Cox's Road and Early Deviations - Woodford, Old Bathurst Road Precinct | NSW Environment & Heritage

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Cox's Road and Early Deviations - Woodford, Old Bathurst Road Precinct

Item details

Name of item: Cox's Road and Early Deviations - Woodford, Old Bathurst Road Precinct
Other name/s: 1814 Road, Old Bathurst Road, Old Western Road, Coxs Road
Type of item: Complex / Group
Group/Collection: Transport - Land
Category: Road
Location: Lat: -33.72824686 Long: 150.49079732
Primary address: Old Bathurst Road, Woodford, NSW 2778
Parish: Linden
County: Cook
Local govt. area: Blue Mountains
Local Aboriginal Land Council: Deerubbin
Property description
Lot/Volume CodeLot/Volume NumberSection NumberPlan/Folio CodePlan/Folio Number
PART LOT2 DP1083452
PART LOT1 DP133947
PART LOT2 DP562051
All addresses
Street AddressSuburb/townLGAParishCountyType
Old Bathurst RoadWoodfordBlue Mountains LindenCookPrimary Address
Taylor RoadWoodfordBlue Mountains   Alternate Address

Statement of significance:

The surviving remnants of Cox's Road, built 1814 to 1815, have state significance as the earliest road across the Blue Mountains and the first structure built by Europeans west of the Blue Mountains. Building of this road followed from the prior exploration by Gregory Blaxland, William Lawson and William Wentworth, and the survey by George Evans. The successful construction of the road was symbolic of the conquest of the natural barrier created by the Blue Mountains, and represented Governor Macquarie's vision for the ongoing development of the colony beyond Sydney and its immediate surrounds. Cox's Road enabled the later opening of the hinterland beyond the Blue Mountains for subsequent settlement, pastoral and agricultural expansion, which then escalated the dispossession of Aboriginal peoples from their lands.

William Cox was well known among convicts for his power to recommend pardons and tickets of leave. Most of the convicts who volunteered for the work to open a track to the interior were emancipated, receiving Pardons or Tickets of Leave on completion of the work.

The surviving road fabric demonstrates the crude and hurried nature of Cox's work, and the techniques used in tracing, cutting and forming the road. In conjunction with later colonial road alignments on the mountains and elsewhere, Cox's Road also forms part of a suite of roads demonstrating the wide range of road building styles and standards employed during the colonial period.
Date significance updated: 05 Aug 15
Note: The State Heritage Inventory provides information about heritage items listed by local and State government agencies. The State Heritage Inventory is continually being updated by local and State agencies as new information becomes available. Read the OEH copyright and disclaimer.


Designer/Maker: William Cox
Builder/Maker: William Cox; Convict Road Party
Construction years: 1814-
Physical description: William Cox had been instructed by Governor Macquarie only to open a rough cart road, so that the new lands found in the western plains would be symbolically open. The road from Emu Ford to Bathurst, a distance of 101 1/2 miles [163 kilometres] was completed in only six months. Macquarie's instructions specified that the road should be at least 12 feet (3.6 metres) wide in order that two carts would be able to pass each other, and that the timber should be cleared on each side so that the road corridor was 20 feet (6.1 metres) wide. Stumps were to be grubbed out and any holes should be filled in. This was the method adopted in relatively easy terrain, although later travellers reported that the stumps had not always been removed and the surviving physical evidence shows relatively few locations where the extant road conforms with the dimensions specified in the instructions.

The Old Bathurst Road section of Cox's Road at Woodford is one of the most easily accessible, largely intact and still clearly recognisable surviving sections of the 1814 road within the Blue Mountains. It extends for over a kilometre beside and overlapping with an unsurfaced local road along the top of the ridge. It can be accessed either from Hepburn Road or from Old Bathurst Road and Taylor Road, Woodford.

The remains of the 1814 road are the central feature of the ridge-top landscape. They relate historically, physically and visually to the undisturbed bush landscape to the east and to the various later transport and settlement developments to the west. From the apex of the ridge near the Woodford Trig Station there are extensive views on both sides of the road which conform with those described by early travellers giving a sense of the experience of travel along the early 19th century road even though parts of the surrounding area have been gradually developed with infrastructure such as sewerage pumping stations, pipelines and electricity power poles.

