Cumberland Street Archaeological Site | NSW Environment, Energy and Science

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Cumberland Street Archaeological Site

Item details

Name of item: Cumberland Street Archaeological Site
Other name/s: The Big Dig Site; Sydney YHA; Big Dig Education Centre
Type of item: Archaeological-Terrestrial
Group/Collection: Urban Area
Category: Townscape
Location: Lat: -33.8601343690 Long: 151.2069886290
Primary address: 106-128 Cumberland Street, The Rocks, NSW 2000
Local govt. area: Sydney
Local Aboriginal Land Council: Metropolitan
Property description
Lot/Volume CodeLot/Volume NumberSection NumberPlan/Folio CodePlan/Folio Number
PART LOT20 DP1169304
PART LOT21 DP1169304
PART LOT2 DP777656
All addresses
Street AddressSuburb/townLGAParishCountyType
106-128 Cumberland StreetThe RocksSydney  Primary Address
Gloucester StreetThe RocksSydney  Alternate Address

Owner/s

Organisation NameOwner CategoryDate Ownership Updated
Sydney Harbour Foreshore AuthorityState Government 

Statement of significance:

Dating from 1795, the archaeological site has outstanding cultural significance as rare surviving evidence of the mostly convict and ex-convict community established on The Rocks at the time of Australia's first European settlement. The site contains identified relics of 46 historic houses, two lanes, and other features on two early Sydney town lots. It is one of few surviving places in The Rocks where a substantial physical connection exists to the time of first settlement, including the huts and scattered houses built on and carved into the sandstone outcrops that gave The Rocks its name.

The site has strong historic associations, providing physical evidence of nineteenth-century events, processes and people. Through this association and the extraordinary level of public involvement in the 1994 excavation, the site has high social and public value as a 'historic site'. Located within a historic precinct, the substantial physical evidence of the site has distinctive visual qualities and evocative capacity.

The archaeological significance of the site continues through both the information being revealed by analysis of excavated material and continuing in situ presence of substantial structural elements and deposits. The in situ relics also have potential to yield further information relating to substantive historical research questions. The site has a unique ability to provide 'hands on' experience of important phases of Sydney's history and development and has high interpretative and educational potential.

The 2004-2010 archaeological investigation and redevelopment of the site is an outstanding example of best practice archaeological management and interpretation in Australia. The sensitive construction of a Youth Hostel (YHA) over the archaeological site and integrated interpretation of this archaeological site has received multiple awards in design and heritage. The YHA development has been described as arguably one of the best contemporary examples of in-situ conservation of archaeological remains in an urban context anywhere in the world. (GML 2010)
Date significance updated: 15 Oct 10
Note: The State Heritage Inventory provides information about heritage items listed by local and State government agencies. The State Heritage Inventory is continually being updated by local and State agencies as new information becomes available. Read the OEH copyright and disclaimer.

Description

Construction years: 1795-
Physical description: Archaeological site containing remnant structural features and deposits. The archaeological site is located on the western side of Sydney Cove between Cumberland Street and Gloucester St, between the Australian Hotel to the north and the Jobbins Buildings (and other structures) adjacent to the Cahill expressway to the south.

A Youth Hostel (YHA) is elevated over the excavated archaeological site including an archaeology education centre and integrated interpretation. The new light-weight building is suspended above the archaeology, supported by a minimal number of pillars as the result of an innovative use of structural steel. The building not only has minimal impact upon the relics, but also provides increased visual and physical access through interior building voids, two reconstructed historic laneways (Cribbs and Carahers Lanes), interpretative works and artefact displays in the new building.
Physical condition and/or
Archaeological potential:
Assessment Condition: Minor Disturbance, Archaeological Excavation of c70% of resource, 1994.
Assessment Basis: Excavations in 1994 revealed an exceptionally well preserved resource with over 750,000 artefacts recovered. Site preserves approximately 60% of its pre-1830 resource and 100% of remains of eight terraces built in the 1840s-50s and demolished c1905. Investigation: Full scale excavation, 1994. Other smaller scale excavations have been carried out by the University of Sydney Summer School in 2005 & 2006.

