Shepherds Hill Defence Group Military Installations | NSW Environment, Energy and Science

Culture and heritage


Shepherds Hill Defence Group Military Installations

Item details

Name of item: Shepherds Hill Defence Group Military Installations
Other name/s: Shepherd's Hill Group includes Residence (Gunner's Cottage/Caretaker's quarters), Observation Post and Gun Placement; Shepherds Hill Battery
Type of item: Complex / Group
Group/Collection: Defence
Category: Fortification
Location: Lat: -32.9357266783 Long: 151.7786721860
Primary address: 41 The Terrace, Newcastle, NSW 2300
Local govt. area: Newcastle
Local Aboriginal Land Council: Awabakal
Property description
Lot/Volume CodeLot/Volume NumberSection NumberPlan/Folio CodePlan/Folio Number
PART LOT2 DP1145960
PART LOT78 DP154075
LOT3116 DP755247


This item comprises 5 elements, as follows: 41 The Terrace: Southern and south-eastern boundaries are the cliff, the western boundary is the wire fence just east of The Terrace. The northern boundary is just beyond the intersection of York Drive and the Terrace and passes approximately 5 meters along parallel to the access road to the site. It follows the 67 meter contour around to the edge of the cliff. See image no.7. 65 Nesca Parade: One metre from the footings of the Searchlight Engine Room. The units constructed on top of the Searchlight Engine Room are excluded from the listing Tunnel: The boundary is the interior fabric of the tunnel connecting the Searchlight engine room with the Searchlight Bunker on the cliff-face. Searchlight Bunker: Five meters from the footings of the bunker. Battery No. 1 gun emplacement: Five meters from the footings.
All addresses
Street AddressSuburb/townLGAParishCountyType
Near Cliff StreetThe HillNewcastle   
41 The TerraceNewcastleNewcastle  Primary Address
65 Nesca ParadeThe HillNewcastle  Alternate Address
12/101 Memorial DriveThe HillNewcastle  Alternate Address


Organisation NameOwner CategoryDate Ownership Updated
Land and Property Management Authority (LPMA)State Government 
Newcastle City CouncilLocal Government 

Statement of significance:

The Shepherds Hill Group is historically significant at a State and possibly a national level, because its history forms an important part of the story of Australian coastal defences, spanning a six-decade period from the late 19th, to the mid 20th century. During this time, the site was a key defence post. Its history provides an insight into the way that NSW defence policy reacted to changing technologies, threats and types of warfare. During WWII, the fortifications at Shepherds Hill played a co-ordinating role in the defence of Newcastle. Defence of Newcastle during this time was of high significance to the state, because Newcastle had become an area of great strategic and industrial importance in NSW, with its steelworks and operational port. The majority of the state's shells were produced in Newcastle and it was also the site of the NSW Dockyards. In order to protect these productions, a new system of defence was undertaken, which included the strengthening of Fort Wallis and the construction of two new close defence batteries - Shepherd's Hill and Fort Scratchley. The defence system proved its worth when in June 1942, Newcastle was fired on by cruising Japanese submarines, and Newcastle gained the distinction of being the only place in Australia that returned enemy fire with the launching of guns from Fort Scratchley. The fact that the Shepherds Hill fortification was simultaneously manned by members of the Navy, Army and the Airforce for a variety of functions is rare, and possibly unique in Australia.
Date significance updated: 21 Jul 10
Note: The State Heritage Inventory provides information about heritage items listed by local and State government agencies. The State Heritage Inventory is continually being updated by local and State agencies as new information becomes available. Read the OEH copyright and disclaimer.


Construction years: 1890-1940
Physical description: The Shepherds Hill Group comprises:
- a cottage (known as the Gunner's Cottage / Caretaker's Quarters / Shepherds Hill Cottage)
- remains of a disappearing 8-inch gun;
- an observation post complex, and
- the remains of the searchlight No 1 position with its attached tunnel and engine room (on the cliff below Strzelecki lookout).

The cottage and observation post are located on a cliff at the southern end of King Edward Park. The No 1 (southern) searchlight is located on the face of the cliff below Strzelecki lookout with a tunnel running underneath Memorial Drive to the engine room below units at 65 Nesca Pde Newcastle.

Shepherds Hill is one of the best lookout points in Newcastle so it is hardly surprising that a fortifications and observation post of the strategic importance of the Shepherds Hill group is located here. The site is 70m above sea level and extends from the street called The Terrace, approximately 110m eastwards to the top of the cliff.

