The Yanko Station Store (Under Consideration) | NSW Environment, Energy and Science

Culture and heritage

Heritage

The Yanko Station Store (Under Consideration)

Item details

Name of item: The Yanko Station Store (Under Consideration)
Type of item: Built
Group/Collection: Farming and Grazing
Category: Other - Farming & Grazing
Property description
Lot/Volume CodeLot/Volume NumberSection NumberPlan/Folio CodePlan/Folio Number
PART LOT13 DP756390

Owner/s

Organisation NameOwner CategoryDate Ownership Updated
The Trustee for H & H Cameron Family TrustPrivate 

Statement of significance:

The Yanko Station Store is of state significance for its historical, rarity and representative values. The Yanko Station Store has state historical significance for its ability to demonstrate, through its multifunctional nature, the various needs of late nineteenth century pastoral life. As major centres of rural life and employment, large stations such as The Yanko needed to be self-sufficient and provide a variety of facilities for their permanent and seasonal (shearing) workforces and passing travellers. The Yanko Station Store acted as a general store, accountant's and cashier's office, post and telegraph office, goal, livery, and storage space. In this manner it provided the key social, commercial, communication, and justice needs of this remote large station. Pastoral life is an important part of the state's cultural history and this item can demonstrate how the various facets of everyday life functioned in tough, remote conditions. The Yanko Station Store is a rare and representative example of this type of multifunctional pastoral building. Although stores were common on large stations during the nineteenth century, this item is uncommon due to the wide range of functions it served and its more permanent and expensive construction.
Date significance updated: 16 Dec 19
Note: The State Heritage Inventory provides information about heritage items listed by local and State government agencies. The State Heritage Inventory is continually being updated by local and State agencies as new information becomes available. Read the OEH copyright and disclaimer.

Description

Designer/Maker: Unknown
Builder/Maker: Unknown
Construction years: 1870-1890
Physical description: The Yanko Station is located approximately 25km north of Jerilderie in the NSW Riverina. The store is part of The Yanko homestead group located on the south bank of Yanco Creek. It is located on the southeast side of this group just outside the homestead garden. The store is a late-Victorian style rural outbuilding. It is a single storey building with an attic (livery) and is constructed of stretcher bond brick with a hipped corrugated iron roof. The livery roof employs the older British framing technique of dragon beams to the corners. This horizontal timber angle-brace between adjacent wall plates at the angle of the hipped roof. This provides for a relatively open space for maximum storage (Appleyard, 2012). A string course of bricks has been included around the building to define the two floors of the building and to add interest. The other main decorative architectural feature is the livery door with arched window arrangement and detailed iron work to the prominent gable over the livery doors. False windows have also been included in the southern end of the building to provide symmetry to the building when viewed from a distance (Appleyard, 2012). Additional features include a small verandah on the north side and an upper livery door. The building is designed to be multifunctional with 11 rooms and five doors on the west (front) and south sides that lead to the different functional areas. Its various functions included general store, offices (accountant), post and telegraph office, tack room, cashier room, livery, gaol, and storage.
Physical condition and/or
Archaeological potential:
Overall the building is in good condition. Recent restoration works funded by Heritage Near Me (HMN) included roof replacement, stormwater drainage upgrade, external painting, and repair of brick work. The HNM project also included the development of an education kit for school groups and marketing and interpretation plans. The exterior is now in excellent condition following restoration but the interior requires further restoration and conservation works. It has good integrity with only minor alterations to the accountants' room c.1930 (windows and doors installed). Many of the original fittings and furnishings of these various rooms are extant but in varying condition. For instance, the general store retains its interiors, counter, and shelving, the postal room its original small phone exchange, the gaol cell its service slide, and the storage rooms their equipment and tact. Most rooms also retain their pressed metal ceilings.
Date condition updated:05 Sep 19
Modifications and dates: Minor alterations to the accountant's room c.1930 (windows and doors installed). The porch on the northern end is a later addition.
Current use: The Yanko Station remains an active sheep station with the store being currently used as an outbuilding, including for postal delivery and pickup.
Former use: Main use store, with accountants rooms; post office and phone exchange; general store; gaol cell, storage rooms and livery; Wiradjuri land

History

Historical notes: TRADITIONAL OWNERS
The traditional owners of the Yanko Station are the Wiradjuri people. It is unknown if the Yanko Station grounds held any special, spiritual, or economic significance for the Wiradjuri people, however there is evidence of Aboriginal occupation on the station prior to European settlement.