A youth hostel was constructed on the site, completed in 2009. This carefully incorporated retention and display of the archaeological resource, including elevating the building above ground level, reconstructing the original laneways as thoroughfairs through the building and site, and construction of a Big Dig building for education about the dig site. Ongoing resources were also committed for funding further interpretation of the early history of the site.
Date condition updated:27 Jul 07
Modifications and dates: c1795-1901- various residential and commercial uses, demolition of some buildings as a result of the Darling Harbour resumptions in response to the bubonic plague outbreak in 1900.
1917 - Norton Griffiths machinery and joinery works.
1918 - City Railway Workshops.
1921-1924 - Department of Repatriation Vocational Training Trade School.
1925-1931 - motor garages.
1951-1972 - Department of Road Transport and Tramways bus depot.
1972-1994 - Storage Area
1994 - Archaeological Excavation
2009 - Youth Hostel building construction complete
Further information: The archaeological excavation of the site in 1994 exposed the remains of a variety of sandstone and brick features, footings and post holes relating to 46 historic buildings and other surfaces across the site. Sandstone rock features, both natural and worked, were also exposed.
Current use: Archaeological site and Youth Hostel of Australia (Sydney Harbour)
Former use: Mixed residential, commercial, industrial, uses and bus parking area.

History

Historical notes: Sydney Cove is located in the country of the Cadigal people of the Eora nation. The absence of an archaeological record for the Cadigal (even allowing for large-scale city development) has led Karskens to believe that Sydney Cove was likely to be border country for the Eora nation and therefore possibly was not inhabited prior to European settlement.

The Aboriginal name for Sydney Cove is Warrane (Sydney City Council, 2019).

Cumberland Street site:
Earliest known occupants George Legg and Ann Armsden in 1795. Byrne family on site in 1805, George Cribb's butchery and hotel occupied over half the site from 1811-1829. Much of Section 74 sold by William Murrell, Edward Sandwell and William Perks in December 1827 (See also: AR096). Subdivided January 1834. Numerous allotment holders who receive grants. Section 75: Lot 8 granted to William Williams, 19 July 1838; Lot 9 granted to Margaret Byrne, 5 August 1835; Lot 10 granted to W. H. Chapman (See also: AM057-058), 6 June 1836; Lot 11 granted to ?, 15 April 1840; Lot 12 granted to J. T. Hughes (See also: AM087; AM121-123; AM126-131; AR097), 30 November 1840. Site resumed in 1900-02 and 30 buildings demolished by 1915. Engineering works here from 1917-c1934. Vacant till 1994.

Historical Summary
The archaeological site comprises sections of two city blocks originally granted in the 1830s and 1840s as Sections 74 and 75 of the town of Sydney. Historical research indicates that the site has been occupied by Europeans from at least as early as c1795. During the 1790s and the early part of the nineteenth century it became a focus for settlement for convicts and ex-convicts. It had a rich subsequent history characterised by progressive intensification of occupation during the nineteenth century. Following large scale resumption and clearing by the government between 1902 and 1915, the site has also been used for various light industrial and public utility purposes. It has remained undeveloped since the 1850s, when a concrete slab was laid as the pavement for a bus depot. Since 1972, the site has been in the property of the Sydney Cove (Redevelopment) Authority, now the Sydney Harbour Foreshore Authority. The site was subject to archaeological excavation in 1994. xxxx

Thematic History
Aboriginal Cultures and Interactions with Other Cultures
The Rocks area, including the archaeological site, was witness to some of the very first encounters between the traditional owners, the Cadigal people, and the newly arrived settlers of the first and later second fleets. There was likely a period of a number of years, a transition, when both cultures lived close by each other and continued to occupy the same locale. Physical evidence collected during the large excavation of the site in 1994 included at least one piece of post 1790 porcelain which had been expertly flaked by Aboriginal people, presumably for use as a useful tool.

