Chinese Graves and Burner at Nyngan Cemetery | NSW Environment & Heritage

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Heritage

Chinese Graves and Burner at Nyngan Cemetery

Item details

Name of item: Chinese Graves and Burner at Nyngan Cemetery
Type of item: Complex / Group
Group/Collection: Cemeteries and Burial Sites
Category: Isolated Grave/Burial Site
Location: Lat: -31.5739822530 Long: 147.2057607790
Primary address: Cemetery Road, Nyngan, NSW 2825
Parish: Nyngan
County: Oxley
Local govt. area: Bogan
Local Aboriginal Land Council: Nyngan
Property description
Lot/Volume CodeLot/Volume NumberSection NumberPlan/Folio CodePlan/Folio Number
PART LOT7041 DP1020882

Boundary:

Part Lot 7041 DP 1020882 and bounded by Cemetery Road (west).
All addresses
Street AddressSuburb/townLGAParishCountyType
Cemetery RoadNynganBoganNynganOxleyPrimary Address

Owner/s

Organisation NameOwner CategoryDate Ownership Updated
Land and Property Management Authority (LPMA)State Government 

Statement of significance:

The Chinese section of the Nyngan General Cemetery is of State significance as one of the largest collections of Chinese grave stones in association with a burner in the State. Comprised of nine grave stones (formerly ten), the Nyngan graves are located near a brick burner used to burn food and money offerings to the souls of the dead. The burner itself is of State significance. While not being a lavish example, it is of an unusual design, also found in California and is indicative of adaptations made by Chinese to life outside their country. The burner and markers are evidence of Chinese funerary practices as carried out in New South Wales and provide research potential regarding the number of burials exhumed and returned to China.
Date significance updated: 17 Jul 07
Note: The State Heritage Inventory provides information about heritage items listed by local and State government agencies. The State Heritage Inventory is continually being updated by local and State agencies as new information becomes available. Read the OEH copyright and disclaimer.

Description

Designer/Maker: Unknown
Builder/Maker: Unknown
Construction years: 1913-1924
Physical description: Nyngan Cemetery is located at the eastern end of the town of Nyngan, on Cemetery Road, off Pangee Street. The Chinese section is on the far western side, away from the other sections (Methodist, Church of England, Catholic, Presbyterian, two lawned areas) of the cemetery and beside Cemetery Road. Bogan Shire Council relocated the Chinese grave markers in the early 1990s, removing them from their original context. The graves have been relocated in an orderly manner near the burner.

The burner is of brick construction with a square footprint of 2100mm, it stands 2150mm high and has a stepped roof of nine brick courses. On the north side an opening has been created by leaving out six horizontally arranged bricks. The opening allows access to a metal grated area where offerings can be placed for incineration. The grate is raised off the ground to allow air to flow underneath. Vents in the remaining three sides have been formed by leaving out two half and one whole brick. The burner tapers to a single brick size hole (flue) at the top.

In the twenty-first century the existing Chinese grave markers are lined up in a single row facing north. Each stone is roughly 700 mm high. They are evenly spaced and extend approximately 14 metres from the burner, the opening of which also faces north. Behind the row of markers are three indentations in the ground, indicating where three additional grave markers may have once stood. Bogan Shire Council recorded the names and dates on each gravestone in 1994; 10 names were recorded. Since then one marker has been lost.

Of the stones, six are sandstone or limestone, with the balance made up of two marble and one red granite. All the stones are roughly rectangular, however, one has a flat round top, five are evenly rounded, and the remaining three have bevelled or tapered shaped tops. The markers are inscribed in Mandarin and English - the names being in Mandarin and the poetry or tributes (where included) in English. The translated inscriptions are as follows, it should be noted that one of the stones has gone missing since the survey was undertaken in 1994, it is unclear which one:

"Kime Moon
In Loving Memory
We never knew what pain he bore.
We never saw him die.
We only know he passed away and never said goodbye."