BRITISH INVASION AND SETTLEMENT
Following the invasion of Wiradjuri lands by European settlers in the 1830s/1840s the Yanco run was first established by Augustus Morris on the behalf of William Charles (W. C.) Wentworth, a leading land speculator and pastoralist. The property was originally totalled 48,562 hectares in area. Mr W C Wentworth was a founder of the University of Sydney and was the father of the NSW Constitution.

SIR SAMUEL WILSON
In the 1860s the property was purchased by Sir Samuel Wilson, a prominent and wealthy Victorian pastoralist. Sir Samuel was one of Australia's Rural Pioneers. He ran over 100,000 hectare of free hold land in Victoria and NSW and leased over 1 million hectares in NSW and Queensland. Sir Samuel also represented the Wimmera in the NSW Legislative Assembly in 1861-64 and the Western Province in the NSW Legislative Council from 1875 until his resignation in May 1881. Wilson supported the work of the Acclimatisation Society by experimenting with ostrich farming and with the breeding of Angora goats (Appleyard, 2012). His gift in 1874 of (Pounds)30,000 to build a hall at the University of Melbourne was realised in October 1879 when he set the foundation stone for that University's Gothic Wilson Hall. He made many other donations to charitable and religious bodies. Governor Sir George Bowen, in recommending him for a baronetcy in 1874, estimated Wilson's average annual income as almost (Pounds)100,000, stated that he owned 600,000 sheep, possibly more than anyone else in the world and described his position and style of living as similar to an 'opulent country gentlemen' in England. He was knighted in 1875 (Appleyard, 2012).

Soon after Wilson purchased the property, the first bark homestead was built in the current location of the homestead group. In 1881 Wilson retired to England. He was prominent in the imperial federation movement and represented Portsmouth from 1886-1892. The 1860s homestead was later replaced by a brick one that burnt down on 11 July 1949. The following year the current (third) homestead was built.

STATION STORE
The station store was constructed after the 1860s and most likely during the 1880s. Sir Samuel Wilson's manager Mr Carse or Mr Weave reportedly oversaw the construction of the store but was sacked for the final expensive cost of the building. Like other rural buildings the store was constructed with locally availably materials, including Murray pine and bricks made on site. The Yanko was a large station (175,000 acres) and would employ many men during shearing and, thus, it was unsurprising that a multifunctional store building such as this was required. Most large stations had a store that provided postal services and general goods to workers, locals and the travelling public. However, this store appears to be unique due to the sheer range of functions it served and its permanent and expensive construction. According to the Windows and Richmond Gazette (4 November 1873): 'On Yanko alone, during shearing 140 men are employed, and so numerous are the applications to the manager of this extensive establishment that as many as seventy travellers have in one night sought for work and shelter, the latter never being denied them ...1300 travellers received rations between January 1 and May 1 this year. To give him his due. Sir Samuel instructs his managers to refuse food to no swagman'.

RECENT HISTORY
The Yanko Station is now owned by Hugh and Heather Cameron. Over a nine year period the Camerons, through heritage grants, have undertaken two stages of restoration and repair works. The first included drainage improvements, repair of brick work, external paining of doors and windows and replacing the roof. The second phase included development of an interpretation and display room for visitors in three of the Old Store rooms, and an education package for school groups. In 2011 heritage funding allowed the owners to prepare a Conservation Management Strategy by 2012. In 2018 further funding through Heritage Near Me allowed under-pinning of the building where it was cracking, and after 12 months of settlement, other repair works could commence. The Camerons now hope to offer the property as an education tool for local and visiting students, and interested members of the community. An open day was held on 21 October 2019 (Southern Riverina News, 16/10/2019).

