A picturesque (magnificent (RAIA)) single storey Tudor Revival style building designed by architect Geoffrey Loveridge, of complex plan, built of red textured brick with rock-faced sandstone trims (doors, window surrounds). A steep multi-gabled roof of multi-coloured Marseille tiled roof has projecting rafters, elaborate twisting chimneys. The roof's slit gable vents, ornately carved bargeboards and twisted chimneys are reminiscent of Edwin Lutyens. Tudor arched diamond patterned windows have sandstone mullions and facing the rear courtyard is a leadlighted bay window with deliberate archaizing breaks in the panes.
The interior has excellent carved doors and a central room with carved timber frieze and ribbed ceiling with stone bosses. The internal joinery ie panelling and framings including doors and frames being part of the panelling were constructed of using 'Swedish Oak'. Other details of note are pull-up flyscreens hidden in window sills, bathroom with original tiling and rainwater heads decorated with fleur-de-lis.
Timber shed with tile roof built as part of the original estate.
OLD SOILS TESTING LABORATORY
Split level brick building first built as part of the girls' school then used by Council as a laboratory to test soils.
A double storey and a single storey school buildings in brick were built during the school era.
This is a 1970s brick building of one large room around 13x12m with 2 small auxillary rooms.
OLD CARETAKER'S RESIDENCE
This was originally brought from Mangerton and placed on the site as headmistress' residence c.1960. After the school closed it was occupied by the Council caretaker on site until 1992. It is leased as a private residence now.
Loveridge designed the single storey house high on a site sloping the northeast into a valley, rising on the far side to form a low hill, which screens the suburbs of Wollongong from view. Behind is Mount Keira, a dramatic backdrop. Sorensen was given 75 acres to work on, most being left as grazing land with the garden taking up about 4 acres. Like Invergowrie (for Hoskins' brother, Cecil, at Exeter) it reflects strong links between clients, architect and landscape architect-with Sorensen and Loveridge working together effectively (Read, 2017, 5).
As soon as Gleniffer Brae's house was completed in 1938 Sorensen began tree planting. First he transplanted from surrounding bush several large Illawarra flame (Brachychiton acerifolius) trees for shelter and an appearance of maturity. These were wrapped in straw to protect them from water stress until damaged roots could regrow. Some survivors could represent the earliest successful attempt at transplanting mature Australian trees, a process still regarded as almost impossible. Also early-planted were brush box, kaffir plum (Harpephyllum caffrum), planes, silky oaks and jacarandas (ibid, 2017, 5).
An area known as The Spinney, low on the nearside of the valley, was planted with hundreds of azaleas (Rhododendron indicum cv. and R.kurume cv.) under the shade of a natural grove of turpentines (Syncarpia glomulifera). Sorensen's interest in native plants is reflected by their dominance here and the presence in a prominent location of a very large specimen of coastal cypress pine (Callitris columellaris). The driveway sweeping up to the house's front was built in a similar low key fashion to that at Invergowrie, with drive strips here of sandstone flags. Behind the house, axially placed in an open courtyard, is a more formal garden with a circular fountain sunk into the lawn surrounded by trees and shrubs framing the view to Mt Keira. Across the formal garden a romantic playhouse for children sites within shrubs on axis to the mountain, representing both summerhouse and visual accent. Natural rocks were kept either as features or skilfully built into low stonewalls and edges (ibid, 2017, 5).
Service areas to the southeast are separated from the formal garden with stonewalls of similar construction and detailing to those at Everglades. This quarter was heavily planted for shelter from prevailing winds (ibid, 2017, 5).
Extensive grounds, courtyards, garden, stone walls and paving (RAIA).
Immediately around the house are original stone walls and terraces, a fountain in a sunken circular area to the rear, sandstone driveway (2 tracks), gate pillars and a doll's house (Ratcliffe, 1990).
The garden comprises 4 acres around the house (ibid, 1990).
Also planted at this time were many brush box (Lophostemon confertus), Kaffir plum (Harpephyllum caffrum), plane trees (Platanus x acerifolia), silky oak (Grevillea robusta) and Jacaranda mimosifolia trees (ibid, 1990).
Other significant features of the garden are gravel paths, boundary wall, rustic 'dolls house' of roughcast-covered fibro with unsawn timber posts and tiled roof, rustic gardener's shed of vertical boards with unsawn coverstrips and rafters, leadlight windows and tiled roof. (National Trust of Australia (NSW), 1985, amended Read, S., 2005).