Gunner's Cottage:
The Cottage is an Edwardian period weatherboard residence, with a corrugated metal roof and feature timber finials. It is in the care and control of Newcastle City Council and was restored sympathetically in 1997. A "caretaking" role is provided by the Royal Volunteer Coastal Patrol who carry out their operations from the building and hold a 20 year lease, due to expire in around 2017. The residence stands in contrasts to the brutalist concrete forms of the observation post structures. The cottage contains a living room, a dining room, three bedrooms, two sunrooms, a kitchen, a bathroom, a laundry and a porch. The garage, store and toilet are detached from the Cottage. The sunrooms and the bathroom are additions, which is evident from the more contemporary style of windows. The garage is also an addition.

The Observation Post:
The Observation Post is made of reinforced concrete and has 5 levels with 8 observation rooms. It is approximately 8 meters tall and is an interesting structure due to its many interlocking levels. It is visible from many vantage points within the park and from the south and north along the coastline.

Gun Emplacement:
The Gun Emplacement, which is located behind the Observation Post has a gun pit and two magazines behind it. One of these is for the storage of shells and the other for the storage of propellant charges. These are linked to the gun-pit by underground cables. There is sandstone detailing at the entry area and casemate. The entry is through the casemate via a vehicular ramp. It also has depression range finding stations which are symmetrically placed along a central corridor. There is another depression range finding station which is aboveground and is to the north of the main building.

No. 1 Search light site:
The No 1 searchlight is located on a cliff below Strzelecki lookout. It is connected to an engine room via a brick and concrete lined tunnel. The engine room is of mass concrete construction and is visually similar to the construction of the observation post buildings. It is highly intact and the original steel entry doors survive, although a 2 storey residential flat
building has been built on the roof of the engine room. The tunnel is about 100 metres in length and originally carried the cables for the operation of the searchlight from the engine room.

The No 2 searchlight was positioned to the left of the stepped pathway leading down to the lower end of Garside Gardens. Its engine house was at the foot of the slope immediately behind the bowling club. It has not been found as part of this study.
Physical condition and/or
Archaeological potential:
Grounds at Shepherds Hill are in reasonable condition in the central area. However towards the edges of the hill, bitou bush proliferates and it has an unkempt appearance.

is kept reasonably well maintained. The Cottage is in sound condition following its restoration by Newcastle City Council in 1997.
Good - obvious deterioration (Newcastle, Coastal Plan of Management, 2015).

Laundry Shed:
very good condition, minor deterioration
(Newcastle, Coastal Plan of Management, 2015).

Observation Post & disappearing 8" Gun:
The concrete structures including the remains of the observation post and disappearing 8-inch gun are in poor condition and require considerable eingineering and heritage conservation treatments to ensure the items are preserved. To various depths, the gun emplacement has been filled with sand and rubble. There is a tunnel entrance to the emplacement as well as other underground tunnels and chambers. (Browne, p.20). Despite the overall poor conditions, these underground tunnels are still visible as are the cables.

Watch Tower:
The watch tower is in a poor condition, and its lower level is filled with rubbish and water. Salt air has corroded the embedded steel reinforcing which has led to large areas of spalling concrete. This corrosion has also occurred on areas of exposed steel.

Searchlight No 1 tunnel and engine house:
The Searchlight No 1 tunnel and engine house are in good condition, however the engine house is full of rubbish. The steel doors are heavily corroded making access difficult. The strata unit manager has instructed that the doors be bolted and the windows are now clad in heavy ply to prevent unlawful entry.
Date condition updated:17 Nov 09
Modifications and dates: The sunroom, bathroom and garage are all additions to the cottage. The cottage was used to house Newcastle's artist in residence and is now used to house the Royal Volunteer Coastal Safety branch of Newcastle who have a 20 year lease of the building. The lease is due to expire around 2018.
Further information: The No 1 Searchlight engine room and tunnel are located at the rear of 65 Nesca Pde The Hill, and forms the base of the two-storey strata units known as 65 Nesca Pde.
Current use: Cottage is used by the Royal Volunteer Coastal Patrol
Former use: Military gun battery emplacement


Historical notes: The name 'Shepherd's Hill' is derived from the name 'Sheep Pasture Hills' which was given to the place by Lieutenant Colonel Paterson when he first visited the site in 1801, because the steep grassy slopes reminded him of England. The area was mined for coal during the 1840s, with a copper smelting works operating on the site (Bathers Way: Surveillance, interpretive sign at Shepherds Hill). Huts were constructed for miners and their families.

