Electricity Substation No. 349 | NSW Environment & Heritage

Culture and heritage

Heritage

Electricity Substation No. 349

Item details

Name of item: Electricity Substation No. 349
Other name/s: #349 Princes Street substation
Type of item: Built
Group/Collection: Utilities - Electricity
Category: Electricity Transformer/Substation
Location: Lat: -33.9102287274 Long: 151.2368435130
Primary address: 2S Frances Street, Randwick, NSW 2031
Parish: Alexandria
County: Cumberland
Local govt. area: Randwick
Local Aboriginal Land Council: La Perouse
Property description
Lot/Volume CodeLot/Volume NumberSection NumberPlan/Folio CodePlan/Folio Number
LOT1 DP182713

Boundary:

Whole site, as described in real property description.
All addresses
Street AddressSuburb/townLGAParishCountyType
2S Frances StreetRandwickRandwickAlexandriaCumberlandPrimary Address
Prince StreetRandwickRandwick  Alternate Address

Owner/s

Organisation NameOwner CategoryDate Ownership Updated
AusgridState Government 

Statement of significance:

Electricity Substation No 349, Randwick, is significant at state level as an aesthetically distinctive, finely detailed, unusually large, and highly intact example of an Interwar Mediterranean style substation with elements of Spanish Mission style.

The substation was designed by the City Architect's Office of the Municipal Council of Sydney and built c. 1930 to distribute power to consumers in response to the strong residential growth in the surrounding suburbs in the 1920s and 1930s.

It is a fine example of the high standard of work of the City Architect's Office of the Sydney Municipal Council, which was conscious of the need to erect substations suitable to the urban environment of the time. It demonstrates the Council's express policy of constructing finely designed buildings in areas it considered to be 'high class' suburbs and is testament to the past creative endeavour of electricity providers in applying architectural values to utilitarian structures.

It is the largest and most intact of this style of distribution substation and remains in service for its original purpose.
Date significance updated: 25 Oct 07
Note: The State Heritage Inventory provides information about heritage items listed by local and State government agencies. The State Heritage Inventory is continually being updated by local and State agencies as new information becomes available. Read the OEH copyright and disclaimer.

Description

Designer/Maker: Walter Frederick White, City Architect's Department, Municipal Council of Sydney
Builder/Maker: J Rutherford
Construction years: 1930-1930
Physical description: Electricity Substation No. 349 is an Interwar Mediterranean style building with an element of Spanish Mission style.
It is a single gable roofed building with a symmetrical gable wall which has a single large arched doorway surmounted by an elaborate plaster ornament.
One side wall has a personnel door and a raised gable roofed ventilation turret with simulated windows, balcony and ornamental ironwork, and decorative arch motifs forming the supporting brackets.
The ventilation panels are formed by curved concrete or ceramic blocks set into what are window spaces for metal louvres in other similar designs.
The substation is constructed in load-bearing brick and finished with a smooth layer of stucco.
The roof is curved ceramic tile.
Curved ceramic or concrete blocks form ventilation panels in the side walls.
Physical condition and/or
Archaeological potential:
Generally good. Downpipes discharge to ground.
Date condition updated:18 Oct 07
Modifications and dates: Gutters and downpipes replaced. Modern chain wire fences.
Current use: Electricity substation
Former use: Electricity substation

History

Historical notes: pre-1780s - local Aboriginal people in the area used the site for fishing and cultural activities - rock engravings, grinding grooves and middens remain in evidence.
1789 - Governor Philip referred to 'a long bay', which became known as Long Bay.
Aboriginal people are believed to have inhabited the Sydney region for at least 20,000 years (Turbet, 2001). The population of Aboriginal people between Palm Beach and Botany Bay in 1788 has been estimated to have been 1500. Those living south of Port Jackson to Botany Bay were the Cadigal people who spoke Dharug (Randwick Library webpage, 2003), while the local clan name of Maroubra people was "Muru-ora-dial" (City of Sydney webpage, 2003). By the mid nineteenth century the traditional owners of this land had typically either moved inland in search of food and shelter, or had died as the result of European disease or confrontation with British colonisers (Randwick Library webpage, 2003).