Grave of Mr. Tan Qi Wen
10/10/1915
"aged 61 years from Tiau he Boa Ping Village."

"Man Foon"
(no English) Grave of Mr. Wu Wau Kuan
14/01/1915 78 years

"Yee You Chung
Grave of Mr Yu Yao Wen
Yu village
second month early spring 1914 Lunar date."

"No Wood
Grave of Mr Wu Ya Huo
Born in Yao County.
Lived in Mei Village, Liang City.
23/06/1924 aged 68 years."

"Wong Han Soy"
(none -illegible -) 21/07/1916

(Possibly "Lee How") (-illegible-)
22/07/1916? Aged 84 years
"He was a loving godfather and we loved him ardently.
Through his life above all things in the world, He desired love."

"Young Yee"
(none)
"Grave of Mr Young
Xiang Country, Long City
Shen Ming Ting (village)
12/11/1918 aged 33 years"

"Sung Jim"
(none) (not translated)
11/05/1918 78 years

"Jung Sing"
(none)

"Grave of Mr Zhang
Gui County
03/01/1913 aged 60 years".
(Barbara Hickson)
Physical condition and/or
Archaeological potential:
Since Bogan Shire Council recorded the details of the Chinese grave markers in 1994 there has been some deterioration. One stone is now broken in half, two are cracked across the middle and two have fallen. One is missing altogether. The three stones that appear to be in the best condition also happen to be the three tapered stones on the western end. They are mounted on what appear to be original shaped stone bases. Some of the stones appear to have repairs carried out.

The site has high archaeological potential, particularly as it is unknown if the bodies associated with the Chinese grave markers were exhumed, as was normal practice.

Glass and ceramic fragments are frequently found on or near non-grassy ground surfaces at relatively undisturbed Chinese cemetery sites as evidence of ritual offering practices (Abraham and Wegars 2003:60, 66). Archaeological excavation could reveal similar artefactual evidence.
Date condition updated:31 Mar 04
Modifications and dates: Bogan Shire Council moved the Chinese grave markers to their current location during the early 1990s.
Further information: Information on this site was collated by Barbara Hickson as part of the 'Chinese Australian Cultural Heritage in NSW Project' (May 2004).

Special thanks to Ian Jack for forwarding two important articles on Chinese cemeteries and burial practices outside China.

Special thanks to Cathy Fisher, Archaeologist at Comber Consultants, for providing additional information and photographs on Nyngan Cemetery and in particular the Chinese grave markers and funerary burner.
Current use: Burial site
Former use: Aboriginal land, burial site

History

Historical notes: Indigenous Occupation
The Bogan River running through Bogan forms the boundary between the Wongaibon to the east and the Nyaampiyaa to the west. Mitchell's favourable report lead to the expansion of settlers into the area. The Wongaibon and Nyaampiyaa were hostile to the invasion and after substantial loss of European life the Government ordered the settlers out of the area. European occupation in the adjacent districts reached sufficient density in 1850 to protect the return of settlers and suppress the traditional owners.

European History
The area around Nyngan was first explored by John Oxley in 1818. Further explorations were made by John Sturt in 1827-9 and Thomas Mitchell in 1831. Squatters, with both cattle and sheep, had taken up the land by this time. During the early period there were many absentee owners and cattle were more profitable than sheep, requiring less men to keep them. Markets were also better for cattle, with the goldfields of Victoria desperate for supplies of meat. After 1860, as permanent land rights were given and the price of wool rose, more owners came to lie on the land and sheep began to outnumber cattle. The area around Nyngan remained within large pastoral holdings until the 1880s that were only broken up with the event of the railway (Heritage Office 1996, p.80-1)

Nyngan, until 1883, had been a water reserve, which was the attraction that made it a stop for the new train line. Canonbar, a town 30 kilometres to the north of Nyngan, relocated to the site of the railway station. The railway allowed the town to grow quickly and by 1891 it was a municipality and in 1901 it had all necessities of a town (Heritage Office 1996, p83,85).