This section of the 1814 Cox's Road extends for approximately 1.2 kilometres. The 1814 road occupies the crest of the south running ridge, partly within the line of a more modern unsealed access track which leads from Hepburn Road to the Woodford Trig station and partly within adjoining private property allotments, most of which remain undeveloped. From the Woodford Trig Station the road continues past the Rockcorry Cottages where it is known as Old Bathurst Road. The road then coincides with modern Taylor Road for at least 650 metres.

Once the modern roughly formed vehicular access track leads off Hepburn Road at Linden, the remains of the Cox's Road evident consist primarily of a series of intermittent kerb-lines or low side-cuttings, some with shallow gutters or drains, which have been cut into the surface of the exposed sandstone rock platforms of the ridge. On the basis of the generally intended width of the road noted in the documentary evidence, and by observation of the topography, it is also possible to infer the probable position and line of the early road formation.

Between Hepburn Road and the Woodford Trigonometrical Station (TS483) at least sixteen sections of side-cutting or kerbing relating to Cox's Road are present, along with a taller picked rock-face and curved side drain apparently associated with, but slightly away from, the road formation.

Immediately west of the Woodford Trig Station, kerb-lines are cut on both sides of the road which extend here for 25 metres, but mostly the kerb appears to be marked on only one side of the road formation. A fence marks private property here, where the road lies within Lot 2, DP 1083452, but the old road can be clearly viewed from outside. (loc: -33.726737,150.49331).

The width of the old road formation varies between 6.6 metres (21 feet, 7 inches) in the area between the two side kerb-lines near the Woodford Trig station, to about 4 metres (13 feet). These are wider dimensions than those specified in Macquarie's road building Instructions. The height of most kerb-lines is in the range of 5 to 10 centimetres but may reach a maximum of about 40 centimetres. Most of the kerbs are cut with vertical faces. Two types of marks are evident, implying the use of different tools during the cutting. Tools used would have included picks and mallets with pointed chisels or gads; as well as crow-bars, sledgehammers and wedges. Karskens (1988) has commented that the very low kerbs would 'serve little practical purpose except as slight drainage, but they marked the edge of the road for the guidance of travellers in these wild, barren and isolated expanses.' The most extensive, but often quite shallow, kerb-line occurs on the western side of the road, towards the northern end of the extant 1814 road formation. This section extends for a total length of about 40 metres, although not all of the kerb is fully exposed. (loc: -33.724190,150.494412).

Two types of pavement are evident along this surviving section of Cox's Road. Much of the road in this area utilises the natural rock platform, some areas of which appear to have been partly 'knocked-off' or picked away. Some areas also have deep ruts, apparently caused by both early and more recent traffic along the road. At the northern end, parts of the road formation or pavement appear to have been partly filled with small rock pieces or broken stone packing and the naturally occurring sandy earth loam.

South of the Woodford Trig station past the Rockcorry Cottages, there is a cutting along the south side of the road and a solid sheet stone pavement. As the road continues south there are sections of early stone retaining wall on the east side of Old Bathurst Road. Two sections of walling are about 20 metres long. The stonework is of two types, basic rubble work and very primitive coursed work, suggesting that there may be more than one phase of construction. It is likely that the better quality coursed work might relate to later 1820s improvements made to the earlier road. From Taylor Road the 1814 formation makes a brief dog-leg, then heads further west, continuing close to the southern side of the railway line before re-emerging near Woodford Railway Station (see separate SHR Listing entry for- Cox's Road - Woodford, Appian Way Precinct).

In the vicinity of the Woodford Trig station in addition to the line of the 1814 road, there are a number of other early tracks including a loop to the east. It is likely that these are some of the early diversions made to avoid jolting over the slippery rock platforms of the original 1814 road. These were described by numerous travellers.