1937 - building began
1939 - construction completed
1954. The house and grounds was became a branch school for the Sydney Church of England Girls Grammar School
1978 The school closed and was acquired by Wollongong City Council in 1978. The house is now used as a Conservatorium of Music and function centre.
1980+ grounds subdivided with over half of the area, now known as Hoskins Park, being used as the local Botanic Gardens. Apart from the Spinney, readily recognisable as part of the original garden, the changes necessary to adapt a domestic garden, no matter how big, to use as a public park have disguised Sorensen's work so that his hand is no longer visible over large areas. The simplification of maintenance around the conservatorium has also reduced his impact (Ratcliffe, 1990).
Physical condition is good. Archaeological potential is low.
Apart from the Spinney, which is readily recognisable as part of the original garden, the changes necessary to adapt a domestic garden, no matter how big, to use as a public park have disguised Sorensen's work so that his hand is no longer visible over large areas. The simplification of maintenance around the conservatorium has also reduced his impact. (Ratcliffe, 1990)
The site of the Botanic Garden has not been identified as Aboriginal Site Sensitive in the draft Aboriginal Development Control Plan. Although this is the case, the potential for the site to be of Aboriginal significance cannot be ruled out and protocols under the NSW National Parks & Wildlife Act 1979 should be followed with respect to any items of Aboriginal significance being located on the site. Wollongong City Council has certain procedures for consultation with the local Aboriginal community regarding Aboriginal heritage and these will need to be followed should any sites of significance be identified (WCC, 2002, 7).
Wollongong / the Illawarra:
Before European settlement in the Illawarra, the region was home to the local Wodi Wodi Aboriginal people of the Dharawal nation (NPWS, 2005). This Aboriginal community had a well-developed and complex society, and physical and cultural evidence of this remains today in the forms of burials, middens and other sites. The Aboriginal history has also been preserved through traditional knowledge and dreaming stories which have been passed down through the generations (WCC, c2012). Traditional stories tell of their arrival at the mouth of Lake Illawarra in canoes when the Ancestors were animals. They brought the Dharawal or Cabbage tree palm (Livistona australis) with them and are named for this sacred tree (NPWS, 2005).
Aboriginal communities first encountered Europeans in 1796.
Red cedar (Toona ciliata) timber-getters operated in Illawarra escarpment (rain)forests as the first 'settler' industry in the area from the 1810s.
Dr Charles Throsby used the coastal Illawarra grasslands as cattle fodder in 1815 opening the area to European settlement. He focussed his herd behind the fresh water lagoon then situated at the junction of the current day Harbour and Smith Streets where he built a stockman's hut and cattle yards (DeTom Design, 2011, 17-18) and this was a meeting point for the first Illawarra land grantees in 1816 (WCC, c.2012).
The first settlement in the area now known as Wollongong was by Charles Throsby Smith, nephew of Throsby. He was one of the first to receive a land grant in the district and in 1822 was the first to settle on his 300 acre parcel. Smith's barn, located near Wollongong harbour, became the first school house in 1826 and then church building in 1828.
A military presence was established in the area now known as Port Kembla in 1826. They were relocated to the area now known as Wollongong in 1830. They were replaced by a local magistrate in 1833. This activity was focussed around the harbour. In 1833 the area's first school was established (ibid, 2011, 17-18).
In 1834 land owner Charles Throsby Smith (nephew of Dr. Charles Throsby)'s land was nominated as the site for the township to be known as Wollongong (ibid, 2011, 17-18).
In 1834 Surveyor General Major Thomas Mitchell surveyed the town with the centrepiece of land devoted to the Church of England. As there was no crown land, Thosby-Smith sold his land to the Government and it was transferred to the church. The surveyed town was bounded by streets to be known as Harbour, Keira, Smith and Crown Streets (ibid, 2011, 18). The original township was bounded by Crown, Keira, Smith and Harbour Streets which remain major streets in Wollongong today (WCC, c2012).
The Illawarra District Council was formed in 1843. In 1859, two municipal councils were formed: Municipality of Wollongong which was proclaimed on 22 February, and Central Illawarra Municipality which was formed on 19 August 1859 (this took in the area from Unanderra to Macquarie Rivulet). North Illawarra Municipality was formed on 26 October 1868 and included the area from Fairy Creek to Bellambi. In 1947 The City of Greater Wollongong was formed by the amalgamation of the City of Wollongong, the Shires of Bulli and Central Illawarra and the Municipality of North Illawarra, under the Local Government Act, 1919 in the NSW Government Gazette 104 of 12 September 1947.