Even before the advent of the railway it seems settlers were increasing in the area. Long discussion on the placement of a cemetery culminated in the establishment of the Nyngan cemetery some time in the 1850s. The exact date is unclear as records for this early period are scarce (pers. com. Paul Walsh, Bogan Shire Council). The first recorded burial was in 1878, which may indicate that records were not kept or no longer exist for the earlier period.

Chinese in Nyngan
Many Chinese left China in the hope of earning a good living and supporting their families left behind. By 1861 there were 13,000 Chinese on New South Wales goldfields (Gilbert, 2005, 285). At the end of the Gold Rush many Chinese stayed on in Australia, finding employment in other industries. The Chinese were attracted to the Tamworth region by the discovery of gold in the 1850s. The deposits did not last long, but many Chinese remained in the area, migrating north in search of work. It is not clear when the Chinese community in Nyngan was established, but the oldest surviving grave marker dates to 1913. The main occupation for Chinese in Nyngan was timber-felling and ring-barking, especially mulga (Acacia aneura) and bimble box (Eucalyptus populnea); or clearing the land for farming and grazing. As in the other towns in western New South Wales market gardening was probably important too. Oral history suggests Chinese remained in the area until the 1950s as market gardeners, however, there is no longer a Chinese community in Nyngan.

Chinese Burial Practices
The Chinese saying "upon the roots of the tree rest falling leaves" expresses a desire to be buried near their home village and relatives. The proximity to relatives would allow them to burn offerings to the deceased's soul and complete the rites that could bring the family fortune. Conversely, if they were not performed correctly the family fortune could be damaged (Chinese Heritage of Australian Federation, 2003). Chinese living outside of China tried to followed similar burial rituals. As it was mainly single men who came to Australia, it was often not the family who managed the interment of the deceased. This caused variations to occur from place to place, however, basic core ritual and practice applied. When a Chinese person died overseas the ritual required steps be taken to restore the deceased to their home village in China (Abraham and Wegars, 2003:58-59).

The rituals aimed to familiarise the soul of the deceased with the Underworld and to do this the body was buried for around seven years. At this time the body was exhumed, the bones placed in an urn and then either returned to China or the bones reburied (Chinese Heritage of Australian Federation 2003). As the bones of deceased Chinese were usually exhumed, burials in Australia were usually shallow, approximately 500mm. Family name or village associations took on the responsibility of returning the deceased's bones to their home village for re-interment.

Chinese funerary rituals include presenting offerings to the deceased's spirit by descendants and burners were frequently constructed in cemeteries to enable this. They are often brick or masonry structures and usually around 2100 mm tall. They serve as a safe place for the ritualised burning of spiritual tributes, such as paper facsimiles of money, clothing, possessions and houses. Burning these items passes them to the spirit realm, and they are to serve the deceased in the after life. Burners range from the modest to elaborate. Many Chinese burners in Victoria are quite lavish in comparison to those in other localities (Abraham and Wegars, 2003: 62, 64-65).

There are other burners associated with Chinese cemeteries in Australia and overseas. The brick burner at Nyngan is, by Australian standards, at the functional and modest end of the spectrum (Jack, 1995:303). In New South Wales, examples of modest burners can be found in Tumut, Albury and Deniliquin, although these three burners display more complex brick work around the opening and vents than the Nyngan burner. The burner in closest geographical proximity to Nyngan is at Condobolin. Modest burners are also characteristic of Chinese cemeteries on the west coast of the United States of America and the Nyngan example bears a striking resemblance to those constructed in the Auburn Cemetery, California. There are grander examples of Chinese burners in Ballarat, Beechworth and Maldon in Victoria and Wagga Wagga in New South Wales, although the Wagga Wagga example pales in comparison with those in Victoria. The burner at Beechworth has two towers capped with high metal spires. The burner at Maldon cemetery is a triple domed burner in brick (Gilbert 2005, p.286-292). In all, five burners have been officially identified in New South Wales (Tumut, Albury, Deniliquin, Condobolin and Wagga Wagga). They are relatively rare, as many communities constructed burners from wood, covered in tar. Such structures are not durable, being susceptible to fire and rot.

