The Maltings (under consideration) | NSW Environment, Energy and Science

Culture and heritage

Heritage

The Maltings (under consideration)

Item details

Name of item: The Maltings (under consideration)
Type of item: Built
Group/Collection: Manufacturing and Processing
Category: Brewery
Property description
Lot/Volume CodeLot/Volume NumberSection NumberPlan/Folio CodePlan/Folio Number
 21 DP1029384

Statement of significance:

The Maltings at Mittagong is of state heritage significance as the complex of buildings are a large, spectacular and unique example of late 1900's industrial architecture which has considerable historic and cultural value, and is the only remaining example of a traditional maltings manufacturing facility in Australia.

The Maltings is state significant as an illustration of the pattern of industrial development in NSW and is a major turn-of-the-century industrial complex connected with the growth and consolidation of the NSW brewing trade, spurred by the Beer and Excise Act (1901) which regulated the making and selling of beer and made homebrewing illegal. The main malthouse buildings are a major specimen of masonry industrial architecture of the federation era.

The first brewery was opened in Parramatta in 1804. By 1880 there were nine Sydney breweries and 36 located in country centers with barley being imported until around 1900. The Maltings complex is tangible evidence of early entrepreneurial risk-taking predicated on the growth of the barley growing industry in NSW. It comprises the oldest purpose-built commercial malthouses in the state.

The Maltings is also important in demonstrating a high degree of creative and technical achievement at the State level through its technical, architectural and aesthetic attributes. The techniques and surviving equipment at the site indicate the influence and dependence of the malting process on British traditions.
Date significance updated: 06 Aug 18
Note: The State Heritage Inventory provides information about heritage items listed by local and State government agencies. The State Heritage Inventory is continually being updated by local and State agencies as new information becomes available. Read the OEH copyright and disclaimer.

Description

Builder/Maker: Stuart Bros
Construction years: 1898-1916
Physical description: Physical description
Malthouse 1 and 2 were built between 1898 and 1916. These are large, elegant masonry building complex located on the western side of Nattai Creek and fronting the main railway line. Malthouse 1 is at the southern end and the oldest structure, evidence of vandal damage and fire damage (1969) remains. Malthouse 2, built between 1905-07 was rebuilt in the early 1950s following a fire. Malthouse 3 is located on the eastern side of the creek and built mid-20th century, there is also evidence of fire damage in this structure.
Ancillary structures include large barley stores (timber-framed galvanised iron) and a company cottage on the eastern side of the creek near the northern boundary of the property (also extensively fire damaged).
Nattai Creek is crossed at two points, a light rail bridge and a pedestrian/vehicular bridge.
Despite fire and vandal damage the major buildings on the site show evidence of basically good structural condition. The owner has done sympathetic repairs to some areas.
Physical condition and/or
Archaeological potential:
Physical condition
Interior of the buildings has been damaged by vandals and multiple fires in the past. The prime external fabric structure remains largely intact however there is considerable roof damage to all buildings, the roof of the Malsters Residence has completely collapsed. Some processing equipment (screw conveyers, weighing scales, bucket elevator tracks) remain in or adjacent to buildings. A tree is growing on the roof of malthouse 3 and poses a threat to the structure of the upper southern level.
Although large, the site and buildings are largely obscured by mature conifers that bound much of the perimeter of the site, minimising its exposure to chance sighting by vehicular or rail commuters, visitors or any new residents that are unfamiliar of it existence. The site has been and remains to be a popular place for vandals.
Site Access
Access to the site has historically been by a bridge over the railway, and by railway. The railway siding and turntable remains extant on the site. Vehicular access is by a single narrow-access road to the northeast. The northwestern boundary aligns with the railway and road and vehicular access now is difficult. Workers parked to the north of this road and walked across the rail bridge.
Date condition updated:10 Nov 17
Current use: unused
Former use: Aboriginal land, farm, brewery

History

Historical notes: Indigenous history of the area will be added once information is received.
The Maltings was developed on part of the Oaklands Estate, once known locally as Southey's. Henry Southey lived at Oaklands House, formerly the Fitzroy Inn (c1845) which is still standing and to the north of the subject site. By the late 19th century, a brickworks was present to the south of the study area, and the NSW Fresh Food and Ice Company factory was also located on the estate.
1887 - Oaklands Estate was acquired by the NSW Mont de Piete Deposit and Investment Company Limited
1880 - land bought by Messrs Augustine Betts and Nicholas Phillips
1898 - land bought by the Malting Company of NSW.

The Maltings Company of NSW (Ltd) was formed in September 1898. Having selected the site at Mittagong for its suitable climate, proximity to the largest market, availability of rail transport facilities and a good water supply in the Nattai River, a single unit malthouse was erected by the Stuart Bros. Malthouse 1 had one barley floor, one set of grading and cleaning machinery, two steeps, two germinating floors and two kilns. A new railway siding was also completed at the same time. The following five years showed a slow economic performance and the Sydney brewing company Tooth and Co took over The Maltings in 1905 and immediately set about improving and expanding the operation.