Historic themes

Australian theme (abbrev)New South Wales themeLocal theme
1. Environment-Tracing the evolution of a continent's special environments Environment - naturally evolved-Activities associated with the physical surroundings that support human life and influence or shape human cultures. Other open space-
1. Environment-Tracing the evolution of a continent's special environments Environment - naturally evolved-Activities associated with the physical surroundings that support human life and influence or shape human cultures. Changing the environment-
1. Environment-Tracing the evolution of a continent's special environments Environment - naturally evolved-Activities associated with the physical surroundings that support human life and influence or shape human cultures. Cultural: Plains and plateaux supporting human activities-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Commerce-Activities relating to buying, selling and exchanging goods and services commerce-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Commerce-Activities relating to buying, selling and exchanging goods and services Shopkeeping-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Commerce-Activities relating to buying, selling and exchanging goods and services Developing Commercial Enterprise-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Communication-Activities relating to the creation and conveyance of information Postal and telecommunication services-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Communication-Activities relating to the creation and conveyance of information Communicating by mail-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Communication-Activities relating to the creation and conveyance of information Communicating by telegraph-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Pastoralism-Activities associated with the breeding, raising, processing and distribution of livestock for human use Agisting and fattening stock for slaughter-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Pastoralism-Activities associated with the breeding, raising, processing and distribution of livestock for human use Livestock structures-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Pastoralism-Activities associated with the breeding, raising, processing and distribution of livestock for human use Modifying landscapes to increase productivity-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Accommodation-Activities associated with the provision of accommodation, and particular types of accommodation – does not include architectural styles – use the theme of Creative Endeavour for such activities. Building settlements, towns and cities-National Theme 4
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Accommodation-Activities associated with the provision of accommodation, and particular types of accommodation – does not include architectural styles – use the theme of Creative Endeavour for such activities. Adapted heritage building or structure-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Accommodation-Activities associated with the provision of accommodation, and particular types of accommodation – does not include architectural styles – use the theme of Creative Endeavour for such activities. Living on the land-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Land tenure-Activities and processes for identifying forms of ownership and occupancy of land and water, both Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal 1820s-1850s land grants-
4. Settlement-Building settlements, towns and cities Land tenure-Activities and processes for identifying forms of ownership and occupancy of land and water, both Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Changing land uses - from rural to tourist-
5. Working-Working Labour-Activities associated with work practises and organised and unorganised labour Working in offices-
5. Working-Working Labour-Activities associated with work practises and organised and unorganised labour Working independently on the land-
5. Working-Working Labour-Activities associated with work practises and organised and unorganised labour Working on pastoral stations-
5. Working-Working Labour-Activities associated with work practises and organised and unorganised labour Working in shops and stores-
7. Governing-Governing Government and Administration-Activities associated with the governance of local areas, regions, the State and the nation, and the administration of public programs - includes both principled and corrupt activities. Developing roles for government - conserving cultural and natural heritage-
7. Governing-Governing Law and order-Activities associated with maintaining, promoting and implementing criminal and civil law and legal processes The rule of law-
7. Governing-Governing Law and order-Activities associated with maintaining, promoting and implementing criminal and civil law and legal processes Incarcerating prisoners-
7. Governing-Governing Law and order-Activities associated with maintaining, promoting and implementing criminal and civil law and legal processes Jail-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Creative endeavour-Activities associated with the production and performance of literary, artistic, architectural and other imaginative, interpretive or inventive works; and/or associated with the production and expression of cultural phenomena; and/or environments that have inspired such creative activities. Vernacular structures and building techniques-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Creative endeavour-Activities associated with the production and performance of literary, artistic, architectural and other imaginative, interpretive or inventive works; and/or associated with the production and expression of cultural phenomena; and/or environments that have inspired such creative activities. Landscaping - Victorian period-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Creative endeavour-Activities associated with the production and performance of literary, artistic, architectural and other imaginative, interpretive or inventive works; and/or associated with the production and expression of cultural phenomena; and/or environments that have inspired such creative activities. Architectural styles and periods - Victorian (mid)-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Creative endeavour-Activities associated with the production and performance of literary, artistic, architectural and other imaginative, interpretive or inventive works; and/or associated with the production and expression of cultural phenomena; and/or environments that have inspired such creative activities. Interior design styles and periods - Victorian-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Domestic life-Activities associated with creating, maintaining, living in and working around houses and institutions. Ways of life 1850-1900-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Domestic life-Activities associated with creating, maintaining, living in and working around houses and institutions. Ways of life 1900-1950-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Domestic life-Activities associated with creating, maintaining, living in and working around houses and institutions. Ways of life 1950-2000-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Domestic life-Activities associated with creating, maintaining, living in and working around houses and institutions. Living and working at home-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Domestic life-Activities associated with creating, maintaining, living in and working around houses and institutions. Living in, adapting and renovating homes for changing conditions-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Domestic life-Activities associated with creating, maintaining, living in and working around houses and institutions. Living in a rural homestead-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Leisure-Activities associated with recreation and relaxation Visiting heritage places-
8. Culture-Developing cultural institutions and ways of life Social institutions-Activities and organisational arrangements for the provision of social activities Developing local clubs and meeting places-