According to local anecdotal evidence the burners at Nyngan and Condobolin were used for cooked (or cooking) food offerings. In the Condobolin High School report (1988), wine, rice, pork and cakes were named. This corresponds to Chinese grave practices reported in Hong Kong (Chow and Teather, 1998).

Altars and bone houses are other structures commonly found in Chinese cemeteries, although neither are present at Nyngan and no examples have been formally identified in New South Wales to date (Wagga Wagga Chinese cemetery does contain an altar, but it is of more recent construction, perhaps 1970s). Altars are predominantly in larger cemeteries and may be a generic marker for unmarked graves. Bone houses were constructed to store bones before transportation back to China in urns. Such structures may also provide an enclosed space for cleaning the bones (Abraham and Wegars, 2003:63).

Grave markers, as in European cemeteries, were important features of Chinese cemeteries to identify the deceased for those who came to disinter the bones and as a marker for the descendants practising ritual observances. The text on the marker has, as a minimum, the name of the individual, date of death and the name of the deceased's home village. The name is usually in the middle with the other details on either side. Women's graves were often unmarked, and in overseas communities some female remains were not exhumed (Abraham and Wegars, 2003:61, 66).

Stone is the most common material for grave markers in Australia in the nineteenth century, but concrete becomes increasingly common in the twentieth century. Wooden markers existed at some cemeteries in Australia, such as Rookwood, however they are vulnerable to fire and decay. Some Chinese graves in Australia have iron railings, such as Gladstone in Tasmania, however this was a rare luxury (Jack, 1995:302). Date and location play a role in the design of grave markers. Rectangular markers are the most common type in Australia, but there are variants such as curved or Norman tops (Jack, 1995:300-302). The collection of graves at Nyngan is rare as all the extant markers are of a traditional shape and style. Other Chinese cemeteries identified by the Chinese Australian Cultural Heritage Project (2005) either contained fewer markers or contained markers of a more European style.

Many overseas Chinese cemeteries exhibit feng shui characteristics, influencing their location and orientation. The layout of cemeteries implies order and purpose, however this may be obscured by neglect or vandalism. The markers at Beechworth and the old and new cemeteries at Ballarat in Victoria are all arranged in very neat rows. The nine Chinese grave markers at Nyngan Cemetery were not initially lined up in a row, but were randomly placed around the eastern area of the cemetery, north of the Presbyterian Section and West of the Catholic Section. Bogan Shire Council relocated the markers to their current location in the early 1990s and placed them in a row near the burner, similar to other Chinese cemeteries. The relocation of the markers may have been to create space for a new lawn cemetery to the east of the extant Chinese section.

Bogan Shire Council recorded the names and dates the ten extant grave markers in 1994. Carbon rubbings were taken and reduced to an A4 size sheet. They were then scanned and sent for translation by colleagues in Singapore (c/- Dr Kenson Kwok, Museum of Asian Civilization). Chen Jiazi and Regine Aw rendered the translations in 'Hanyu Pinyin' Romanisation (see Physical Description for a transcript). Nine markers date from 1914 to 1918. The final marker commemorates the death of No Wood on 23/6/1924. The 'tributes', such as poetry, were only in English (Barbara Hickson, 2005). Since the recording of the markers it has been reported that one has gone missing, although it is not clear which one.

Bogan Shire Council, as administrators of the Cemetery, hold a card system registry of burials, which has been computerised. The registry lists 13 names in the Chinese section: Al Chung (4/9/1920, 50 yrs), Wung Chung (10/10/1941, 65 yrs), Fang Dong (2/4/1928, yrs 61), Hay Kee (19/7/1923, yrs 67), Lui Key (19/7/1923, yrs 83), Ah Lui (27/5/1929, yrs 65), Ma Mong (22/9/1945, yrs 81), Day Ping (27/2/1921, yrs 69), Wong Quay (28/8/1929, yrs 61), Yee War (4/11/1952, yrs 100), Ah Wood (23/6/1924, yrs 68), Say Yee (1/7/1928, yrs 73) and Honb You (25/2/1945, yrs 76).