Various additions were made at this time and the No.2 Malthouse was completed in 1907. When this was in production, the maltings were reported to be one of the largest in the southern hemisphere. The maltster's cottage was also built by Moodie Bros in 1907.The third malthouse was built and opened in 1916. The expansion of the maltings was concurrent with the expansion of Tooth's during this period - when they were buying and closing many of the smaller country breweries and considerably expanding their own market in NSW. These maltings supplied the malt used in Tooth & Co. breweries in Sydney, and was an important part of their operation.

The early 1940's were the maltings most active period, with output of malt being approximately 200,000 bushels annually. This output was severely restricted following a large fire in August 1942, which completely gutted No.2 Malthouse and damaged No.1. The No.1 Malthouse was returned to service early in 1943 by constructing a temporary shell of timber and fibro inside the original brick walls, and a more complete repair was made during the ensuing years. The No.2 Malthouse was completely rebuilt during the early 1950's and at the time of this rebuilding consideration was given to replacing the floor malting system with the more modern Saladin box system. There were two processing types the more modern 'Saladin' method, essentially a mechanical pneumatic process using germinating vessels, other method floor malting, less precise and labour intensive, which The Maltings retained. Malthouse No.2 recommenced active operation in 1953. Operation continued normally until another fire gutted the No.3 Malthouse in 1969.

Tooths continued to operate at the site until 1980, when the works were closed and the site sold to a group of local business people, who intended to re-use the buildings as a commercial and Arts Crafts and Museum Complex. This proposal lapsed and a project to develop the site as a hotel was proposed in 1989 but this also never proceeded. The building has since been subject to degradation by weather and damage by vandals.

The Malting Process
Malt is one of the principal constituents of beer. The conversion of starch contained in the barley to sugar is an ancient and simple but deceptive process which remained largely unaltered, with malt houses using the floor malting process until the middle of the 20th century. After the barley is soaked it is laid on the germinating, or malting floor. It is then raked and turned to control the heat (ideally between 13-16 degrees C). The grain was then kiln-dried, cleaned and bagged for transport.

Developer Barry Anstey bought the 6.5 hectare site for $590,000 in 2009 (Shield, 2018, 1).

Historic themes

Australian theme (abbrev)New South Wales themeLocal theme
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Environment - cultural landscape-Activities associated with the interactions between humans, human societies and the shaping of their physical surroundings Significant Places How are significant places marked in the landscape by, or for, different groups-Monuments and Sites
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Environment - cultural landscape-Activities associated with the interactions between humans, human societies and the shaping of their physical surroundings Developing local, regional and national economies-National Theme 3
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Industry-Activities associated with the manufacture, production and distribution of goods Brewing and distilling alcoholic beverages-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Industry-Activities associated with the manufacture, production and distribution of goods Manufacturing beverages-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Towns, suburbs and villages-Activities associated with creating, planning and managing urban functions, landscapes and lifestyles in towns, suburbs and villages Subdivision of rural estates-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Towns, suburbs and villages-Activities associated with creating, planning and managing urban functions, landscapes and lifestyles in towns, suburbs and villages 19th Century Infrastructure-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Creative endeavour-Activities associated with the production and performance of literary, artistic, architectural and other imaginative, interpretive or inventive works; and/or associated with the production and expression of cultural phenomena; and/or environments that have inspired such creative activities. Applying architectural design to industrial structures-
9. Phases of Life-Marking the phases of life Persons-Activities of, and associations with, identifiable individuals, families and communal groups Associations with Henry Southey, scholar and private school founder-
9. Phases of Life-Marking the phases of life Persons-Activities of, and associations with, identifiable individuals, families and communal groups Associations with Tooth and Company, brewers-

Assessment of significance

SHR Criteria a)
[Historical significance]
The Maltings meets this criterion of state significance because the buildings are significant in illustrating the pattern of development in the industrial development in NSW.

The Maltings complex is a major turn--of-the-century industrial complex connected with the growth and centralisation of the NSW brewing trade. The complex is tangible evidence of early entrepreneurial risk-taking predicted on the growth of the barley growing industry in NSW. It comprises the oldest purpose-built commercial malthouses in the state.

The Maltings is also important in demonstrating a high degree of creative and technical achievement through its technical, architecutral and aestheitc attributes. The techniques and surviving equipment at the site indicate the influence and dependence of the malting process on British traditions. It is a large scale traditional complex, said even before the first World War to be the largest in Australia.

The Maltings has a strong association with Tooth & Co, the major brewing company in NSW for most of the 20th century.