In 1879, Colonel Scratchley proposed a self-contained and self-defensible fort with the purpose of protecting the settlement as well as the Newcastle coalfields from foreign attack.

Military occupation of the site began in the 1890s, with the construction of an 8-inch disappearing gun emplacement with underground rooms. This was developed in response the threat of an attack from Russia. A cottage was also built, and this was first inhabited by Master Gunner Wollitt, when he was master to the gunner for the Shepherds Hill and Fort Scratchley emplacement (G. Browne, 1984, p.11). There were two batteries in operation at Shepherds Hill, one to the south of the site near Cliff Street and one to the north, above York Drive. The second battery has since been demolished. These two batteries were established as part of an integrated project to advance the defences of the city of Newcastle. This project included the strengthening of fortifications at Fort Scratchley.

In 1896 a gun was constructed at Shepherds Hill, one mile south of Fort Scratchley, in order to strengthen Newcastle's defence system. The disappearing gun, also known as a 'jumper' or 'hydro-pneumatic gun' had been developed in 1883 and seemed to offer cheap, effective protection with the benefit of being discreet. Major General Scratchley ordered many of these new guns for the Australian colonies, despite the reservations that the War Office had about the guns. The gun was supported above the gun pit by a carriage and after firing, the gun would contract down below the parapet to be reloaded. The energy of this contraction was absorbed in compressing hydraulic rams which then returned the gun to firing position.

However, this weapon had two significant drawbacks. Firstly, it only offered limited elevation and secondly,
the time taken to reload the gun was a hindrance. The new warships that had been developed demanded a faster rate of fire which could only be achieved by a gun which stayed in position and could be simultaneously fired and loaded (P. Oppenheim, 2005, p.139-140).

The British Government discontinued this system of defence in Australian colonies after a few years. In 1906, the Shepherds Hill gun was deemed unsafe, and this, in combination with the fact that Fort Scratchley did not have a clear view of Stockton Bight led to the establishment of Fort Wallace at Stockton (G. Browne, 1984, p. 12).

By 1939, Newcastle was one of the primary sources of munitions production for NSW and during WWII it became a significant industrial area (J.R. Graham, 1969, p.69). The company BHP which operated in Newcastle, had been preparing for the outbreak of war since Essington Lewis, its head had made an overseas trip in 1934. Munitions productions began at the steelworks and metallurgists were forced to adapt new technologies involved in manufacturing alloys not previously been produced in Australia. After acquiring the steelworks at Port Kembla, BHP became the only integrated iron and steel producer in Australia (NSW Heritage Inventory, BHP Administration Building, SHI entry number 2173907).

Thus, the defence of Newcastle had an importance beyond the immediate area and was significant to Australia as a whole. The majority of the state's shells were produced in Newcastle and it was also the site of the NSW Dockyards. In order to protect these productions, a new system of defence was undertaken, which included the strengthening of Fort Wallace at Stockton and construction of two new close defence batteries, Shepherd's Hill and Fort Scratchley. Both sites were armed with 6 inch MK VII ex naval guns and controlled from an Observation Post on the site of the old 8 inch battery on Shepherd's Hill. All defences in area were controlled by the Observation Post on Shepherds Hill (J. R. Graham, 1969, p.64).

As part of the strengthening of Newcastle's defence system, various new projects were undertaken at Shepherds Hill during WWII, such as accommodation for troops stationed on site and erection of the No's 1 and 2 searchlights and engine rooms and driving a 100 metre long tunnel to provide a housing for the No. 1 searchlight, 60 metres above sea level. The cottage was used as an Officers Mess for troops stationed at Shepherds Hill.

The most important construction was that of an Observation Post. The natural height of the hill as well as the ruggedness of the hills made Shepherds Hill a good location for this construction. The Observation Post was 106m above sea level and was used as a range finder for Fort Wallace, which had an Observation Post only 22m above sea level. This was unusual because it meant that the post was 6000 yards away from the guns that it controlled, but the extra height of Shepherds Hill was necessary in order to have a clear view of targets. (G. Browne, 1984, p.14) New technologies in instant communication via electric telegraph made this possible.

During WWII the Observation Port was simultaneously run by all three services; the Royal Australian Navy, the Army and the Royal Australian Air Force. The Port War Signal Station was controlled by the Navy and used to collect information on ship movements. The Early warning radar was manned by the Air Force. Those functions manned by the Navy were the Fire Commander's Post, Officer Commanding Searchlights, a Fortress Observation Post, a Battery Observation Post for Fort Wallace as well as one for Park Battery and a searchlight direction station for Park Battery.