The proposed State Heritage Register listing of Cox;s Road and Early Deviations includes six precincts of Cox's Road:

Cox's Road and Early Deviations - Linden, Linden Precinct - HC Plan 2639
Cox's Road and Early Deviations - Woodford, Old Bathurst Road Precinct - HC Plan 2640
Cox's Road and Early Deviations - Woodford, Appian Way Precinct - HC Plan 2641
Cox's Road and Early Deviations - Mount York , Cox's Pass Precinct - HC Plan 2642
Cox's Road and Early Deviations - Hartley, Clarence Hilly Range / Mount Blaxland Precinct - HC Plan 2643
Cox's Road and Early Deviations - Sodwalls, Fish River Descent Precinct - HC Plan 2644
Physical condition and/or
Archaeological potential:
Good. Substantially intact. Numerous archaeological features from the 1814 road are evident including road fabric, gutters, cuttings.
Date condition updated:17 Nov 14
Modifications and dates: 1817; 1824
Current use: Road, Fire Trail
Former use: Colonial Road


Historical notes: The road from Emu Ford to Bathurst, a distance of 101 1/2 miles [163 kilometres] was completed in only six months during 1814 and 1815 by a working party comprised mostly of convicts. Governor Lachlan Macquarie decided to have a carriage road constructed across the Blue Mountains, to the country which had been 'newly discovered' by Europeans in 1813.

The so called 'First Crossing' of 1813 took place on the traditional lands of the Dharug, Gundungurra and Wiradjuri people. Other routes through the ridges and valleys of the Blue Mountains had been used by Aboriginal people for tens of thousands of years.

William Cox was born in Wimborne Minster, Dorset in 1764. He married Rebecca Upjohn at Devizes, Wiltshire in 1789. Cox arrived in NSW on board the 'Minerva' in January 1800. Cox became Chief Magistrate at Windsor in 1810 and in July 1814 Governor Macquarie made William Cox the Superintendent of the works for a new road over the Blue Mountains. His first wife died in 1819 and Cox married Anna Blachford in 1821. He died on 15 March 1837.

Cox's road party reached the Linden area by late August 1814, and remained at Linden - Woodford until around mid-September, by which time they had moved on to the present day vicinity of Hazelbrook. It was the first time they encountered the steep rocky platforms, and the ever-narrowing ridge. Cox's style of road-building was pragmatic and primitive. Confronted with rocky platforms and sharp drops, he generally had his men clear the flattest parts, removing an 'immense quantity of rock' where necessary, and usually marking out the line with shallow chiselled gutters and utilising the rock platform as a pavement; where the road ran over the shallow soils, it was often marked out by rows or low walls of rough, broken stone.

The construction and completion of the road is recorded in Cox's Journal. Cox's journal indicates that three areas in particular required extensive cutting through rocky outcrops, at Linden to Woodford, Wentworth Falls and the descent at Mount York.

Cox wrote describing the Linden - Woodford area as follows:

Sunday 11 September

Went 3 miles forward to examine the road with Mr Hobby and Lewis. From the bridge [at Linden] it continues rocky over two or three small passes to Caley's pile; from thence at least two miles further, the mountain is nearly a solid rock. At places high broken rocks; at others is very hanging and shelving, which makes it impossible to make a good level road. The more the road is used the better it will be.
Friday 16 September
Removed forward; found the road completed to 21 miles. At the latter end of this the ground was completely covered with gum roots. Was obliged to turn all hands to grubbing and finishing the road, and with very hard labour nearly completed the 22nd mile by Saturday night.

(Cox's journal, C708-2, Mitchell Library, State Library of New South Wales, digitised at: ; also 'Memoirs of William Cox, JP', William Brooks and Co, 1901; and A H C Whitaker, William Cox and Cox's Road: A Bicentenary Souvenir, 2014: Chapter 4).

The actual building of the road involved the definition of a trafficable route which was then cleared of vegetation (trees being cut-off below ground level but rarely "grubbed out"), boulders and rocky outcrops. The formation of the road itself was as minimal as the terrain allowed, with low side-cuttings and embankments as necessary. In very rocky terrain cuttings were made into the mountain itself, the natural rock providing the road surface or pavement. It is possible that some of the stepped rock platforms may have initially been partly filled or levelled with earthern ramps, although Karskens (1988) suggests that Cox mostly left the road pavement in an unformed, natural state due to the haste with which the road was being constructed.

By 1817, (and for two decades after) the Linden to Woodford section was according to Alan Cunningham, 'the most rugged and oppressive stage of the whole journey on account of the sandstone rocks on which the road is formed'. He also noticed that the Government carters had already created 'small circuitous routes in the bush'. (I. Lee, Early Explorers in Australia from the Log-Books and Journals, Including the Diary of Allan Cunningham, Botanist from March 1, 1817 to November 19, 1818, London, 1925,.6 September 1817, page 304-305).