Convicts, Migrants and Housing
The Rocks area was within the town site most often associated with the early convict history of Sydney. Many convicts and emancipists lived in and around The Rocks, including on the subject site. The place was home and work for many convicts and their presence was indelibly marked on the neighbourhood. The convict butcher George Cribb, who arrived in 1808 on board the transport Admiral Gambier lived on the subject site until the later 1820s and is remembered by the naming of the lane joining Cumberland and Gloucester Streets which bordered his pub, house and butcher shop, Cribbs Lane. Other convict families, such as Ann Armsden and her First Fleet husband George Legg lived across the lane from Cribb in a large stone house, built on top of and partially into the natural sandstone that gave the area its name. Some of these earliest European residents remained living in the neighbourhood well into the mid nineteenth century, and their descendents for longer.

Alongside the convicts were also free settlers. Some, like Daniel King, who arrived free in 1817, had married convict women. From the 1830s and onwards more families that were arriving free were settling in the area, especially as more tenements were constructed and tenant occupancy on the site increased.

The archaeological site remained a vibrant, occupied neighbourhood throughout the nineteenth century until it was marked for demolition during the plague clearances of the early twentieth century. Evidence of all the levels of occupation from 1788 until the 1900s were to be found on the site and in the historical and archaeological resource.

Commerce and Trade
Convict and free alike were involved in a variety of trades in the archaeological site from the early 1800s, right through until the areas resumption and demolition. George Cribb operated his butchery and a pub from the corner of Gloucester Street and Cribbs Lane from 1808. During the 1860s Owen Caraher, who like Cribb is remembered in the naming of Carahers Lane that ran north to south across the site, was making candles and soap in Gloucester Street. A bakery was operated by Thomas and James Share on the corner of Cumberland and Cribbs Lane from the 1830s, and later by Robert Berry. Berry's ovens were utilised by the local residents to cook their Sunday dinners in, as ovens in private homes were a rare thing. By 1889 the Dig Site was occupied by approximately 33 houses, shops and hotels.

Township - Suburb and Community
The archaeological site existed as part of the wider Rocks community, from its earliest phase through to the beginnings of the twentieth century. The Rocks was Sydney's, and Australia's first suburb. The community on the site represented a broad cross section of the people living in The Rocks through the later eighteenth and nineteenth century; bond and free, rich and poor. The community bonds were often strong amongst the families living there. The historical record shows that the sons and daughters of the residents often lived close by when they left home. A number of mariner's wives are reported to have moved back to their parents home when their husbands were away at sea. There were a number of families who lived on the site over successive generations. Reports also exist of local families taking in orphans of their parents friends rather than allow them to be sent to the Destitute Asylum or other institution.

As with any community however, there were less altruistic members of the Cumberland/Gloucester Streets community as well. Exploitation, crime and violence were also present on the site. Hotels and brothels operated alongside the bakeries and corner shops. Houses were often small and conditions cramped which added to the tensions of poverty that were experienced by some residents, as well as strengthening the feeling of community that existed within the site. The combination of these factors, the crowded streets, back lanes and hotels gave the outside world the impression that the area was an urban slum, a reputation that stayed with The Rocks and subject site for much of its history.

Government and Administration
For much of the history of the archaeological site, it was perceived to lay just outside the boundaries of the official government and administrative reach. However in 1900 following the outbreak of the plague in Sydney, The Rocks area was resumed by the Government. The Government became the landlord for approximately 900 properties in The Rocks area, including all of the subject site. With a view to clean up the worst areas of The Rocks and to impose some order on the remnant colonial landscape, parts of The Rocks were marked for demolition and redevelopment. The subject site was demolished entirely between 1902 and 1915. Houses, shops and hotels were all cleared away and the residents either relocated in The Rocks area or moved away entirely. The work brought to a decisive end the residential history of the subject site.