Even though more modern methods came into use, the traditional processes endured at Mittagong, reflecting the conservatism of the early Australian brewing industry that had its roots in England where traditional and closely guarded unique methods produced the finest beers.
SHR Criteria b)
[Associative significance]
The Maltings is of state significance through its association with William Henry Jones who was pivotal to the industry in NSW. Jones operated the Maltings as head Maltster from 1905 to 1928 when Tooths and Co began operating the Maltings. Many variables, including air, water and temperature potentially affected the quality of the malt and, devoid of modern technology and quality controls introduced at newer sites, the process relied heavily upon the highly specialised and traditional unique skills of the head Maltster. The Maltings and therefore the supply of quality malt to NSW and beyond was dependent on the skills of William Jones. The Jones family had a combined service to Tooth and Co of over 150 years.

His sons Harold and Arthur Jones succeeded him as Maltsters both at the Mittagong Maltings and at Kent Brewery in Sydney.
SHR Criteria c)
[Aesthetic significance]
The Maltings meets this criterion for State significance as it demonstrates a high degree of creative and technical achievement through its technical, architectural and aesthetic attributes.

The main malthouse buildings are a major example of industrial masonry architecture of the Federation era. They represent an elegant but robust example of the way in which architectural form follows industrial function. The Maltster's cottage was an elegant Federation era residence, distinguished by its surrounding verandah and river setting. This structure was extensively damaged by fire, however, the walls and footprint of this building remains intact.

The gardens and trees of The Maltings site are attractive landscaped features, and tacitly mirror the imported aspects of The Maltings' landscape history. The site is an excellent example of an intact rural industrial complex, in which the park-like setting can be seen to complement and enhance the industrial architecture.
SHR Criteria f)
[Rarity]
The Maltings meet this criterion of State significance because it is the last known Maltings facility in Australia that shows the germinating floor process for malt production. It is also a rare example of the 19th century traditional English malting industry.
The site also meets this criterion of State significance because it is one of very few industrial architectural examples remaining in NSW of this type and size. The only comparable example in the state of NSW is the Small Arms factory in Lithgow NSW.
SHR Criteria g)
[Representativeness]
The Maltings meets this criterion of state significance as one of very few industrial architectural examples remaining in NSW of this type and size.
There are two malt processing types; the more modern 'Saladin' method, which is essentially a mechanical pneumatic process using germinating vessels, other method is the germinating floor malting, less precise and labour intensive - the Maltings used this method and provides a good representative example of this process in NSW.
Assessment criteria: Items are assessed against the PDF State Heritage Register (SHR) Criteria to determine the level of significance. Refer to the Listings below for the level of statutory protection.

Recommended management:

Recommendations

Management CategoryDescriptionDate Updated
Statutory InstrumentNominate for State Heritage Register (SHR) 
Recommended ManagementProduce a Conservation Management Plan (CMP) 
Recommended ManagementPrepare a maintenance schedule or guidelines 
Recommended ManagementCarry out interpretation, promotion and/or education 

Listings

Heritage ListingListing TitleListing NumberGazette DateGazette NumberGazette Page
Heritage Act - Under consideration for SHR/IHO listing  07 Sep 17   
Heritage Act - Icons Project Nomination for SHR listing  06 Sep 04   
Heritage Act - s.130 Order - RevokedHeritage Act 03 Oct 86  156/
Regional Environmental PlanIllawarra REP No.1 11 Apr 86   
Local Environmental PlanWingecarribee LEP 2010i103   
National Trust of Australia register Tooth's Mittagong Maltings415328 Jun 82   

References, internet links & images

TypeAuthorYearTitleInternet Links
WrittenBritton, Geoffrey; with Design 5 Architects; Rodd, Tony & Allen, Jack & Cottier2000Cultural Landscape Assessment for The Maltings, Mittagong
WrittenDC Research, Economic and Social Geographers1989The Maltings, Mittagong, Historical Conservation
WrittenPhilip Morton2013A History of the Mittagong Maltings (3 part series)
WrittenRay Osborne2004The industrial and engineering heritage of the floor malting industry in Queensland: The former William Jones & Son (Maltsters), 1907 Malt House, Toowoomba
WrittenRobert Freestone1991The Mittagong Maltings: History, Cultural Significance and Conservation
WrittenShield, Charli2018Heritage bid

Note: internet links may be to web pages, documents or images.

rez
(Click on thumbnail for full size image and image details)

Data source

The information for this entry comes from the following source:
Name: Heritage Office
Database number: 5056030
File number: H04/00091/6; EF17/11043


Every effort has been made to ensure that information contained in the State Heritage Inventory is correct. If you find any errors or omissions please send your comments to the Database Manager.

All information and pictures on this page are the copyright of the Heritage Division or respective copyright owners.