Colonial History:
One of the earliest land grants in this area was made in 1824 to Captain Francis Marsh, who received 12 acres bounded by the present Botany & High Streets, Alison & Belmore Roads. In 1839 William Newcombe acquired the land north-west of the present town hall in Avoca Street.

Randwick takes its name from the town of Randwick, Gloucestershire, England. The name was suggested by Simeon Pearce (1821-86) and his brother James. Simeon was born in the English Randwick and the brothers were responsible for the early development of both Randwick and its neighbour, Coogee. Simeon had come to the colony in 1841as a 21 year old surveyor. He built his Blenheim House on the 4 acres he bought from Marsh, and called his property "Randwick". The brothers bought and sold land profitably in the area and elsewhere. Simeon campaigned for construction of a road from the city to Coogee (achieved in 1853) and promoted the incorporation of the suburb. Pearce sought construction of a church modelled on the church of St. John in his birthplace. In 1857 the first St Jude's stood on the site of the present post office, at the corner of the present Alison Road and Avoca Street (Pollen, 1988, 217-8).

Randwick was...slow to progress. The village was isolated from Sydney by swamps and sandhills, and although a horse-bus was operated by a man named Grice from the late 1850s, the journey was more a test of nerves than a pleasure jaunt. Wind blew sand over the track, and the bus sometimes became bogged, so that passengers had to get out and push it free. From its early days Randwick had a divided society. The wealthy lived elegantly in large houses built when Pearce promoted Randwick and Coogee as a fashionable area. But the market gardens, orchards and piggeries that continued alongside the large estates were the lot of the working class. Even on the later estates that became racing empires, many jockeys and stablehands lived in huts or even under canvas. An even poorer group were the immigrants who existed on the periphery of Randwick in a place called Irishtown, in the area now known as The Spot, around the junction of St.Paul's Street and Perouse Road. Here families lived in makeshift houses, taking on the most menial tasks in their struggle to survive.

In 1858 when the NSW Government passed the Municipalities Act, enabling formation of municipal districts empowered to collect rates and borrow money to improve their suburb, Randwick was the first suburb to apply for the status of a municipality. It was approved in Februrary 1859, and its first Council was elected in March 1859.

Randwick had been the venue for sporting events, as well as duels and illegal sports, from the early days in the colony's history. Its first racecourse, the Sandy Racecourse or Old Sand Track, had been a hazardous track over hills and gullies since 1860. When a move was made in 1863 by John Tait, to establish Randwick Racecourse, Simeon Pearce was furious, expecially when he heard that Tait also intended to move into Byron Lodge. Tait's venture prospered, however and he became the first person in Australia to organise racing as a commercial sport. The racecourse made a big difference to the progress of Randwick. The horse-bus gave way to trams that linked the suburb to Sydney and civilisation. Randwick soon became a prosperous and lively place, and it still retains a busy residential, professional and commercial life.

Today, some of the houses have been replaced by home units. Many European migrants have made their homes in the areaa, along with students and workers at the nearby University of NSW and the Prince of Wales Hospital. (ibid, 218-9).

Electricity Supply:
Electricity substation No. 349 is a purpose designed and built structure dating from c.1930, constructed by the Municipal Council of Sydney to supply power to consumers in the Randwick area.
From the late 1920s there was enormous expansion in electricity provision within the Sydney region, driven by the suburban growth of the 1920s and 1930s. Under this impetus, dozens of electricity substations were built annually to service demand.

Historical documentation:
1. "Erected by J Rutherford on tender for the Municipal Council of Sydney which was the electricity authority before the Sydney County Council took over in 1935. The Council decided to purchase the land in 1929 from the Railway commissioners (being part of the tramway land) for 600 Pounds. The tender for 1,180 Pounds by J Rutherford was accepted in September 1930." (Randwick Heritage Study).
2. Vol 19:
13/8/30 p27 - tenders called for construction
27/8/30 p38 tender for substation 349 Prince Street awarded to J Rutherford for (Pounds)1180.
(Minutes of the Electric Light Committee, Municipal Council of Sydney -- CRS 14).