For the remainder of the twentieth century the archaeological site was leased to a variety of users including machinery and joinery workshops, the City Railway Workshops, motor garages, the NRMA and Department of Motor Transport and Tramways as a bus parking station, and later as a Sydney Cove Redevelopment Authority commissioning the archaeological excavation and historical research that was undertaken on the site in the early and mid 1990s. This work lead to the rediscovery of the residential community that had once occupied the subject site.

(Godden Mackay Logan 2006)

2006-2010
Sydney Harbour Foreshore Authority's panel selected the winning proposal for the site by Youth Hostels Australia for a state-of-the-art, energy-efficient hostel with an additional twin classroom education centre. YHA Ltd is a not-for-profit organisation that returns profits from earnings back into its capital assets.

Construction of Sydney Harbour YHA and The Big Dig Archaeology Education Centre took place between September 2008 and October 2009. During construction the archaeological remnants on site were carefully covered by a protective layer of sandbags and scaffolding, removed when the construction work was completed. The buildings are supported by structural-steel trusses spanning over the archaeological remains, allowing over 85% of the site to be visible at ground level. The physical impact on the site is restricted to 52m, in areas carefully chosen in consultation with the archaeologists.

The 106-room Sydney Harbour YHA hostel and The Big Dig Archaeology Education Centre were officially opened in April 2010. It is the largest archaeological urban development completed in Australia of its time.

This carefully incorporated retention and display of the archaeological resource including elevating the building above ground level, reconstructing the original laneways as thoroughfares through the building and site, open voids in the building to view the archaeology, and construction of a Big Dig building for education about the dig site. Ongoing resources were also committed for funding further interpretation of the early history of the site.

Historic themes

Australian theme (abbrev)New South Wales themeLocal theme
1. Environment-Tracing the evolution of a continent's special environments Environment - naturally evolved-Activities associated with the physical surroundings that support human life and influence or shape human cultures. Other open space-
1. Environment-Tracing the evolution of a continent's special environments Environment - naturally evolved-Activities associated with the physical surroundings that support human life and influence or shape human cultures. Changing the environment-
1. Environment-Tracing the evolution of a continent's special environments Environment - naturally evolved-Activities associated with the physical surroundings that support human life and influence or shape human cultures. Cultural: Cliffs and escarpments influencing human settlement-
2. Peopling-Peopling the continent Aboriginal cultures and interactions with other cultures-Activities associated with maintaining, developing, experiencing and remembering Aboriginal cultural identities and practices, past and present. Eora nation - places of contact with the colonisers-
2. Peopling-Peopling the continent Aboriginal cultures and interactions with other cultures-Activities associated with maintaining, developing, experiencing and remembering Aboriginal cultural identities and practices, past and present. Cadigal tribe - Eora nation-
2. Peopling-Peopling the continent Convict-Activities relating to incarceration, transport, reform, accommodation and working during the convict period in NSW (1788-1850) - does not include activities associated with the conviction of persons in NSW that are unrelated to the imperial 'convict system': use the theme of Law & Order for such activities Demonstrating convicts' experiences and activities-
2. Peopling-Peopling the continent Migration-Activities and processes associated with the resettling of people from one place to another (international, interstate, intrastate) and the impacts of such movements (none)-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Agriculture-Activities relating to the cultivation and rearing of plant and animal species, usually for commercial purposes, can include aquaculture Farming by convict emancipists-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Commerce-Activities relating to buying, selling and exchanging goods and services (none)-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Accommodation-Activities associated with the provision of accommodation, and particular types of accommodation – does not include architectural styles – use the theme of Creative Endeavour for such activities. Building settlements, towns and cities-National Theme 4
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Towns, suburbs and villages-Activities associated with creating, planning and managing urban functions, landscapes and lifestyles in towns, suburbs and villages (none)-
7. Governing-Governing Government and Administration-Activities associated with the governance of local areas, regions, the State and the nation, and the administration of public programs - includes both principled and corrupt activities. (none)-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Domestic life-Activities associated with creating, maintaining, living in and working around houses and institutions. Physical evidence of creating, maintaining, living in and working around houses, through domestic artefacts scatters, ar-

Assessment of significance

SHR Criteria a)
[Historical significance]
The occupation of The Rocks during the first decades of the settlement at Sydney Cove represented a significant phase and important activity in the early life and development of the Sydney community and the City of Sydney itself. It was the quarter of the town built, shaped and occupied mostly by convicts and ex-convicts. The physical elements at the site provide a material dimension to this part of early Sydney history and evidence of the convict/ex-convict lifestyle. The latter is particularly significant as the organic growth of The Rocks settlement and lack of government regulation evident in the remains of houses contrasts the popular perceptions of convict life.