The burial of No Wood is the only marker that also occurs in the burial registry, under the name Ah Wood. The lack of correspondence between the English and Chinese name is probably due to the imperfect understanding of Chinese tones by the person devising the English version. There is also a strong possibility that the people concerned used the dialect versions of their Mandarin names (same character but different pronunciation).

Although the first recorded burial in the Nyngan Cemetery (in the Church of England Section) was in 1878, it appears that Chinese burials were not recorded until the death of Wood in 1924. Another possibility is that the markers that remain have had the bones exhumed and the card relating to the burial was removed from the registry at this time, although this begs the question of why the markers were left behind. The names listed in the registry, for which there are no markers, could have one of two explanations. The first is that the graves were unmarked or were marked with wood, which has rotten away. The second explanation is that these bodies were exhumed, but the record not deleted from the registry. A Ground Penetrating Radar survey would be able to clarify the status of these burials. It seems likely, however, that the record keeping for the Chinese section of the Cemetery was not fastidious.

Historic themes

Australian theme (abbrev)New South Wales themeLocal theme
1. Environment-Tracing the evolution of a continent's special environments Environment - naturally evolved-Activities associated with the physical surroundings that support human life and influence or shape human cultures. Changing the environment-
2. Peopling-Peopling the continent Ethnic influences-Activities associated with common cultural traditions and peoples of shared descent, and with exchanges between such traditions and peoples. Maintaining Chinese communities-
2. Peopling-Peopling the continent Ethnic influences-Activities associated with common cultural traditions and peoples of shared descent, and with exchanges between such traditions and peoples. Chinese remembrance customs-
2. Peopling-Peopling the continent Ethnic influences-Activities associated with common cultural traditions and peoples of shared descent, and with exchanges between such traditions and peoples. Chinese religious practices-
2. Peopling-Peopling the continent Migration-Activities and processes associated with the resettling of people from one place to another (international, interstate, intrastate) and the impacts of such movements Developing Chinese settlements-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Accommodation-Activities associated with the provision of accommodation, and particular types of accommodation – does not include architectural styles – use the theme of Creative Endeavour for such activities. Building settlements, towns and cities-National Theme 4
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Land tenure-Activities and processes for identifying forms of ownership and occupancy of land and water, both Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Leasing land for pastoral purposes-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Land tenure-Activities and processes for identifying forms of ownership and occupancy of land and water, both Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Townships-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Towns, suburbs and villages-Activities associated with creating, planning and managing urban functions, landscapes and lifestyles in towns, suburbs and villages Role of transport in settlement-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Towns, suburbs and villages-Activities associated with creating, planning and managing urban functions, landscapes and lifestyles in towns, suburbs and villages 19th Century Infrastructure-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Domestic life-Activities associated with creating, maintaining, living in and working around houses and institutions. Ways of life 1900-1950-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Domestic life-Activities associated with creating, maintaining, living in and working around houses and institutions. Ways of life 1850-1900-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Leisure-Activities associated with recreation and relaxation Gathering at landmark places to socialise-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Religion-Activities associated with particular systems of faith and worship Cemetery-
9. Phases of Life-Marking the phases of life Birth and Death-Activities associated with the initial stages of human life and the bearing of children, and with the final stages of human life and disposal of the dead. Operating and maintaining Chinese burial grounds-
9. Phases of Life-Marking the phases of life Birth and Death-Activities associated with the initial stages of human life and the bearing of children, and with the final stages of human life and disposal of the dead. Cemeteries-
9. Phases of Life-Marking the phases of life Birth and Death-Activities associated with the initial stages of human life and the bearing of children, and with the final stages of human life and disposal of the dead. Burying the dead in customary ways-