1880s expansion and the Illawarra Railway Line:
Wollongong expanded in the 1880s and the railway which finally linked the area to Sydney, encouraged movement away from Mitchell's plan. The relative isolation of the Illawarra ended in 1888 when the railway was finally introduced to link the area to Sydney. The town was transformed from a focus on the wharves to one on the railway and began to expand away from St.Michael's central position. The rail allowed the area to ship milk, coal and coke to Sydney city, expanding Wollongong city's potential enormously. By the turn of the century a smelting works and number of coke oven batteries were opened and the town's population rose from 1635 in 1881 to 3545 in 1901 (an average growth rate of 3.9%)(McDonald, 1989, in Davies, 2003, 14).
Keiraville and Gleniffer Brae:
The land that would become Gleniffer Brae and the Wollongong Botanic Garden was originally inhabited by the Dharawal Aboriginal people. 2000 acres of land including this site were purchased by James Spearing in 1825. In the 1830s the estate was sold and subdivided. (Johnson, 12/3/16).
The site of Gleniffer Brae was originally part of a Crown grant of 1000 acres to Robert and Charles Campbell in 1841. The land went through a number of different ownerships until 1928. (WCC, 2006, 4-5).
James Fitzgerald bought 75 acres in 1919 building Cratloe, the cottage on the Wollongong Botanic Gardens site now used as the Gardens' Discovery Centre (Johnson, 12/3/16).
The Hoskins family, Australian Iron & Steel Co. and Paul Sorensen:
In 1925 (later Sir) Cecil and brother, Arthur Sidney Hoskins had become joint managing directors of Hoskins Iron & Steel Co. Their father Charles had already begun to plan to move the business from Lithgow and to build integrated steelworks at Port Kembla, where he had acquired land in 1924. This was to cut high freight costs and compete with BHP which had opened works at Newcastle in 1915 (Read, 2017, 2).
In 1927 the State government agreed to build a railway connecting Port Kembla with the main line at Moss Vale and construction of a blast-furnace and deep-water wharf began. Hoskins went overseas seeking technical information, new plant and rights to manufacture and sell centrifugally spun pipes. To finance operations, in 1928 Hoskins formed a new company, Australian Iron and Steel Ltd with Baldwins Ltd of England, Dorman Long & Co. and Howard Smith Ltd; Cecil became chairman and joint managing director. Hard-hit by the Depression, A.I. & S. was sued by the government for breach of contract in 1932 and in 1935 became a subsidiary of competitor B.H.P. Hoskins remained general manager of A.I. & S. until 1950 and a director until 1959 (ibid, 2017, 2).
In 1935 a prestigious new administration building had been built at Port Kembla. Having problems with local contractors, Cecil was looking for a landscape designer to design and construct the grounds. Through the recommendation of Hoskins' friend Ronald Beale (piano manufacturer at the time working on interior cabinets in the house of Henri Van der Velde at Everglades, Leura), he met Paul Sorensen and was impressed with the quality of his work in its garden. Word of mouth was how Sorensen had become known to Henri Van der Velde also (ibid, 2017, 2).
Paul Edwin Sorensen was born in 1891 in Copenhagen and trained in horticulture. He worked with leading landscape designers and contractors in Denmark and Switzerland. A pacifist, he immigrated to Australia in 1915 and eventually found work as a gardener at the Carrington Hotel, Katoomba. He met and married Anna Ernestina Hillenberg, a hotel maid of German/Queensland origin and they had three sons, all of whom worked in the family business. He set up two nurseries in the Blue Mountains, in Katoomba, then Leura from 1917. Their two eldest sons were killed in World War II and the youngest, Ib, worked with Paul for decades. The nursery stocked trees, shrubs and perennials for retail and landscaping jobs. Plants were imported from New Zealand, England and Europe at first. In the 1950s it had fourteen staff working in three teams. Sorensen's garden design/construction work included around 100 gardens around NSW from Glen Innes in the far north to Cowra and Orange in the west, Wahroonga and Rushcutters' Bay in the east and Wollongong and Canberra (ACT) in the south. His gardens were essentially outdoor rooms (as were contemporary English gardens Hidcote and Sissinghurst) defined by large trees and shrubs and cleverly using walls and changes of level. He was less interested in smaller plants, leaving these to the owner. Site materials such as rock were often built around or recycled as walls and paths. Views were often borrowed from the landscape, or hidden if its scale was too grand. Standards of construction, presentation and maintenance were very high. He never wrote on his work and avoided making plans, preferring to work on site in three dimensions, dealing in person with the owner and workers. His style owes more to European modern landscape architecture (e.g.: Lars Nielsen in Denmark and the Mertens Brothers in Switzerland, particularly their work on public parks) than to 'garden design'. Paul made almost all business decisions until his death in 1983 when Ib ran the nursery. The nursery was sold in 1988 after which it declined. (ibid, 2017, 1-2).