The Rocks was important as both domicile and workplace for the lower orders of Sydney society in the late eighteenth and early nineteenth century. Its history and development stands in stark contrast to that recorded for other sections of society in official documentation. Features directly connected with early occupation of The Rocks, particularly the evidence of material culture and buildings which have been revealed through archaeological investigation, reflect the taste habits and means, and hence the sociocultural characteristics of the sites inhabitants. The collection of artefacts provides evidence that leads to questions about the traditional view of this area during the late nineteenth century as a 'blighted slum'. The surviving structural elements in their size, construction and format evoke the living conditions of a vanished community.

Through both historic records and surviving physical evidence that site is associated with many major phases of Sydney's history and processes that have shaped the development of the growing colony. The subject site witnessed sporadic occupation, consolidation through permissive occupancy and leases, the introduction of land grants, varying phases of intensification and construction, wholesale resumption and clearing and, eventually, low key industrial and later government usage. It provides, in microcosm, a typical slice through the evolution and history of one of the most vital, lively and infamous communities in urban Australia.

(Godden Mackay Logan 2006)
SHR Criteria b)
[Associative significance]
The archaeological site represents, in microcosm, a slice of The Rocks life and community covering more than a century. It has strong links and association with a major Sydney community and a section of New South Wales society. The historical research already undertaken provides a depth and richness to our understanding of the individuals who lived there, none of whom is currently recognised as a 'historic' figure in the traditional sense, but all of whom (certainly before the 1830s) might be characterised as pioneers of Sydney. The associational links are particularly strong because of the presence of actual building remains (and artefacts) that relate to known individuals, families and households.

(Godden Mackay Logan 2006)
SHR Criteria c)
[Aesthetic significance]
As an excavated historical archaeological site, the site has well defined visual quality. Within the physical context of The Rocks, and the setting of surrounding historic buildings, the site currently contributes to a rich amalgam of historical layering. This layering is particularly evident within the site itself, where historical events, phases and occupations are reflected in the fine grained texture of intersecting topography and structural remains. The place is instantly recognisable as a historic site.

(Godden Mackay Logan 2006)

The 2004-2010 excavation, interpretation and redevelopment of the site is an outstanding example of best practice archaeological management for Australia. The sensitive construction of a Youth Hostel (YHA) above the archaeological site and integrated interpretation of this archaeological site has received multiple awards in design and heritage. The YHA development has been described as arguably one of the best contemporary examples of in situ conservation of archaeological remains in an urban context anywhere in the world. (GML 2010)

The new youth hostel building reconstructs the original laneways intersecting the site, providing important views to most parts of the site's archaeology as well as vistas from within and outside of the site. These allow an appreciation of the early 19th century layout of the buildings and lanes in this segment of the Rocks. The recreated view corridors and vistas created by the open lanes correspond to early historical photographs before the 19th century buildings were cleared at the turn of the century.
SHR Criteria d)
[Social significance]
The Rocks is now widely recognised as one of the key components of Australia's birthplace. As a focus of early convict settlement, the site occupies a particular conceptual niche. Furthermore, through the green bans of the 1970s, the resurgence in conservations programs of the 1980s and, via a continuing community spirit and pride in its community, The Rocks has already been established as a special place of particular importance to residents and visitors alike.