The development of the Observation Post at Shepherds Hill during WW II reflects Australia's growing fear of invasion. One of the reasons for this concern was the realisation that Australia could not rely as heavily on Britain for protection as it had in the past. There seemed a real threat of a Japanese invasion, especially since the League of Nations mandate, which allowed Japan to administer various Islands in the Pacific. Thus, defence of the coast was a priority. Fort Scratchley, which had close ties to Shepherds Hill, responded to an attack on the city by a Japanese submarine in June 1942. This is the only place on the mainland of Australia known to have returned fire (NewcastleCity Council, 2007, section 1.6.3.). The batteries at Shepherds Hill formed an integrated system with the batteries at Fort Scratchley, Fort Wallace at Stockton and at Tomaree on Port Stephens. Shepherds Hill had the role of coordinating this system.

In 1946, a policy of classifying Australia's defences in three different categories was adopted. Newcastle's defences were classified as category 'B', which meant that they were to be kept fully operational and stored in such a way that they could be quickly installed in the appropriate location during wartime. The only other city in NSW classified as 'B' was Sydney (P. Oppenheim, 2005, p. 291).

In 1956, following orders from the British Government, Coast Artillery was disbanded. In the 1950s to early 1960s, the Gunner's Cottage at Shepherds Hill was inhabited by Jack Green, the Officer Commanding the School Cadets. It was used by the Army until the 1960s. Following this, it housed Newcastle city's 'Artist in Residence', as part of a program aimed towards promoting young local artists.

Between 1988 and 1992 Tony Steinbeck lived in the Gunner's Cottage (Steinbeck, pers.comm., 22/8/2016).

The land is now held by the State Government's Department of Lands, with Newcastle City Council appointed as Trustee. The cottage has been renovated and is now used by the Newcastle branch of the Volunteer Coastal Patrol.

Along with Fort Scratchley and South Head in Sydney, Shepherds Hill is one of the few sites in NSW where fortifications are still intact. As with Shepherds Hill, South Head is a natural defence point of the coast. South Head formed part of an integrated system of defence of the Sydney coast line with other sites of strategic importance being Middle Head and North Head. The remaining fortifications at South Head are illustrative of an open system of defence. Open batteries were cheaper to construct than closed batteries or casemates and were also effective against new warfare technologies such as explosive shells (NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service, 2007, p. 164). This system of defence was implemented at South Head during the 1870s. Although South Head, North Head and Middle did have disappearing guns, these were replaced in the 1890s by Quick Firing Guns, which were in open concrete pits (NSW National Parks and Wildlife Service, 2007, p.167). In contrast, the system at Shepherds Hill is illustrative of a closed system of defence, with the disappearing gun and underground passages providing physical evidence of this system. Thus, if South Head and Shepherds Hill are looked at together, an archaeology of changing military technologies becomes apparent.

Historic themes

Australian theme (abbrev)New South Wales themeLocal theme
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Communication-Activities relating to the creation and conveyance of information Utilities-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Environment - cultural landscape-Activities associated with the interactions between humans, human societies and the shaping of their physical surroundings Developing local, regional and national economies-National Theme 3
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Environment - cultural landscape-Activities associated with the interactions between humans, human societies and the shaping of their physical surroundings Landscapes of military activities-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Industry-Activities associated with the manufacture, production and distribution of goods Manufacturing defence materials-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Science-Activities associated with systematic observations, experiments and processes for the explanation of observable phenomena (none)-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Technology-Activities and processes associated with the knowledge or use of mechanical arts and applied sciences (none)-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Technology-Activities and processes associated with the knowledge or use of mechanical arts and applied sciences Technologies for adapting wartime structures-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Towns, suburbs and villages-Activities associated with creating, planning and managing urban functions, landscapes and lifestyles in towns, suburbs and villages 19th Century Infrastructure-
7. Governing-Governing Defence-Activities associated with defending places from hostile takeover and occupation Defending the nation.-
7. Governing-Governing Defence-Activities associated with defending places from hostile takeover and occupation State links in a national network-
7. Governing-Governing Defence-Activities associated with defending places from hostile takeover and occupation Observing and looking out for enemy movements-
7. Governing-Governing Defence-Activities associated with defending places from hostile takeover and occupation Sending and receiving messages-
7. Governing-Governing Defence-Activities associated with defending places from hostile takeover and occupation (none)-
7. Governing-Governing Defence-Activities associated with defending places from hostile takeover and occupation Making and supplying ordinance-