Hoskins and Sorensen became firm friends; the relationship continued until Paul's death and carried on with his son Ib. Sorensen specified the plants for A.I. & S., Port Kembla. His work led to a number of commissions with the Hoskins family (ibid, 2017, 2).
Sorensen's work for AI & S at Port Kembla & for Cecil Hoskins at Invergowrie, Exeter (1937-8) led to commissions including Gleniffer Brae, Wollongong (for Cecil's brother Sidney), Green Hills & Hillside at Figtree - executive houses for A.I.& S., the grounds of the Hoskins Memorial Church at Lithgow (re-landscaping in 1938 the original grounds installed by the Searle Brothers) and the Southern Portland Cement Co. at Berrima as well as several smaller gardens (ibid, 2017, 3).
Greenhill & Hillside, Princes Highway, Figtree (1936-8)were designed for executives of Australian Iron & Steel - a large guest house and a function centre for important visitors and executives - a prestigious showpiece - on a south easterly facing slope commanding expansive views east to the sea and south to the steel works. Apart from scattered eucalypts the site was bare. Newcastle architects Pitt & Merewether designed the two houses. A.I. &S. engineers designed the winding zig-zag driveway up the 19 acre site with Greenhill near the top, Hillside on the lower slopes. To ensure privacy, Sorensen developed dense woodland between them and garden rooms defining spaces yet allowing views out, with dry stone wall terracing. He treated the site as one design exercise, ensuring good shelter from the strong southerly winds which buffet this coast (ibid, 2017, 3-4).
All construction and maintenance was by A.I. &S. staff, with Sorensen making 2-3 day visits. At Gleniffer Brae & Mt. Keira Scout Camp Sidney Hoskins employed workmen directly with Sorensen giving them instructions on similar visits. A single skilled workman made all the rockwork and walls at all three sites, employed directly by Sorensen. The quality of workmanship and design at all sites attests to his ability to pass ideas to unskilled men to enable them to work without supervision between visits (ibid, 2017, 4).
In 1928, Arthur Sidney (known as Sidney) Hoskins a founder (Joint Managing Director, who had supervised construction of AIS's Port Kembla steelworks, he remained a Director, and Manager of the Port Kembla works: Read, 2017, 2) of the Australian Iron and Steel works at Port Kembla, came from Lithgow with his brother Cecil (Johnson, 12/3/16). Sidney Hoskins purchased 75 acres of Fitzgerald's dairy farm around Murphy Lane, Wollongong and began plans for a family home (ibid, 12/3/16), the same year the steel works commenced operation. Hoskins was born in 1892 and joined the family's steel firm in 1907. He became joint managing director with his elder brother in 1924 and was directly involved with the move of the company to Port Kembla and the erection of the new works (WCC, 2006, 5).
Sidney Hoskins married Helen Madoline (known as Madge) Loveridge in 1934 and a son was born to them at Edgecliff in 1936 (RAIA). His brother Cecil married Helen/Madge's sister (ibid, 2017, 4).
Hoskins commissioned his brother-in-law, Geoffrey Loveridge (1893 -1989), to design Gleniffer Brae Manor House and had the gardens designed by Paul Sorensen (RAIA, 2010/11). Loveridge designed the single storey Tudor style house high on a site sloping the north east into a valley, rising on the far side to form a low hill which screens the suburbs of Wollongong from view. Behind is Mount Keira, a dramatic backdrop. Sorensen was given 75 acres to work on, most being left as grazing land with the garden taking up about 4 acres. Like Invergowrie it reflects strong links between clients, architect and landscape architect - with Sorensen & Loveridge working together effectively (ibid, 2017, 4).
The name Gleniffer Brae comes from a small village in Paisley, Scotland, the birthplace of Mrs Hoskins' grandfather. Gleniffer Brae was designed by architect Geoffrey Loveridge, brother of Mrs Hoskins. The building of the residence began in 1937 through a tender by a Mr L Benbow. The surveying work was undertaken by Mr George Dunwoodie. The house was completed in 1939 (Ratliffe, 1990).