The archaeological site is one of few surviving places within The Rocks where a substantial physical connection exists with the time of first settlement and the huts and scattered houses on the rocky crags that gave 'The Rocks' its name. The thousands of people who visited the archaeological site and participated in the 1994 excavation program at varying levels demonstrate its value to the contemporary community. Ongoing access to physical evidence and interpretation has potential to realise and enhance the social value of the place.

(Godden Mackay Logan 2006)
SHR Criteria e)
[Research potential]
Archaeological deposits and features, particularly when considered in conjunction with documentary evidence can provide evidence of material culture that yields information which may by unavailable from documentary sources alone. This site and the collection of excavated material form a resource which contributes to a better understanding of social, economic and cultural history of Sydney and The Rocks community in particular.

Archaeological excavation at the site has already realised a substantial part of its archaeological potential. Many site specific research questions have been answered. Analysis of the data gathered has addressed major historical questions, including the impact of the industrial revolution, the rise of class, women's occupation and lives, the ongoing debate on the standard of living for working class people in urban areas, the social and cultural role of The Rocks within the larger city, and the changing impact of Government over the historical period.

Some areas of the site remain unexcavated and have potential available for future investigation. While the excavation to date has produced a complete picture of the activities undertaken on the site, should it be decided in the future to excavate the remaining areas, it is expected that this new information would complement the information already gathered.

The physical remains at the site and the associated artefact collection provide major ongoing research opportunities in fields such as convictism, colonial settlement and working class communities, which are major themes in Australian history.

(Godden Mackay Logan 2006)
SHR Criteria f)
[Rarity]
The archaeological site is believed to be the only substantial residential site (i.e. one containing an entire neighbourhood), remaining in Sydney's Rocks, that contains physical evidence of structures and material culture from the period of first settlement. The 1994 archaeological investigation recovered enormous quantities of artefacts and the remains of many structures - all of which survived here because of later twentieth century activity had not impinged greatly on the surviving features. In this respect, the archaeological site contrasts with many other places in urban Australia where the extent of building activity undertaken during the 1960s, 1970s and 1980s has removed structures and stratified deposits. Any area with potential for in situ preservation of relics from nineteenth century Sydney, and particularly the early part of the century or prior to 1800, represent a finite, rare and endangered resource.

(Godden Mackay Logan 2006)
SHR Criteria g)
[Representativeness]
The continuous occupation of the archaeological site from the late eighteenth century throughout the nineteenth century provides the opportunity to experience and examine changes and development in society and particularly changes in home life and the use of domestic space. The evidence at the archaeological site demonstrates characteristics of both individual residences and a residential/Rocks community (including hotels, shops and other workplaces) during this period, providing a physical demonstration and important 'hands on' opportunity to understand how earlier lifestyles and living conditions differed from those of today.

(Godden Mackay Logan 2006)
Integrity/Intactness: Minor Disturbance, Archaeological Excavation of c70% of resource, 1994

The site was subject to archaeological investigation in 1994. The excavated site itself stands as testimony to the extent of excavation work completed and the array of historic structures and features revealed. The investigation uncovered substantial masonry remains of at least 46 buildings, post holes and more ephemeral remains of other timber structures, two major lane ways, ancillary paths, stone lined cesspits, tanks or wells carved into living rock and a wide variety of other landscape features. The remains have been retained in situ and generally survive intact.

Excavation of the archaeological site required the removal of approximately 1500 contexts or deposits ranging from concrete and bitumen pavements through dumps of building rubble, or demolition and occupation accumulation. These features have been removed form the site; however, where relevant, samples have been retained for future analysis.

A number of areas of the archaeological site remain unexcavated or partially excavated. These unexcavated areas generally remain intact. Some deposits and other material have been introduced to the site since the completion of the 1994 investigation, to protect or stabilise the exposed remains (e.g. wells and cesspits were lined with Bidum and backfilled). Gravel/pebbles and other materials have also been introduced by the Authority for interpretative purposes.

Approximately 750,000 individual artefacts were recovered from the archaeological site during the course of the excavation. They are now stored off site.

(Godden Mackay Logan 2006)
Assessment criteria: Items are assessed against the PDF State Heritage Register (SHR) Criteria to determine the level of significance. Refer to the Listings below for the level of statutory protection.