Assessment of significance

SHR Criteria a)
[Historical significance]
The Shepherds Hill Group is historically significant at a state level because of its importantrole in the coastal defence of NSW. It was an important defence and Observation post for the state during the time of the Crimean War. Shepherds Hill Group formed an integral part of Newcastle's integrated defence system, and changes made to this system since the
1880s reflect the way that NSW defence policy responded to new threats as well as technological developments. It was also crucial that Newcastle be defended during periods of war, due to the fact Newcastle was an important industrial centre, that supplied munitions from the steelworks and beef (via the port) to the military during WW2. The Newcastle Steelworks formed an important part of the economy of NSW and were a significant part of the war effort. The surviving complex tells an important story associated with the course of Australian national history and is strongly evocative of the military defence of strategically important Australian places.
The site has a significant association with all three of the armed forces. It is also associated with Fort Scratchley, another highly significant defence site and the only place on the mainland of Australia that is known to have returned fire. This occurred when the city was under attack by a Japanese submarine in June 1942 (Newcastle City Council, 2007, section
SHR Criteria b)
[Associative significance]
Within the limited research carried out for this review, the site was not found to be significant under this criteria.
SHR Criteria c)
[Aesthetic significance]
The site has aesthetic significance due to the impressive views it offers along the Newcastle coastline as a complex of structures and forms and which are highly evocative of war and coastal defense systems. The Gun Enplacement and Observation Post occupy a prominent position on a high vantage point adjacent to King Edward Park, Newcastle's major historic
park. The solid and robust concrete forms are visible from within the park and make for a memorable counterpoint to the high Victorian architecture of the street called The Terrace to the immediate west. These physical elements provide the park with a sense of drama and interst. As a destination it is used as a venue for wedding pictures, artistic endeavours and photography of the coastline. The No 1 searchlight engine room and its tunnel at 65 Nesca Pde display a high degree of technical achievement and are in remarkably good condition for their 60 year age. The early 1960s period residential flat building that is built on the roof of the Searchlight engine room is an interesting example of building recycling for other nonrelated uses.
SHR Criteria d)
[Social significance]
The Shepherds Hill group may be of social significance to the local veteran community.
SHR Criteria e)
[Research potential]
The site is scientifically significant because the 8-inch Breach Loading Hydro Pneumatic Disappearing Gun emplacement in is an example of the developing technology during the latter years of the 19th Century. This has the potential to yield important information about changing military technologies in NSW. The No 1 Searchlight and tunnel retain a high
degree of intactness. The structures have the potential to yeild information relating to the construction techniques used at the time and the fortification of the coastline.
SHR Criteria f)
The site is rare as it contains the only unmodified 8-inch Disappearing Gun Emplacement in NSW. This gun emplacement provides a rare example of the disappearing guns that were a new and fleeting development in military technology. Although other sites such as South Head had disappearing guns, these were replaced in the 1890s. Shepherds Hill is possibly
unique in in Australia because during WWII, it was simultaneously manned by the R.A.N, Army and R.A.A.F for a variety of functions. The tunnel system appears to be intact and in good condition and it may be one of only a few such fortifications surviving under a headland in Australia, with the exception of Fort Scratchley. The No 1 Searchlight engine room and its
100 metre long tunnel are rare surviving examples of the fortification of the coastlineby the installation of a searchlight, high up on a sea cliff.
SHR Criteria g)
Shepherds Hill is representative of the integrated coastal defence systems that was essential to the defence of NSW. Such an integrated system is also evident in the coastal defences of Sydney during the 19th and early to mid 20th centuries. Improvements in technologies allowed for both the Newcastle and Sydney coastal defence systems to communicate effectively.
Integrity/Intactness: Apart from the Cottage, the items at Shepherds Hill are have not been well maintained. The
No 1 searchlight enigne house and its brick and concrete tunnel and in remarkably good
condition, with little evidence of the concrete cancer that is attacking the observation post.
Despite this it is still possible to gain an idea of the way that military operations were
conducted from Shepherds Hill.
Assessment criteria: Items are assessed against the PDF State Heritage Register (SHR) Criteria to determine the level of significance. Refer to the Listings below for the level of statutory protection.