Unlike most architects of his time, Geoffrey Loveridge had a long and thorough training in the building business. This involved both a strong family tradition and extensive personal experience. His building expertise was evident in his careful selection of the tradesmen for Gleniffer Brae: Benbow as builder, Todd and Son for joinery, Wilson's bricks and the Hawkesbury Sandstone Company. There is good anecdotal evidence of Loveridge's careful supervision of the high quality detailing of Gleniffer Brae. Loveridge was not simply a new architect working for rich relatives who knew what they wanted. Certainly, he designed the houses that Cecil and Sidney Hoskins intended: 'Stockbroker Tudor' for Cecil and a bungalow complex for Sidney. In the latter case, at least, there are abundant signs of highly competent architectural design, giving unity to an array of single storey buildings. The Tudor features are carefully adapted to the basic design. Gleniffer Brae bears a mature Loveridge stamp (RAIA, 2010/11).
The extensive landscaped gardens surrounding the manor were largely attributed to the landscape designer Paul Sorensen, a Danish-Australian garden designer who had worked for Hoskins' brother Cecil at his estate Invergowrie, Exeter and who had became known to Cecil Hoskins through his work for Henri Van der Velde at Everglades, Leura (Ratliffe, 1990).
As soon as the house was completed in 1938 Sorensen began tree planting. First he transplanted from surrounding bush several large Illawarra flame trees for shelter and an appearance of maturity. These were wrapped in straw to protect them from water stress until damaged roots could regrow. Some survivors could represent the earliest successful attempt at transplanting mature Australian trees, a process still regarded as almost impossible. Also early-planted were brush box, kaffir plum (Harpephyllum caffrum), planes, silky oaks and jacarandas (ibid, 2017, 4).
An area known as The Spinney, low on the nearside of the valley, was planted with hundreds of azaleas under the shade of a natural grove of turpentines. Sorensen's interest in natives is reflected by their dominance here and the presence in a prominent location of a very large specimen of coastal cypress pine (Callitris columellaris). The driveway sweeping up to the house's front was built in a similar low key fashion to that at Invergowrie, with drive strips here of sandstone flags. Behind the house, axially placed in an open courtyard, is a more formal garden with a circular fountain sunk into the lawn surrounded by trees and shrubs framing the view to Mt. Keira. Across the formal garden a romantic playhouse for children sites within shrubs on axis to the mountain, representing both summer house and visual accent. Natural rocks were kept either as features or skilfully built into low stone walls and edges (ibid, 2017, 4).
Service areas to the south east are separated from the formal garden with stone walls of similar construction and detailing to those at Everglades. This quarter was heavily planted for shelter from prevailing winds (ibid, 2017, 4).
Sidney Hoskins had a reliable and loyal gardener for Gleniffer Brae, named Eric Winter. In 1921 Hoskins gave Winter 2.5 acres of land on the eastern boundary of his property that included a house named Cratloe, which stands today as the Botanic Gardens Discovery Centre. Council purchased this land in 1966, from the owner who had bought it off Mr Winter (WCC, 2002, 6).
The impressive location and style of Gleniffer Brae was in keeping with the position of the Hoskins family with the social and financial circles of the day. In the immediate post-war years distinguished guests such as the Duke and Duchess of Gloucester, the Archbishop of York and Lady Baden-Powell were hosted at Gleniffer Brae (Conacher & Delahunty, 1993).
During its period as the Hoskins' home (1939-1949) Gleniffer Brae was host to many prominent visitors (ibid, 1990).
Few capitalists associated with mining and industry chose to live in the Illawarra: this is the only example of a grand house & estate in Wollongong. The Hoskins were very civic-minded and the property's continuing role in public education and as a community centre reflects this desire, as set out in Sidney's will (ibid, 2017, 4).
Hoskins sold Gleniffer Brae in 1954 and for some time it was a branch school for Sydney Church of England Girls' Grammar School (ibid, 2017, 4).
With Sidney's death, part of the property was donated for use as a Botanic Garden while the house and remaining grounds were sold to the Sydney Diocese of the Church of England for its Girls Grammar School (SCEGGS) in 1954. This was a significant addition to educational facilities of the region (Ratcliffe, 1990, WCC, 2002, 6). SCEGGS operated the girl's school until The Illawarra Grammar School began co-ed classes on the grounds in the 1970s (RAIA, 2010/11).