Even if it was initially partly filled or shaped, much of the original surface of the road weathered away quickly, as by 1819 it was reported that the stumps of the trees which had been left within the roadway were becoming exposed. Numerous accounts of subsequent journeys over the Cox's Road in the 'Twenty Mile Hollow' area (between Linden and Woodford) describe the difficult passage over the slippery sandstone surface and the uncomfortable jolting over the stepped rock platforms. It also appears that some minor secondary routes and deviations from the main track were also developed from an early period in order to avoid some of the more difficult descents. In 1824 it was reported that: 'Four miles beyond Springwood [the road] becomes rough, rocky and at times very difficult. It has been necessary to cut it through rocks, and sometimes to fill the hollows of the gullies. The road is often made of the sandstone itself, and so it is slippery and difficult for horses and vehicles.' (G Mackaness (Ed.) Fourteen Journeys over the Blue Mountains, 1965, p 151).

From the 1820s onwards, the earlier lines of road were upgraded and although short sections of Cox's Road were later adopted as parts of the local road network (eg. part of Burke Road, Linden and Old Bathurst Road and Taylor Road, Woodford) most of the original Cox's Road appears to have gone out of use with the completion of new road deviations by convict gangs during the 1820s and 1830s. When Mrs Louisa Meredith travelled through the area in 1839 she still endured the jolting and bumping over the 'jumpers', the rock steps of Cox's Road and she wrote also that 'The track we are now traversing usually winds 'terrace-wise along the side of a steep mountain, and is barely wide enough anywhere to allow of two vehicles passing each other' .(G Mackaness (Ed.) Fourteen Journeys over the Blue Mountains, 1965, p 244).

Historic themes

Australian theme (abbrev)New South Wales themeLocal theme
2. Peopling-Peopling the continent Convict-Activities relating to incarceration, transport, reform, accommodation and working during the convict period in NSW (1788-1850) - does not include activities associated with the conviction of persons in NSW that are unrelated to the imperial 'convict system': use the theme of Law & Order for such activities Demonstrating convicts' experiences and activities-
3. Economy-Developing local, regional and national economies Transport-Activities associated with the moving of people and goods from one place to another, and systems for the provision of such movements Road-
5. Working-Working Labour-Activities associated with work practises and organised and unorganised labour Working on public infrastructure projects-
7. Governing-Governing Government and Administration-Activities associated with the governance of local areas, regions, the State and the nation, and the administration of public programs - includes both principled and corrupt activities. Developing roles for government - administering public roads and bridges-

Assessment of significance

SHR Criteria a)
[Historical significance]
Constructed in 1814-15 Cox's Road is one of the earliest Colonial-era road-lines surviving in Australia. The 1814 road is tangible evidence of the development of the colony at Sydney and of the expansion of white settlement into western NSW. The road symbolises the occupation of the country and Governor Macquarie's aspirations for the eventual opening of the interior to European settlement after the discovery of the Western plains by G W Evans in 1814. In this respect the 1814-1815 Cox's Road has considerable symbolic significance as an official public work which laid the foundations for future development. Cox's Road is linked with the foundation of Bathurst, the first inland settlement in NSW, which was proclaimed by Governor Macquarie on 7 May 1815 after his journey along the road. Surviving remnants of Cox's Road have State historical significance as physical evidence of the first road constructed across the Blue Mountains from Emu Plains to the Bathurst Plains (1814-15).
SHR Criteria b)
[Associative significance]
The surviving remnants of Cox's Road have State significance for their close association with Governor Lachlan Macquarie who commissioned the building of the road into the interior, and with the magistrate and ex-army officer Captain William Cox, who supervised the building of the road. The road is also associated with the convicts who laboured on the road to obtain their liberty, and with the officers and men who assisted Cox such as Thomas Hobby, Richard Lewis, John Tighe and Samuel Ayres. The crossing of the Blue Mountains, the surveying of a route to Bathurst and the building of Cox's Road were significant events in the period of Macquarie's governorship. Governor Macquarie's view of the importance of the road is demonstrated by his reports to Earl Bathurst, the British Secretary of State for War and the Colonies, and by his journey to the Bathurst Plains immediately after its construction, where he proclaimed the site for the Bathurst township.