Electricity Provision in Sydney, 1904 to present
In 1904, the year in which the first power station in Sydney commenced operations, the Municipal Council of Sydney (MCS) was formed to produce and distribute electric light and power to central Sydney. From 1904 until 1935 the MCS, as both an electricity generation and distribution authority, constructed hundreds of small distribution substations throughout Sydney, many of which are still in service. The MCS supplied electricity to retail customers around the inner city, inner west and lower north shore and provided bulk power to outer western and northern suburbs such as Penrith, Hornsby and Manly.
The MCS initially competed against a number of private electricity supply companies. These were mostly small-scale operations which the MCS had acquired by 1914. The exception was the Electric Light and Power Supply Corporation (ELPSC), established in 1909, which was the one major private player in the Sydney electricity market until 1955 when it was nationalised by the Electricity Commission of NSW.
In 1935 the functions of the MCS Electricity Department were taken over by the Sydney County Council (SCC) with broad responsibility for electricity supply across the Sydney region. There was rapid expansion in the electricity distribution network with 40-50 substations constructed annually. The scale of SCC's operations consistently made it the largest local authority in Australia throughout the second half of the 20th century.
In 1991 the SCC was reconstituted as Sydney Electricity (a statutory authority). In 1996 Sydney Electricity merged with the Hunter regional electricity authority Orion (formerly Shortland Electricity) and was corporatised as EnergyAustralia, which it remains today (2007).

Substation design, 1904 to present
Electricity distribution substations were generally built as modest 1 or 2 storey buildings, with Zone Substations considerably larger in scale.
The style and nature of substation construction became progressively more standardised as the electricity network expanded. While the earliest substations tended to be large, well-ornamented public buildings, as they became more commonplace, substations became smaller and simpler. This reflected the need for cost-effective construction methods, the reduction in size of electrical equipment and the speed with which substations needed to be constructed to keep pace with demand.
While early substations were often purpose-designed and built for a specific location, by the late 1920s the trend was for standardised designs built to a similar size and generally designed to fit on a standard suburban subdivision block, typically 100-200 m2.
Designs did keep pace with architectural trends and it is possible to identify a number of different and distinct architectural styles of substations. One-off designed substations did continue to be built well into the mid-20th century thought these tended to be restricted to what the SCC referred to as "high class" suburbs in Sydney's east.
The number of substations constructed in the Sydney region exploded from the late 1920s, with dozens of substations being constructed in any one year to cope with expanding demand. While in the early years of network construction many substations had unique characteristics and were sited in response to a particular need, from the late 1920s standardised designs were generally used and expansion was based on a need to establish and expand the electricity grid rather than in response to localised or site-specific issues.
By the 1950s the trend towards architecturally designed and detailed substations was exhausted. From that point on, the freestanding metal kiosk-style substation was progressively introduced, while buildings, where they were constructed, tended towards strictly functional unadorned brick enclosures.
Substation design was also influenced by the general changes in Australian building construction in the mid-20th century. The trend towards larger steel and concrete buildings saw "chamber"" style substations incorporated directly within new buildings. In such circumstances the electricity provider had little or no input into the architectural style of the substation chamber, merely supplying technical requirements which influenced the location and size of the substation within the new building.
This trend also saw smaller older-style substations demolished in some areas and replaced with new chamber substations incorporated into a new development. This style of construction is commonplace today, particularly in high density urban areas.
EnergyAustralia's older substations range from very finely detailed to very plain and functional.
The early government-run electrical authorities were aware of the need to make substations in residential areas attractive and in keeping with the surroundings, and an architect joined the substation design area of Sydney County Council in 1936. By contrast, the modern trend is to make substations essentially invisible, through incorporating them into larger buildings, placing them wholly underground or within anonymous small steel boxes which tend to be ignored in urban environments. The exception to this continues to be the zone substations and high voltage switchyards, which continue to require large buildings or areas of land to house equipment.
Historically, better quality buildings tended to be reserved for what the MCS referred to as "high class" suburbs (particularly Woollahra and Mosman) while middle- and working-class suburbs generally received much simpler, functional buildings. Designs tended to be reused, sometimes with only minimal variation.
There are also marked stylistic differences between substations constructed by government as opposed to those constructed by the Electric Light and Power Supply Corporation (ELPSC) throughout the first half of the 20th century. The ELPSC substations tend to be functionalist brick boxes with only the slightest degree of architectural detailing or ornamentation, whereas the substations constructed by municipalities, while often reusing the same underlying design with minor variation, tend to be more finely detailed and in many instances are designed to match the architecture of the surrounding area. This may reflect the different nature of the competing priorities of a private as opposed to a government enterprise. A number of former ELPSC structures exist within the EnergyAustralia network.