Assessment of significance

SHR Criteria a)
[Historical significance]
The Nyngan Chinese graves and burner are of State significance as reminder of Chinese occupation in the central west and the contribution they made to the establishment of this area. The Chinese in Nyngan provided an important labour pool to the early township as tree clearers, ring-barkers and local market gardeners. In these capacities the Chinese made land available for pastoralists and experiments in wheat cropping, which took place early in the twentieth century (Mylrea 1990, p.259). The Bogan Shire remains heavily reliant on agriculture and pastoralism, made possible through the clearing of the land.

The Nyngan Chinese graves and burner are of State significance as evidence of Chinese burial practices as they were carried out in Australia and the adaptations made to the new conditions. The Chinese saying "upon the roots of the tree rest falling leaves" expresses a desire to be buried with their ancestors, allowing their relatives to look after their spirit with burnt offerings. Burial is an important ritual, and if it is done well it can bring great fortune, but if performed incorrectly can lead to bad fortune for the family. It was important to acclimatise the decease's spirit to the Underworld and to achieve this the body would be buried for around seven years. At the end of this time it could be exhumed, the bones placed in an urn and transported back to their home village, where they are re-interned (Abraham and Wegars 2003:59). Chinese burials were, as a result, shallow, approximately 0.5 metres deep.
SHR Criteria c)
[Aesthetic significance]
The burner is of some significance as it is of an unusually simple design, by Australian standards. Many Australian Chinese communities were affluent as a result of success on the goldfields or in commerce and therefore built elaborate burners. The Nyngan example reflects the economic status of the community and is aesthetically distinctive as a functional and modest burner.

The graves at Nyngan are of some aesthetic significance as rare a collection of markers in a traditional shape and style.
SHR Criteria d)
[Social significance]
The graves are of State significance to the Chinese community of New South Wales for the reminder they provide of the far reaching and wide contribution Chinese made to the State, not just in towns and cities, but also in opening up land for future uses, in this case through the clearing of land for agricultural and pastoral purposes. The Chinese in these small, and probably isolated, communities continued to practice the traditional rites associated with death. The grave markers and burner in Nyngan Cemetery have a special associations with the Chinese community and the families of the deceased, as the resting place for those individuals who lived and worked in the area. It is not know if the bodies buried with the grave markers were exhumed, therefore they may still be buried in this area.

The graves are of local cultural significance for the residents of Nyngan, who still remember the Chinese and their activities in the town.
SHR Criteria e)
[Research potential]
The Chinese burner is of State significance for its potential to yield further information on the practices associated with Chinese cemeteries, such as burning items for offerings. Although there are several examples of Chinese burners throughout Australia and overseas, each is slightly different in appearance, due to available materials, community resources and the person(s) who constructed it. It is unclear how many of the bodies have been exhumed and returned to China, where the graves were originally located and whether additional persons (beyond the ten known grave markers and those in the cemetry records) were buried in the cemetery.
SHR Criteria f)
[Rarity]
The Nyngan graves and burner are of State significance as a rare physical reminder of the presence of Chinese in Central West and Western New South Wales. With many Chinese communities no longer living in these areas more ephemeral forms of evidence no longer exist. The burner is rare in it's own right. Currently five others have been identified in New South Wales, but none in association with such a large number of grave markers, the markers at other cemeteries having been removed or destroyed over time.
SHR Criteria g)
[Representativeness]
The Nyngan graves and burner are of State significance as representative of Chinese burial practices in Australia. It is the largest and most traditional collection of markers in association with a burner in NSW. The markers are traditional in their shape and their use of Mandarin, although some also have English text, and their use of stone rather than concrete as a material. The burner is representative of the simple style of burner erected by smaller Chinese communities. Comparisons with Wagga and Deniliquin suggest the Nyngan burner is typical of the style built by Chinese communities primarily engaged in agricultural or labouring employment. The Nyngan example is not as elaborate as those on the rich goldfields of Ballarat and Bendigo, where incomes were potentially higher and the community larger, subsequently they were able to afford the construction of more elaborate burners.