Hoskins was civic-minded and desired that Gleniffer Brae be used for educational purposes and that the surrounding land would become a botanic garden once his family no longer used the residence (WCC, 2006, 1). Under his will, part of the property became the nucleus of Wollongong Botanical Gardens (ibid, 1990). SCEGGS operated here until 1975 when the property was bought by Wollongong City Council (Read, 2017 says 1978; RAIA, 2010/11 says 1979), allowing for extension of the Wollongong Botanic Garden (Johnson, 12/3/16).
A memorandum of understanding was finalised in 1954 with Wollongong City Council for approximately 32 acres of land extending from Murphys Avenue to Northfields Avenue for the purposes of a Botanic Garden (WCC, 2002, 6). From a visit in 1959 Mr R. H.Anderson, Director of the Royal Botanic Gardens, Sydney, recommended expert advice be sought to prepare a design for a botanic garden (ibid, 2017, 4). It would take many years to see Hoskins' dream become a reality: the Botanic Gardens did not open to the public on a regular basis until 1971 (WCC, 2002, 6).
Ultimately the expert chosen was Professor Peter Spooner of the University of New South Wales. Spooner came up with an idea of a geographically based garden layout; which was unusual. Plants were grouped according to their country of origin rather than the more usual botanic family groups (Australiasia; Indonesia and Malaysia; Pacific Islands; Europe; India; Africa; China & Korea; The Americas)(WCC, 2006, 6-7).
The grounds have been subdivided with over half (10.5ha in the east) gifted to the city by and now known as Hoskins Park, developed since the 1960s as a Botanic Garden. This was done under the direction of its first curator William Mearnes (1960s-77; its official opening was in September 1970), with initial plans provided by Prof. Peter Spooner (ibid, 2017, 4). 6000 people visitin the first year (Johnson, 12/3/16).
The first planting was an azalea (Rhodondendron indicum cv. and R.kurume cv's), established in 1964 by original gardener, Jack Woodgate. In 1966, Council purchased Cratloe and in 1968 built the Sir Joseph Banks glasshouse The Wollongong Botanic Garden was officially opened in September 1970, (Johnson, 12/3/16).
Dean Miller was the second curator/Director (1977-88) when the gardens expanded and their arrangement changed from geographic to a habitat-based system using the site's microclimates (ibid, 2017, 4). It was determined that the geographical based garden concept was not working well and that a habitat planting system would better suit the expanded site. It was possible to develop microclimates in the garden - from the exposed dryland of the highest hill, to stone filled gullies and open grassland. (WCC, 2006, 6-7).
In 1976 a financial crisis forced SCEGGS to sell nearly 15.5 acres to Wollongong City Council and in 1978, the remaining grounds, including Gleniffer Brae passed into Council's possession via a notice of resumption. So Council owned all the land that now comprises Gleniffer Brae, the University Soccer Fields (Kooloonbong Oval) and the Botanic Garden by 1978 (WCC, 2006, 6).
Since 1980, part of the manor house, school buildings and auditorium have been used as the Wollongong Conservatorium of Music and function centre, under lease from Wollongong City Council. The remainder of the manor house and surrounding gardens have operated as a function venue by Wollongong City Council (WCC, 2006, 5).
Apart from the Spinney, which is readily recognisable as part of the original garden, the changes necessary to adapt a domestic garden, no matter how big, to use as a public park have disguised Sorensen's work so that his hand is no longer visible over large areas. The simplification of maintenance around the conservatorium has also reduced his impact (ibid, 1990).
David Bain, Threatened Species Officer, NSW Office of Environment and Heritage, on the Wollongong Botanic Garden's plan to bring the Banksia vincentia from the brink. Bain says the Banksia vincentia is Australia's rarest Banksia, noting that it looks very similar to a closely-related Banksia, but that locals in the Vincentia area noticed that the said Banksia is a little bit different. When asked about their plan to preserve the plant, Bain says the five that are currently alive in the population are looking really healthy, and that they have a couple of seedlings coming up as well. Bain admits that they don't really understand the role of the said Banksia in the environment, but notes that it has large flowers and Banksias are very important nectar producers for birds, insects and small mammals. He confirms that some of the seeds have gone over to the Kew Gardens in England after collecting about 600 seeds in Australia (ABC Illawarra/host: Nick Rheinberger, 16/11/2016).
A 2005/6 proposal to extend a recent outbuilding in the rear of Gleniffer Brae homestead, use its rear formal garden for in/outdoor concerts and receptions resulted in more research on Sorensen's contribution - a formal circular plan with sunken central fountain is echoed by a semi-circular avenue of brush box trees and low stone walling - appearing to be a rear driveway or access west (ibid, 2017, 5).