William Cox's achievement using a small group of convict men in a short period of time and with no loss of life caused by road-making or other substantial difficulties, was reflective of his reputation as a more humane employer and magistrate than many of his contemporaries. The leadership qualities, vision and skill he showed constructing the road would also be evident in later government contracts won by Cox for other public works.
SHR Criteria c)
[Aesthetic significance]
The surviving precincts of Cox's Road have state technical significance for their ability to demonstrate simple, pre 1820s road building techniques. Improvement of the 1814 route throughout the 1820s also provide important evidence of later road building techniques and demonstrates the ongoing use of this key route to the interior, before it was superseded by the new Great Western Road laid out by Sir Thomas Mitchell in the 1830s.

The Old Bathurst Road Precinct of Cox's Road is one of the longest, largely intact and still legible surviving sections of the 1814 road. It extends for over a kilometre beside and overlapping with an unsurfaced local road along the top of the ridge. The remains of the 1814 road are the central feature of the ridge-top landscape. They relate historically, physically and visually to the undisturbed landscape to the east and to the various later transport and settlement developments to the west. From the apex of the ridge near the Woodford Trig Station there are extensive views on both sides of the road which conform with those described by early travellers giving a sense of the experience of travel along the early nineteenth century road even though parts of the surrounding area have been gradually developed with infrastructure such as sewerage pumping stations, pipelines and electricity power poles.
SHR Criteria d)
[Social significance]
Cox's Road and its remnants are demonstrated as having social significance by the substantial interest in identifying and promoting Cox's Road for cultural tourism and education, and celebrating the bicentenary of the road by the general public, state and local government bodies and a range of community organisations. The road is of particular importance to Cox descendants. The William Cox Fellowship first nominated sections of Cox's Road for heritage listing in the 1980s.
SHR Criteria e)
[Research potential]
Precincts of Cox's Road have research significance at a State level for their ability to demonstrate early nineteenth century road, culvert and bridge building techniques using basic skills and technologies. The remains of the 1814-15 road illustrate the conditions of the period and contribute to an understanding of the process of exploration and development, and of early colonial road building and road use. The remains represent a major physical, technological and engineering achievement and exhibit fine details of workmanship. Several precincts of the 1814-15 road have specific archaeological potential.
SHR Criteria f)
Surviving precincts of the 1814-1815 Cox's Road from Penrith to Bathurst are rare examples of early Colonial road building in NSW. The surviving remnants of Cox's Road have State significance as a rare example of pre 1820 road building based on the use of manual and primitive tools, and predating the more sophisticated road survey and construction techniques employed on the later 'Great Roads' of the 1820s and 1830s.
Integrity/Intactness: High
Assessment criteria: Items are assessed against the PDF State Heritage Register (SHR) Criteria to determine the level of significance. Refer to the Listings below for the level of statutory protection.

Procedures /Exemptions

Section of actDescriptionTitleCommentsAction date
57(2)Exemption to allow workStandard Exemptions SCHEDULE OF STANDARD EXEMPTIONS
Notice of Order Under Section 57 (2) of the Heritage Act 1977

I, the Minister for Planning, pursuant to subsection 57(2) of the Heritage Act 1977, on the recommendation of the Heritage Council of New South Wales, do by this Order:

1. revoke the Schedule of Exemptions to subsection 57(1) of the Heritage Act made under subsection 57(2) and published in the Government Gazette on 22 February 2008; and

2. grant standard exemptions from subsection 57(1) of the Heritage Act 1977, described in the Schedule attached.

Minister for Planning
Sydney, 11 July 2008

To view the schedule click on the Standard Exemptions for Works Requiring Heritage Council Approval link below.
Sep 5 2008
57(2)Exemption to allow workHeritage Act - Site Specific Exemptions HERITAGE ACT 1977


Cox’s Road and Early Deviations -- Woodford, Old Bathurst Road Precinct

SHR No. 1954

I, the Minister for Heritage, on the recommendation of the Heritage Council of New South Wales, in pursuance of section 57(2) of the Heritage Act 1977, do, by this my order, grant an exemption from section 57(1) of that Act in respect of the engaging in or carrying out of any activities described in Schedule "C"by the owner, mortgagee or lessee of the land described in Schedule "B" on the item described in Schedule "A".