Historic themes

Australian theme (abbrev)New South Wales themeLocal theme
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Technology-Activities and processes associated with the knowledge or use of mechanical arts and applied sciences Technologies for electrical supply-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Utilities-Activities associated with the provision of services, especially on a communal basis Distributing electricity-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Utilities-Activities associated with the provision of services, especially on a communal basis Developing roles for private provision of electricity-
7. Governing-Governing Government and Administration-Activities associated with the governance of local areas, regions, the State and the nation, and the administration of public programs - includes both principled and corrupt activities. Developing roles for government - providing reticulated water-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Creative endeavour-Activities associated with the production and performance of literary, artistic, architectural and other imaginative, interpretive or inventive works; and/or associated with the production and expression of cultural phenomena; and/or environments that have inspired such creative activities. Applying architectural design to industrial structures-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Creative endeavour-Activities associated with the production and performance of literary, artistic, architectural and other imaginative, interpretive or inventive works; and/or associated with the production and expression of cultural phenomena; and/or environments that have inspired such creative activities. Architectural styles and periods - Interwar Mediterranean-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Creative endeavour-Activities associated with the production and performance of literary, artistic, architectural and other imaginative, interpretive or inventive works; and/or associated with the production and expression of cultural phenomena; and/or environments that have inspired such creative activities. Architectural styles and periods - Interwar Spanish Mission-
9. Phases of Life-Marking the phases of life Persons-Activities of, and associations with, identifiable individuals, families and communal groups Associations with Walter Frederick White, City Architect's Dept, Municipal Council of Sydney-

Assessment of significance

SHR Criteria a)
[Historical significance]
Electricity Substation No 349, Randwick, is significant at the local level both for its association with a significant historical phase, in the major expansion of electricity provision to Sydney's rapidly developing eastern suburbs in the 1920s and 1930s, and in demonstrating the continuity of historical activity in the provision of electricity.
Substation No 349, Randwick is historically important as a component of the electricity distribution network which delivered electrical power to consumers in Sydney's rapidly developing eastern suburbs.
The substation continues to serve its original function within Sydney's electricity network (2007).
SHR Criteria b)
[Associative significance]
Electricity substation No. 349, Randwick is significant at state level for its association with the work of Walter Frederick White (ARIA), City Architect's Office, Municipal Council of Sydney and its successor organisation, Sydney County Council, where White worked between c.1924 and c.1947. It is the best known example to date (2007) of White's design for electrical substations.
White is known to have been responsible for the substantial and sympathetic 1929 extensions to the Interwar Art Nouveau/Art Deco styled Auburn Zone Substation No. 167 and for the design of the Waverley Zone Substation No. 269, Bondi (1928) which is also in the Interwar Mediterranean/Spanish Mission styles and is the largest substation (and only zone substation) to be designed in this style.
Further research should reveal additional surviving substations built by the Municipal Council of Sydney and Sydney County Council that can be attributed to WF White.
SHR Criteria c)
[Aesthetic significance]
Electricity substation No. 349, Randwick, is significant at state level as an aesthetically distinctive, unusually large, unusually well detailed and rare example of a purpose-designed and built Interwar Mediterranean/Spanish Mission style substation.
The substation is a fine example of the high standard of work of the City Architect's Office of the Sydney Municipal Council, which was conscious of the need to erect substations suitable to the urban environment of the time. It demonstrates the Council's express policy of constructing finely designed buildings in areas it considered to be 'high class' suburbs and is testament to the past creative endeavour of electricity providers in applying architectural values to utilitarian structures.
It is similar in design to the larger, less detailed Waverley Zone Substation No. 269, Bondi. Both substations were designed by the WF White, City Architect's Office, Municipal Council of Sydney in the Mediterranean/Spanish Mission style.
Electricity Substation No. 349, Randwick, is the most intact of the Spanish Mission styled substations in Sydney.
SHR Criteria d)
[Social significance]
The site does not meet this criterion.
SHR Criteria e)
[Research potential]
The site does not meet this criterion. Internal equipment has been completely altered over the life of the building.
SHR Criteria f)
[Rarity]
Electricity Substation No. 349, Randwick, is significant at state level as the only distribution substation built in the Interwar Mediterranean/Spanish Mission styles with such a fine level of detail that also remains intact, in original condition, and retains all of its architectural detail (which is often missing on substations from this period).
Electricity Substation No. 349, Randwick, shares stylistic similarities with the following four distribution substations (all in Sydney's eastern suburbs) that were built by the Municipal Council of Sydney (MCS) or Sydney County Council (SCC) between 1929 and 1939:
No. 300, Clovelly (c. 1929, Interwar Spanish Mission, MCS)
No. 314, Vaucluse (1930, Interwar Mediterranean, MCS)
No. 364, Bellevue Hill (1931, Interwar Mediterranean, MCS)
No. 592, Watsons Bay (1939, Interwar Mediterranean, SCC).
These four substations are assessed on EnergyAustralia's section 170 Heritage and Conservation Register 2007 as being significant at the local level.
They are all smaller, less detailed and less intact structures than Electricity Substation No. 349, Randwick.
SHR Criteria g)
[Representativeness]
Electricity Substation No. 349, Randwick, is significant at state level as typical, in terms of function, within the electricity network
It is, however, unusually large and well detailed for a distribution substation.
Integrity/Intactness: Exterior is architecturally intact. Internal equipment has been completely altered.
Assessment criteria: Items are assessed against the PDF State Heritage Register (SHR) Criteria to determine the level of significance. Refer to the Listings below for the level of statutory protection.