Recommended management:


Management CategoryDescriptionDate Updated
Recommended ManagementReview a Conservation Management Plan (CMP) 
Recommended ManagementCarry out an Archaeological Assessment 
Recommended ManagementPrepare a maintenance schedule or guidelines 
Recommended ManagementCarry out interpretation, promotion and/or education 

Procedures /Exemptions

Section of actDescriptionTitleCommentsAction date
57(2)Exemption to allow workStandard Exemptions SCHEDULE OF STANDARD EXEMPTIONS
Notice of Order Under Section 57 (2) of the Heritage Act 1977

I, the Minister for Planning, pursuant to subsection 57(2) of the Heritage Act 1977, on the recommendation of the Heritage Council of New South Wales, do by this Order:

1. revoke the Schedule of Exemptions to subsection 57(1) of the Heritage Act made under subsection 57(2) and published in the Government Gazette on 22 February 2008; and

2. grant standard exemptions from subsection 57(1) of the Heritage Act 1977, described in the Schedule attached.

Minister for Planning
Sydney, 11 July 2008

To view the schedule click on the Standard Exemptions for Works Requiring Heritage Council Approval link below.
Sep 5 2008
21(1)(b)Conservation Plan submitted for endorsementGunner's Cottage: complaint regarding quality of CMP prepared for Newcastle City Council Jun 15 2017
21(1)(b)Conservation Plan submitted for commentRevised CMP submitted for HC endorsement Nov 30 2017

PDF Standard exemptions for works requiring Heritage Council approval


Heritage ListingListing TitleListing NumberGazette DateGazette NumberGazette Page
Heritage Act - State Heritage Register 0180602 Jul 10 903235
Local Environmental Plan  17 Nov 09   
National Trust of Australia register   17 Nov 09   
Register of the National Estate  08 Aug 03   

Study details

TitleYearNumberAuthorInspected byGuidelines used
Newcastle Inner Areas Conservation Planning Study1984 Suters Busteed + Lester Firth  No
Draft Newcastle LEP Review of Nominations2001 Ecotecture Pty Ltd  Yes
Review of Items of Potential State Significance in the Newcastle City Area2008 Sue Rosen and Associates Heritage Assessment And History (HAAH)Julia Kensy, Emma Dortins and Rosemary Kerr Yes

References, internet links & images

TypeAuthorYearTitleInternet Links
Written 2015Newcastle, Coastal Plan of Management
WrittenBagley, Craig & Trigger, John1981The Future of an Historic Park: King Edward Park Management Strategy
WrittenCity Plan Services2017Conservation Management Plan - Shepherds Hill Defence Group Military Installations - SHR no. 01806, 41 The Terrace, Newcastle and 65 Nesca Parade, The Hill
WrittenDana Mider, Historical Archaeologist1994Archaeological Assessment of Shepherds Hill, Newcastle (letter)
WrittenGardner Browne Planning Consultant (with Megan Dewsnap, Landscape Architect; George McFarlane, Sanders & Assoc.s; David Hilliard, Architect);1987Shepherds Hill Cottage & Surrounds Conservation Study
WrittenGardner Browne Planning Consultants1993Report from the Senior Management Team on matters relating to planning and development division - Report
WrittenJohn Carr Heritage Design2017Proposed Repair & Reconstruction of Shepherds Hill Cottage, The Hill
WrittenJohn R. Graham1969The Coastal Defences of NSW 1901-1969
WrittenLt-Col. R. S. Mort (ed)1988The Story of Shepherds Hill
WrittenManidis Roberts & Prof. Barry Maitland1997'King Edward Park - statement of cultural significance', in Heritage Places Plan of Management
WrittenManidis Roberts; Prof.Barry Maitland1997Newcastle City Council: Heritage Places Plan of Management
WrittenNewcastle City Council2007Newcastle City Wide Heritage Study - Thematic History
WrittenPeter Oppenheim2004The Fragile Forts: The Fixed Defences of Sydney Harbour
WrittenRobertson & Hindmarsh2006World Wars 1 & 2: Survey of Buildings, Sites and Cultural Landscapes in NSW
WrittenSuters Architects, Siobhan Lavelle, C & Margaret Doring, Dr John Turner1997Newcastle Archaeological Management Plan (2 volumes): Item Ref: 1126 - Shepherds Hill Fortifications

Note: internet links may be to web pages, documents or images.

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Data source

The information for this entry comes from the following source:
Name: Heritage Office
Database number: 5061075
File number: EF10/23448

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