Assessment of significance

SHR Criteria a)
[Historical significance]
The Yanko Station Store has state historical significance for its ability to demonstrate, through its multifunctional nature, the various needs of late nineteenth century pastoral life. As major centres of rural life and employment, large stations such as The Yanko needed to be self-sufficient and provide a variety of facilities for their permanent and seasonal (shearing) workforces. The multifunctional Yanko Station Store acted as a general store, accountant's and cashier's office, post and telegraph office, goal, livery, and storage space. In this manner it provided the key social, commercial, communication, and justice needs of this remote large station. Pastoral life is an important part of the state's cultural history and this item can demonstrate how the various facets of everyday life functioned in tough, remote conditions.
SHR Criteria f)
[Rarity]
The Yanko Station Store is a rare example of this type of multifunctional pastoral building. Although stores were common on large stations during the nineteenth century this item is uncommon due to the wide range of functions it served and its more permanent and expensive construction.
SHR Criteria g)
[Representativeness]
The Yanko Station Store is a representative example of this type of multifunctional pastoral building. Although stores were common on large stations during the nineteenth century, this item is uncommon due to the wide range of functions it served and its more permanent and expensive construction.
Assessment criteria: Items are assessed against the PDF State Heritage Register (SHR) Criteria to determine the level of significance. Refer to the Listings below for the level of statutory protection.

Listings

Heritage ListingListing TitleListing NumberGazette DateGazette NumberGazette Page
Heritage Act - Under consideration for SHR/IHO listingSHR Nomination 20 May 15   

References, internet links & images

TypeAuthorYearTitleInternet Links
Written 1949Re: Fire at Yanko Station: Thursday 28 July 1949
WrittenApperly, R., & Reynolds, R. I.1989 A Pictorial Guide to Identifying Austrlaian Architecture: Styles and terms from 1788 to the Present
WrittenBlake, L. J. Wison, Sir Samuel (1832-1895) View detail
WrittenFreeman Randell & Dr Robert Boden2002 Tubbo Station Homestead Complex NSW Conservation Management Plan.
WrittenGoodman, G. A.2007Goonoo Goonoo Station - Heritage Appraisal
WrittenJerilderie Shire Council2007Heart of the Southern Riverina - A History of Jerilderie
WrittenSouthern Riverina News2019Restorations open to public View detail
WrittenSusan Appleyard2012The Yanko Store Conservation Management Strategy
WrittenThe Argus1949Historic home lost in Riverina fire, 1949, July 12
WrittenWindsor and Richmond Gazette1873Windsor and Richmond Gazette (1873, November 4)

Note: internet links may be to web pages, documents or images.

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Data source

The information for this entry comes from the following source:
Name: Heritage Office
Database number: 5061287
File number: EF14/24120


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