt activities. Developing roles for government - providing burial sites-
7. Governing-Governing Government and Administration-Activities associated with the governance of local areas, regions, the State and the nation, and the administration of public programs - includes both principled and corrupt activities. Direct vice-regal governance (pre 1856)-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Religion-Activities associated with particular systems of faith and worship Practising Anglicanism-
9. Phases of Life-Marking the phases of life Birth and Death-Activities associated with the initial stages of human life and the bearing of children, and with the final stages of human life and disposal of the dead. Burying the dead in customary ways-
9. Phases of Life-Marking the phases of life Birth and Death-Activities associated with the initial stages of human life and the bearing of children, and with the final stages of human life and disposal of the dead. Remembering the deceased-
9. Phases of Life-Marking the phases of life Persons-Activities of, and associations with, identifiable individuals, families and communal groups Associations with Aaron Muron Bolot, architect-
9. Phases of Life-Marking the phases of life Persons-Activities of, and associations with, identifiable individuals, families and communal groups Associations with James Meehan, Deputy Surveyor General-

Assessment of significance

SHR Criteria a)
[Historical significance]
It meets this criterion of State significance because Wilberforce Cemetery is one of the five cemeteries established as part of the core functions of the five Hawkesbury towns founded by Governor Lachlan Macquarie in 1810 as well as Liverpool on Georges River.
Wilberforce Cemetery demonstrates Macquarie's policy of ending the burial of deceased persons on their landholdings by establishing consecrated burial grounds in each of the towns he established.
The cemetery contains a significant proportion of burials of convicts from the First, Second and Third Fleets. Between 1811 and 1825, there was a considerable number of burials in the cemetery who were early ex-convict arrivals. Many were later joined by their families and descendants in the cemetery. A high number of older grave markers also survive, many of them for ex-convicts who arrived in the earlier period. Of all Macquarie's cemeteries, Wilberforce has the most interments with the highest proportional representation of ex-convict settlers from the First to the Third Fleets. Windsor has more convict burials but they arrived later. Richmond cemetery is dominated by free arrivals. The original Pitt Town cemetery does not exist any more. Castlereagh cemetery was largely unused. Liverpool cemetery has been destroyed. Of the burials at Wilberforce from 1811 to 1825, 36% were interments of convicts who arrived before 1800. A total of over 70 people who arrived before 1800 are buried there and a number of original gravestones or markers remain from the early period. The earliest one dates from February 1816.
Wilberforce Cemetery has exceptional significance for the State of NSW and for Australia.
SHR Criteria b)
[Associative significance]
It meets this criterion of State significance because it was one of the five cemeteries founded by Governor Lachlan Macquarie as one of the core functions of the five Hawkesbury towns he established in 1810 and has a strong association with him.
Wilberforce Cemetery demonstrates Macquarie's policy of ending the burial of deceased persons on their landholdings by establishing consecrated burial grounds in each of the towns he established. It contains a considerable number of interments of convicts who arrived before 1800. Many of them founded families who continued to live in the area. Additionally, since Wilberforce was one of the original 'hearth' areas of the colony from where settlers fanned out to settle other districts, the Wilberforce Cemetery has significance for settlers across a broad expanse of the state. Wilberforce Cemetery has high significance for the state of NSW and for the nation under this criterion.
SHR Criteria c)
[Aesthetic significance]
It meets this criterion of State significance because Wilberforce Cemetery was an integral part of Governor Macquarie's scheme of creating towns with distinctive core functions aimed at improving the morality and social practices of the convict and ex-convict population. The towns he established had a church and school coupled with a burial ground at their core often in a commanding position. Wilberforce is the only town of those established by Macquarie which still retains the original buildings and burial ground at its centre. The visual inter-relationship of these elements is still apparent, as is the commanding position of the group on an elevated site.

Positioned on a site personally selected by Macquarie during his visit, the cemetery is a significant landmark in Wilberforce particularly when viewed from the west and it punctuates the town with Macquarie's vision.