The Chinese section of the Nyngan Cemetery is of State significance as a representative example of the common practice of designating specific section of cemeteries for the burial of Chinese. In many towns the Chinese section was separated from the Christian sections on the request of the European community and are lingering evidence of the racial vilification suffered by Chinese immigrants.
Integrity/Intactness: Nine of the original ten grave markers remain. Although they were moved to their present location in the early 1990s, they are relatively intact and are arranged in a similar fashion to other Chinese grave markers (in a neat row).
Assessment criteria: Items are assessed against the PDF State Heritage Register (SHR) Criteria to determine the level of significance. Refer to the Listings below for the level of statutory protection.

Recommended management:

Recommendations

Management CategoryDescriptionDate Updated
Recommended ManagementProduce a Conservation Management Plan (CMP) 
Recommended ManagementPrepare a maintenance schedule or guidelines 
Recommended ManagementCarry out interpretation, promotion and/or education 

Procedures /Exemptions

Section of actDescriptionTitleCommentsAction date
57(2)Exemption to allow workStandard Exemptions SCHEDULE OF STANDARD EXEMPTIONS
HERITAGE ACT 1977
Notice of Order Under Section 57 (2) of the Heritage Act 1977

I, the Minister for Planning, pursuant to subsection 57(2) of the Heritage Act 1977, on the recommendation of the Heritage Council of New South Wales, do by this Order:

1. revoke the Schedule of Exemptions to subsection 57(1) of the Heritage Act made under subsection 57(2) and published in the Government Gazette on 22 February 2008; and

2. grant standard exemptions from subsection 57(1) of the Heritage Act 1977, described in the Schedule attached.

FRANK SARTOR
Minister for Planning
Sydney, 11 July 2008

To view the schedule click on the Standard Exemptions for Works Requiring Heritage Council Approval link below.
Sep 5 2008

PDF Standard exemptions for works requiring Heritage Council approval

Listings

Heritage ListingListing TitleListing NumberGazette DateGazette NumberGazette Page
Heritage Act - State Heritage Register 0178313 Mar 09 511388

Study details

TitleYearNumberAuthorInspected byGuidelines used
Chinese Australian Community Heritage Study2005 CACH  No

References, internet links & images

TypeAuthorYearTitleInternet Links
WrittenChinese Heritage of Australian Federation2003Death and burial in Australia in the 18th and early 19th centuries View detail
WrittenCondobolin High School Students & teacher Mr W. Mesner1988unknown
WrittenGilbert, Lionel2005The Last Word: Two Centuries of Australian Epitaphs
WrittenHeritage Office & Department of Urban Affairs and Planning1996Regional Histories
Oral HistoryIan Jack, President, Royal Australian Historical Society2005Personal Communication
WrittenMylrea, P.J.1990In the Service of Agriculture: a centennial history of the New South Wales Department of Agriculture 1890-1990
WrittenR. Ian Jack1995'Chinese cemeteries outside China' in Histories of the Chinese in Australasia and the South Pacific: Proceedings of an international public conference held at the Museum of Chinese Australian History, Melbourne, 8-10 October 1993 (edited by Paul Macgregor
WrittenTeather, Elizabeth1998Chinese Graves and Grave Markers in Hong Kong. Markers: Annual Journal of the Association for Gravestone studies 15.
WrittenTerry Abraham and Pricilla Wegars2003Urns, bones and burners: overseas Chinese cemeteries
WrittenWilton, Janis2004Golden threads: the Chinese in regional New South Wales 1850-1950

Note: internet links may be to web pages, documents or images.

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Data source

The information for this entry comes from the following source:
Name: Heritage Office
Database number: 5056575
File number: EF14/4465; H05/217


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