Recommended management:

Above ground archaeological remains: No archaeological investigation is required. Below ground archaeological remains: An historical and archaeological assessment prior to archaeological investigation is recommended.

Procedures /Exemptions

Section of actDescriptionTitleCommentsAction date
57(2)Exemption to allow workStandard Exemptions SCHEDULE OF STANDARD EXEMPTIONS
HERITAGE ACT 1977
Notice of Order Under Section 57 (2) of the Heritage Act 1977

I, the Minister for Planning, pursuant to subsection 57(2) of the Heritage Act 1977, on the recommendation of the Heritage Council of New South Wales, do by this Order:

1. revoke the Schedule of Exemptions to subsection 57(1) of the Heritage Act made under subsection 57(2) and published in the Government Gazette on 22 February 2008; and

2. grant standard exemptions from subsection 57(1) of the Heritage Act 1977, described in the Schedule attached.

FRANK SARTOR
Minister for Planning
Sydney, 11 July 2008

To view the schedule click on the Standard Exemptions for Works Requiring Heritage Council Approval link below.
Sep 5 2008
57(2)Exemption to allow workHeritage Act - Site Specific Exemptions 1. Works to the 21st century building located above the basement floor slab of the subject building, not including works that will alter or impact on:
(a) early fabric of the southern boundary wall extending above the floor slab of the new construction;
(b) archaeology;
(c) interpretation of archaeology, history or heritage of the site;
(d) views or access to archaeology;
(e) open space where there is no approved floor slab located directly above; and
(f) 21st century fabric located below the floor slab, such as pylons.

2. Minor works with no detrimental impact on significance or interpretation of the archaeology, history or heritage of the site where the proponent has:
(a) written to the Director of the Heritage Branch or Heritage Manager of Sydney Harbour Foreshore Authority describing the proposed works; and
(b) received confirmation in writing from the Director of the Heritage Branch or Heritage Manager of Sydney Harbour Foreshore Authority that the works are considered exempt from development approval before works commence.
Dec 17 2010

PDF Standard exemptions for works requiring Heritage Council approval

Listings

Heritage ListingListing TitleListing NumberGazette DateGazette NumberGazette Page
Heritage Act - State Heritage Register 0184517 Dec 10 1366075

Study details

TitleYearNumberAuthorInspected byGuidelines used
SCA Register 1979-19981998AR095Sydney Cove Authority (SCA)  Yes

References, internet links & images

TypeAuthorYearTitleInternet Links
WrittenAlexander Tzannes Associated & Godden Mackay Logan Pty Ltd2006The Rocks Dig Site. Conservation Management Strategy & Archaeological and Urban Design Parameters Report
WrittenAlexander Tzannes Associates and Godden Mackay Logan Pty Ltd2006The Rocks Dig Site, Sydney Australia, Conservation Management Strategy and Archaeological and Urban Design Parameters Report
WrittenHigginbotham, E & Kass, T1989'Historical and Archaeological Analysis of the Block Bounded by Cumberland and Gloucester Streets, and the Cahill Expressway, The Rocks, Sydney, NSW', in Scott Corner. Cumberland Street Site - The Rocks. Proposed Serviced Apartments. Develco.
WrittenHigginbothan, Kass & Walker1991The Rocks and Millers Point Archaeological Management Plan
WrittenKarskens, G1996Cumberland/ Gloucester St Site, Volume 2, Main Report. Part of general archaeological report series (6 volumes, 13 parts)
WrittenRichard Mackay, Godden Mackay Logan, 27 August 20102010Correspondence on proposed listing on the State Heritage Register
WrittenSydney City Council2019Cartographica - Sydney on the Map
WrittenSydney Cove Authority1998SCA Register 1979-1998

Note: internet links may be to web pages, documents or images.

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Data source

The information for this entry comes from the following source:
Name: Heritage Office
Database number: 5056816
File number: S94/00423/1; H06/00295/01


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