The Hon Mark Speakman SC MP
Minister for Heritage

Dated at Sydney, 23 Day of July 2015


The item known as Cox’s Road and Early Deviations -- Woodford, Old Bathurst Road Precinct, situated on the land described in Schedule "B".


All those pieces or parcels of land known as Crown Land, Part Lot 2 DP 1083452, Part Lot 2 DP 562051 and Part Lot 1 DP 133947 in Parish of Linden, County of Cook shown on the plan catalogued HC 2640 in the office of the Heritage Council of New South Wales.


1. Maintenance and Restoration
The maintenance of Cox’s Road and Early Deviations to retain its condition or operation without the removal of or damage to the existing fabric or the introduction of incompatible new materials.
a. Restoration of Cox’s Road and Early Deviations by returning significant fabric to a known earlier location without the introduction of new material.
b. Restoration of Cox’s Road and Early Deviations without the introduction of new material to reveal a known earlier configuration by removing accretions or reassembling existing components which does not adversely affect the heritage significance of the item.
c. Maintenance and minor repairs necessary to preserve and maintain the functioning of Cox’s Road and Early Deviations, especially where it remains in use as a local road or access corridor, including pavement resurfacing (using existing or compatible replacement materials, but not new modern materials); maintenance of historic roadside kerbing; maintenance and repair of historic roadside walling; traffic management; relocation and maintenance of existing signage.

Note: Maintenance means 'the continuous protective care of the fabric and setting of a place'

2. Repairs, including to services
a. Repairs and activities associated with the maintenance and repair of existing services and public utilities including communications, gas, electricity, water supply, waste disposal, sewerage, irrigation and drainage that are situated within Cox’s Road and Early Deviations precincts. This includes replacement of poles, stay poles, wires and associated items where the same locations and fixing points will be reused.
b. The repair (such as refixing and patching) or the replacement of missing, damaged or deteriorated fabric that is beyond further maintenance, which matches the existing fabric in appearance, material and method of affixing or installation and does not involve damage to or the removal of significant fabric.

3. Works
a. The carrying out of road work or traffic control work, within the meaning of the Roads Act 1993, within the road corridor and surrounding land that is required for associated works and infrastructure.
b. Ongoing current operational works and maintenance activities along Cox’s Road and Early Deviations precincts currently carried out by Local Government or other authorities, such as:
• road side vegetation management including vegetation trimming, tree trimming and/or removal (if required for road safety/traffic hazard);
• stormwater drainage works such as shoulder and pit clearing;
• road repairs such as pot hole patching and road sweeping;
• provision of necessary delineation such as guide posts and traffic signage;
• access controls, drainage and erosion control;
• vegetation and bushfire management;
where such works cause little or no impact on existing heritage fabric.
c. Temporary works, not exceeding 12 months, including containment areas, or scaffolding, other works and enclosures necessary for the carrying out of maintenance or enhancement works for Cox’s Road and Early Deviations.
d. Minor works that do not alter the overall form or appearance of the Cox’s Road and Early Deviations.
e. Installation of new access points such as property driveway openings, where made in accordance with the Roads Act 1993 and where such works including new access construction, driveway design and levels would not require the removal of historic Cox’s Road and Early Deviations pavement or other historic road fabric.

4. Signage
a. Installation of new way finding or interpretative signage or relocation of existing signs, except where these are commercial signs, modular sign structures, cantilever sign structures, or signage over 2 square metres in size.
b. Display of any notice on the land for the purpose of site interpretation and/or public information where disturbance of land associated with this activity would not adversely affect any significant archaeology including (but not limited to) original road fabric, historic infrastructure or services and 'relics' within the meaning of the Heritage Act 1977.

5. Excavation
a. The excavation or disturbance of land that will have a nil or minor impact on archaeological relics including the testing of land to verify the existence of relics without destroying or removing them, where:
i. an archaeological assessment, zoning plan or management plan has been prepared in accordance with Guidelines endorsed by the Heritage Council of NSW which indicates that the land is unlikely to contain relics or deposits (of State or local heritage significance) and/or
ii. evidence relating to the history or nature of the site, such as its level of disturbance, indicates that the site has little or no archaeological research potential.
b. The excavation or disturbance of land is for the purpose of exposing underground utility services or communications infrastructure which occurs within an existing service trench and will not affect any relics.
c. The excavation or disturbance of land is to expose survey marks for use in conducting a land survey.