Wilberforce Cemetery contains a remarkable collection of monuments from the early nineteenth century to the present day. Many styles of monuments survive including a fine collection of altar style slab monuments and a rare example of a table style slab monument. The work of one of the finest local masons, George Robertson of Windsor, is well represented in the cemetery. Wilberforce Cemetery is of State significance under this criterion.
SHR Criteria d)
[Social significance]
t meets this criterion of State significance because Wilberforce Cemetery has been a focus for the Wilberforce community since the 1810s. The original ex-convicts who were interred in the cemetery were joined by later generations of their families up to the present day. Later settlers have been interred there as well, so that the cemetery reflects the community. Additionally, since Wilberforce was one of the original 'hearth' areas of the colony from where settlers fanned out to settle other districts, the Wilberforce Cemetery has significance for settlers across a broad expanse of the state. Hence, the Cemetery has become a place of pilgrimage for descendants from across the state and beyond, as well as being a focus for family reunions. Wilberforce Cemetery has high significance for the state of NSW under this criterion.
SHR Criteria e)
[Research potential]
It meets this criterion of State significance because Wilberforce Cemetery has been a focus for the Wilberforce community since the 1810s. The original ex-convicts who were interred in the cemetery were joined by later generations of their families up to the present day. Later settlers have been interred there as well, so that the cemetery reflects the community. Additionally, as one of the original 'hearth' areas of the colony from where settlers fanned out to settle other districts, the Wilberforce Cemetery has significance for settlers across a broad expanse of the state. The monuments in Wilberforce Cemetery provide data for the study of the local community and for family history. The graves themselves provide potential archaeological information about early burials and burial practices, which would become apparent in any geophysical survey.
SHR Criteria f)
[Rarity]
It meets this criterion of State significance because Wilberforce Cemetery is the only surviving example of the towns that Lachlan Macquarie created where the schoolhouse-cum-chapel and cemetery remain. They have a strong ability to demonstrate Governor Lachlan Macquarie's vision for these towns.

Many examples of altar style slab burial markers and a rare table slab monument remain within the cemetery. Wilberforce Cemetery is of State significance under this criterion.
SHR Criteria g)
[Representativeness]
It meets this criterion of State significance because as the sole surviving example of Lachlan Macquarie's town centres which combined a schoolhouse-cum-chapel and cemetery it demonstrates the philosophy implicit in his town planning layouts. Wilberforce Cemetery has a strong ability to demonstrate Governor Lachlan Macquarie's vision for these towns.
Integrity/Intactness: Wilberforce Cemetery has a high degree of intactness. Numerous original early grave markers survive, often in reasonable condition. Though the cemetery had an additional area included on its eastern boundary, the layout of the oldest part of the cemetery is still apparent.
Assessment criteria: Items are assessed against the PDF State Heritage Register (SHR) Criteria to determine the level of significance. Refer to the Listings below for the level of statutory protection.

Procedures /Exemptions

Section of actDescriptionTitleCommentsAction date
57(2)Exemption to allow workStandard Exemptions SCHEDULE OF STANDARD EXEMPTIONS
HERITAGE ACT 1977
Notice of Order Under Section 57 (2) of the Heritage Act 1977

I, the Minister for Planning, pursuant to subsection 57(2) of the Heritage Act 1977, on the recommendation of the Heritage Council of New South Wales, do by this Order:

1. revoke the Schedule of Exemptions to subsection 57(1) of the Heritage Act made under subsection 57(2) and published in the Government Gazette on 22 February 2008; and

2. grant standard exemptions from subsection 57(1) of the Heritage Act 1977, described in the Schedule attached.

FRANK SARTOR
Minister for Planning
Sydney, 11 July 2008

To view the schedule click on the Standard Exemptions for Works Requiring Heritage Council Approval link below.
Sep 5 2008
57(2)Exemption to allow workHeritage Act - Site Specific Exemptions The following activities described in 1-3 below are exempted from Heritage Council approval under Section 57(1) of the Heritage Act 1977:

1. Implementation of the current Conservation Management Plan for Wilberforce Cemetery adopted by Council in accordance with the Local Government Act 1993, where such works clearly fall within the Standard Exemptions for cemeteries;
2. Horticultural maintenance , including lawn mowing, cultivation, pruning and remedial tree surgery;
3. Maintenance and repair of existing roads, paths, fences, gates, drains, water reticulation facilities and other utilities.
Aug 20 2010

PDF Standard exemptions for works requiring Heritage Council approval

Listings

Heritage ListingListing TitleListing NumberGazette DateGazette NumberGazette Page
Heritage Act - State Heritage Register 0183720 Aug 10 1063987
Heritage Act - Icons Project Nomination for SHR listing  21 Jul 04   

References, internet links & images

TypeAuthorYearTitleInternet Links
Written  Historical Records of NSW
WrittenBarkley, J & Nichols, M1994Hawkesbury 1794 - 1994
WrittenHubert Architects & Ian Jack Heritage Consulting Pty Ltd2008Wilberforce Cemetery Conservation Management Plan, Final Report, 2 vols View detail
WrittenKohen, J1993The Darug and their neighbours
WrittenMchardy, C2003Sacred to the Memory: a study of Wilberforce Cemetery

Note: internet links may be to web pages, documents or images.

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Data source

The information for this entry comes from the following source:
Name: Heritage Office
Database number: 5055789
File number: EF10/06033; 09/216; H04/91/10


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