Recommended management:

This item is important to the heritage of NSW and should be conserved. A Conservation Management Plan should be prepared for this item. Original details must be maintained including doors, windows and original signage. New materials should be sympathetic to the nature and character of the original building. In the event of major proposed changes prepare a Statement of Heritage Impact and undertake an archival recording. Assess proposed changes against the Standard Exemptions for Works Requiring Heritage Council Approval and, if necessary, seek approval under the Heritage Act. Wherever possible, changes should be restricted to the interior of the building and be designed to minimise impact to significant fabric. Routine maintenance of existing fabric is essential.

Procedures /Exemptions

Section of actDescriptionTitleCommentsAction date
57(2)Exemption to allow workStandard Exemptions SCHEDULE OF STANDARD EXEMPTIONS
HERITAGE ACT 1977
Notice of Order Under Section 57 (2) of the Heritage Act 1977

I, the Minister for Planning, pursuant to subsection 57(2) of the Heritage Act 1977, on the recommendation of the Heritage Council of New South Wales, do by this Order:

1. revoke the Schedule of Exemptions to subsection 57(1) of the Heritage Act made under subsection 57(2) and published in the Government Gazette on 22 February 2008; and

2. grant standard exemptions from subsection 57(1) of the Heritage Act 1977, described in the Schedule attached.

FRANK SARTOR
Minister for Planning
Sydney, 11 July 2008

To view the schedule click on the Standard Exemptions for Works Requiring Heritage Council Approval link below.
Sep 5 2008
57(2)Exemption to allow workHeritage Act - Site Specific Exemptions HERITAGE ACT, 1977

ORDER UNDER SECTION 57(2)

ENERGYAUSTRALIA - SITE SPECIFIC EXEMPTIONS


I, the Minister for Planning, on the recommendation of the Heritage Council of New South Wales, in pursuance of section 57(2) of the Heritage Act, 1977, do, by this my order

(a) under section 57(2) of the Heritage Act grant exemption from Heritage Council approval under Section 57(1) of the Heritage Act, as outlined in Schedule A, for the following activities described in 1-15 below, subject to review and approval by a person with demonstrated heritage expertise and experience in similar buildings and sites.

1. Replacement of corrugated asbestos roofing systems, box gutters and eaves with corrugated metal roofing system which maintains the general profile of the building roof and does not require replacement of structural fabric of the roof and retains any decorative features of the original roof design (e.g. exposed eaves, decorative soffits or barge boards). The choice of roofing material should not preclude the reinstatement of the original form of rainwater goods.

2. Replacement of non-original switchgear and associated internal building rearrangements to accommodate new switchgear, which does not require the significant removal of building fabric.