Note: Should archaeological relics or deposits be uncovered all work must cease in the immediate area. A suitably qualified and experienced archaeologist must be contacted to assess the archaeology and the Heritage Council should be informed immediately.

6. Landscape Maintenance
a. All landscaping, gardening and fencing works associated with the ongoing use of the land for domestic, pastoral and agricultural purposes, excluding any works that may materially affect the significance of the item or disturb archaeological relics.
b. Weeding, watering, mowing, top-dressing, pest control and fertilizing necessary for the continued health of plants, without damage or major alterations to layout, contours, plant species or other significant landscape features.
c. Pruning (to control size, improve shape, flowering or fruiting and the removal of diseased, dead or dangerous material) between 10% and 30% of the canopy of a tree within a period of 2 years.
d. Removal of dead or dying trees which are to be replaced by trees of the same species in the same location.
e. Tree surgery by a qualified arborist, horticulturist or tree surgeon necessary for the health of those plants.

7. Farming
All activities associated with the ongoing use of the land for domestic, pastoral and agricultural purposes, including road maintenance and fencing but excluding any new development or construction that would materially affect the significance of the item.

8. Safety and Security
a. The erection of temporary security fencing, scaffolding, hoardings or surveillance systems to prevent unauthorised access or secure public safety which will not adversely affect significant fabric of the Cox’s Road and Early Deviations including landscape or archaeological features of its curtilage.
b. Emergency stabilisation, erosion control, hazard reduction or bushfire prevention works, necessary to secure safety where Cox’s Road and Early Deviations precincts have been damaged or destabilised and there exists a safety risk to users or the public.

9. Bushfire Prevention
To permit the undertaking of fire prevention works in accordance with a Local Council, NPWS or Rural Fire Services approved Fire Management Plan for any Cox’s Road and Early Deviations precinct. This includes works relating to hazard reduction, reduce vulnerability, maintain defendable space and protect, maintain and enhance the biodiversity and ecological values of any relevant Cox’s Road and Early Deviations precincts or adjoining land Reserves.

10. Minor Development Endorsed by the Heritage Council of NSW
Minor development specifically identified as exempt development by a conservation policy or strategy within a conservation management plan or a conservation management strategy which has been endorsed by the Heritage Council of NSW, where such work would not materially impact on heritage significance.

11. Works on Private Land
The listing of Cox’s Road and Early Deviations includes some small areas within private freehold land holdings as shown on the Heritage Council Plans prepared for the listing. The Heritage Council’s interest for Cox’s Road and Early Deviations—Woodford, Old Bathurst Road Precinct is confined to the area within the listing boundary as shown on HC Plan 2640.

Affected land parcels are:
Part Lot 2/1083452
Part Lot 2/562051
Part Lot 1/133947

The Heritage Council’s interest is confined to works which directly affect the area of the Cox’s Road and Early Deviations identified by the listing and specifically, to works which would affect the historic fabric of the road.
All other works within these allotments (not in the listed area) are exempt from the need to seek approval under the Heritage Act 1977.
Jul 31 2015

PDF Standard exemptions for works requiring Heritage Council approval


Heritage ListingListing TitleListing NumberGazette DateGazette NumberGazette Page
Heritage Act - State Heritage Register 0195431 Jul 15 642269

References, internet links & images

TypeAuthorYearTitleInternet Links
WrittenA H C Whitaker2014William Cox and Cox’s Road: A Bicentenary Souvenir
WrittenG Mackaness (Ed.)1965 Fourteen Journeys over the Blue Mountains, NSW, 1813-1841
WrittenIda Lee1925Early Explorers in Australia from the Log-Books and Journals, Including the Diary of Allan Cunningham, Botanist from March 1, 1817 to November 19, 1818
WrittenWilliam Cox1901‘Memoirs of William Cox, JP’
WrittenWilliam Cox1814William Cox’s Journal, View detail

Note: internet links may be to web pages, documents or images.

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Data source

The information for this entry comes from the following source:
Name: Heritage Office
Database number: 5062551
File number: EF14/12820

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