3. Replacement of non-original internal and external transformers.

4. Internal installation of fire mitigation apparatus and mechanisms including fire curtains, sheeting of structural members to improve fire rating and replacement of internal fire doors with asbestos cores.

5. Minor works necessary to preserve and enhance the security of the building including the replacement of locks, installation of internal security screens and grilles and the installation of electronic access control devices.

6. Maintenance and minor repairs that are necessary to preserve and maintain the building and are within the limits of the standard exemptions of the Heritage Act.

7. Excavations and reinstatement associated with installation or replacement of conduits, cables, services and pipes, where this will occur within existing cable egress areas or existing cable jointing areas and there are no known or suspected archaeological relics.

8. Minor works internal to the building including:
a) Replacement of Customer Load Control Equipment.
b) Upgrade of non-original toilet / washroom facilities.
c) Upgrade of control room equipment.
d) Refurbishment of battery rooms.
e) The removal of asbestos materials such as interior and external sheet linings, fire proofing, troughing, conduits, window sealant, asbestos fire doors etc.
f) The removal of devices and equipment containing mercury or other heavy metals.
g) Removal of lead-based paint and reinstatement with the original paint scheme.
h) Replacement of non-original lighting fixtures, including electrical controls where they are required for security or safety.

9. Minor internal works necessary to upgrade and enhance the structural integrity of the building which do not impact on the heritage significance of the building including:
a) The internal fitting of improved handrails and or stairs to access higher stories for the reason of safe access.
b) The upgrade of non-original internal lifting / crane equipment in loading docks specifically required for manual handling of equipment to meet WorkCover requirements.

10. Temporary works including containment areas, scaffolding and enclosures necessary for the carrying out of maintenance, enhancement or upgrading works.

11. Installation of safety or information signs, not being for commercial or advertising purposes.

12. Maintenance and painting of finished building surfaces where colour of finish is matched to the original colour.

13. Decommissioning of a substation and removal of non-original equipment.

14. Installation of oil containment systems in order to meet NSW EPA Pollution Licence requirements, in the following circumstances:
a) Masonry or concrete bunding around transformers and within existing transformer bays.
b) Underground oil containment works or systems in areas where there are no known or suspected archaeological relics.

15. Ventilation and air conditioning works limited to:
a) Replacement of existing external vents and louvres in a style consistent with the external appearance of the building.
b) Replacement of non-mechanical rooftop ventilators in a style consistent with the form, scale and position of existing ventilators.
c) Internal air conditioning systems with no externally visible components and which do not require the removal of original building fabric.

KRISTINA KENEALLY, M.P.,
Minister for Planning
Sydney, 5 Day of May 2009


SCHEDULE A

Item State Heritage Register Listing Number

Electricity Power House, Crows Nest SHR 00931
Relay Test Centre, Haberfield SHR 00933
Substation, Ultimo SHR 00934
Substation, Randwick SHR 00935
Substation, Balgowlah SHR 00936
Substation, Manly SHR 00938
Substation, Paddington SHR 00939
Substation, Pymble SHR 00940
Substation, Annandale SHR 00941
Electricity Substation No 167, Auburn SHR 01790
Electricity Substation No 269, Bondi SHR 01791
Electricity Substation No 349, Randwick SHR 01792
May 15 2009

PDF Standard exemptions for works requiring Heritage Council approval

Listings

Heritage ListingListing TitleListing NumberGazette DateGazette NumberGazette Page
Heritage Act - State Heritage Register 0179202 May 08 483584

Study details

TitleYearNumberAuthorInspected byGuidelines used
Sydney Electricity Section 170 Register1994 Schwager Brooks and Partners  Yes

References, internet links & images

TypeAuthorYearTitleInternet Links
WrittenNorth, M2007EnergyAustralia Heritage & Conservation Register Review Project, Final Report
WrittenNorth, M2007EnergyAustralia Heritage & Conservation Register Review Project - Final Report
WrittenPollon, F. & Healy, G.1988Randwick entry in 'The Book of Sydney Suburb'
WrittenWilkenfeld, G & Spearitt, P2004Electrifying Sydney

Note: internet links may be to web pages, documents or images.

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Data source

The information for this entry comes from the following source:
Name: Heritage Office
Database number: 5060567
File number: H07/00158-001


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